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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Sex Differences In Collateral Remodeling Following Hindlimb Arterial Occlusion, Laura Burckhardt Dec 2017

Sex Differences In Collateral Remodeling Following Hindlimb Arterial Occlusion, Laura Burckhardt

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Clinical evidence indicates a higher incidence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease and associated likelihood of critical limb ischemia in women, as well as worse prognosis and decreased survival post myocardial infarction. Therefore, understanding the possible differences in underlying vascular compensation mechanisms is crucial. With arterial occlusions, necrosis and tissue injury can be naturally mitigated by the collateral circulation, improving patient prognosis. Previous sex-comparison studies describing differences in vascular remodeling are inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the effect of arterial occlusion on collateral remodeling in healthy male and healthy reproductive-stage female mice. At 7 days following ...


Sex Differences And The Effects Of Exercise Training On Functional Vasodilation Following Arterial Occlusion In The Balb/C Mouse Spinotrapezius, Britta Nelson Sep 2017

Sex Differences And The Effects Of Exercise Training On Functional Vasodilation Following Arterial Occlusion In The Balb/C Mouse Spinotrapezius, Britta Nelson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) often presents as intermittent claudication, which may be caused by impaired vasodilation. Impairment of resistance vessels may contribute to the pathogenesis of PAOD, and explain the poor correlation between resting blood flow and limb function. Collateral function following arterial occlusion is not well defined, however collaterals and arterialized collateral capillaries (ACCs) in male and female animal models exhibit impaired vasodilation following arterial occlusion, which can potentially be improved with exercise training. Furthermore, resistance vessels in the ischemic tree and stem are likely involved in the pathogenesis of PAOD, however the relative importance of each is ...


The Impacts Of Arterial Occlusion, Sex, And Exercise On Arteriogenesis And Functional Vasodilation, Megan Tze-Mei Chu Dec 2016

The Impacts Of Arterial Occlusion, Sex, And Exercise On Arteriogenesis And Functional Vasodilation, Megan Tze-Mei Chu

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The most frequent clinical presentation of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) is intermittent claudication, which may be caused by impaired vasodilation. Patients demonstrate both local and systemic impairments in vasodilation, but as the collateral circulation is the primary site of resistance to the ischemic zone, impaired collateral vasodilation would have the greatest potential to induce claudication. Collateral function following arterial occlusion is not well defined, but immature collaterals may demonstrate impaired vasodilation in animal models, although this is potentially improved with exercise training. Furthermore, as females exhibit poorer physical function with ischemia and less improvement with therapeutic exercise, there appears ...


Measuring Blood Flow In The Skeletal Muscle Microcirculation Using Laser Speckle Flowmetry, Kenneth Howard Gouin Iii Jul 2015

Measuring Blood Flow In The Skeletal Muscle Microcirculation Using Laser Speckle Flowmetry, Kenneth Howard Gouin Iii

Biomedical Engineering

The presence of a native collateral circulation, which serves as a natural bypass for blood flow around an occlusion, improves prognosis for patients with ischemic diseases, such as peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). However, not all patients have a native collateral circulation, and animal models suggest a genetic basis for this variability. In mice, such as the BALB/c, that lack native arteriolar collaterals, neocollateral formation from capillaries that connect two arterial trees can occur after arterial occlusion, resulting in reperfusion of the ischemic watershed. Immature arterialized collateral capillaries (ACCs) at 7 days post arterial occlusion do not vasodilate in ...


Smooth Muscle Cell Organization In The Stem Region Of The Gracilis Collateral Circulation, Amanda Krall Jun 2014

Smooth Muscle Cell Organization In The Stem Region Of The Gracilis Collateral Circulation, Amanda Krall

Biomedical Engineering

Many patients who suffer from the ischemic Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease (PAOD) experience intermittent claudication, which can be attributed to impaired vasodilation. Collateral vessels are the primary site of resistance to blood flow downstream; therefore maximizing vasodilation in collaterals is crucial for efficient circulation. Collaterals function as natural bypasses around the occluded arteries and the increase in flow into these vessels causes them to outwardly remodel into conduit vessels. However, functional vasodilation in the stem region of collateral vessels is impaired at day 7 following femoral ligation, which can be attributed to smooth muscle cell malfunction. However, the increase in ...