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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Vascular Reactivity In Newly-Formed And Mature Arterialized Collateral Capillaries, Sara K. Hellstrom Dec 2014

Vascular Reactivity In Newly-Formed And Mature Arterialized Collateral Capillaries, Sara K. Hellstrom

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) is a globally-prevalent cardiovascular disease in which atherosclerotic plaques narrow arterial lumen diameters and restrict blood flow to downstream tissues. The impact of these occlusions can be mitigated by collateral vessels that connect parallel arterial branches and act as natural bypasses to maintain perfusion. In animal models that lack collateral arterioles, capillaries that connect terminal arteriolar segments can arterialize and form functional collaterals following an ischemic event; however, in the early stages of development, vasodilation is impaired. We explored the mechanism of impaired vasodilation in arterialized collateral capillaries (ACCs) and pre-existing collaterals (PECs) by evaluating ...


Investigating Hemodynamic Responses To Electrical Neurostimulation, Sean Youra Aug 2014

Investigating Hemodynamic Responses To Electrical Neurostimulation, Sean Youra

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Since the 1900s, the number of deaths attributable to cardiovascular disease has steadily risen. With the advent of antihypertensive drugs and non-invasive surgical procedures, such as intravascular stenting, these numbers have begun to level off. Despite this trend, the number of patients diagnosed with some form of cardiovascular disease has only increased. By 2030, prevalence of coronary heart disease is expected to increase approximately by 18% in the United States. By 2050, prevalence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease is expected to increase approximately by 98% in the U.S. No single drug or surgical intervention offers a complete solution to ...


Functional Vasodilation Is Impaired In Arterialized Capillaries In The Spinotrapezius, Joshua P. Cutts Jun 2014

Functional Vasodilation Is Impaired In Arterialized Capillaries In The Spinotrapezius, Joshua P. Cutts

Biomedical Engineering

Ischemic diseases are the result of atherosclerotic plaques, which occlude conduit arteries. Ischemic disease in different tissues leads to different conditions, such as coronary artery disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease (CVD), and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Patient vasculature architecture is variable; some patients having many collateral vessels, which are connect one arterial branch to another, and readily serve as natural bypass routes to atherosclerotic occlusions, to enlarge and provide blood flow to tissue distal to the occlusion. Patients with many natural collateral vessels are ischemia protected. Unfortunately, not all patients have collateral arterioles to remodel into conduit vessels and provide ...


Smooth Muscle Cell Organization In The Stem Region Of The Gracilis Collateral Circulation, Amanda Krall Jun 2014

Smooth Muscle Cell Organization In The Stem Region Of The Gracilis Collateral Circulation, Amanda Krall

Biomedical Engineering

Many patients who suffer from the ischemic Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease (PAOD) experience intermittent claudication, which can be attributed to impaired vasodilation. Collateral vessels are the primary site of resistance to blood flow downstream; therefore maximizing vasodilation in collaterals is crucial for efficient circulation. Collaterals function as natural bypasses around the occluded arteries and the increase in flow into these vessels causes them to outwardly remodel into conduit vessels. However, functional vasodilation in the stem region of collateral vessels is impaired at day 7 following femoral ligation, which can be attributed to smooth muscle cell malfunction. However, the increase in ...