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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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Theses/Dissertations

California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

2014

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Articles 1 - 26 of 26

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Smooth Muscle Cell Organization In The Stem Region Of The Gracilis Collateral Circulation In Balb/C Mice, Laura Lenae Burckhardt Dec 2014

Smooth Muscle Cell Organization In The Stem Region Of The Gracilis Collateral Circulation In Balb/C Mice, Laura Lenae Burckhardt

Biomedical Engineering

Of the approximately 8 million Americans who suffer from ischemic peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD), many present with intermittent claudication, or pain associated with exercise. Impaired vasodilation of resistance vessels is a potential explanation for this symptom. Occluded arteries can lead to increased flow through collateral vessels, which function as natural bypasses around the obstruction. This increase in blood flow and resulting shear stress can cause outward remodeling, or arteriogenesis, which improves the efficacy of collaterals. However, following femoral artery ligation in a mouse model of chronic ischemia, vasodilation in the stem region of collateral vessels is impaired at day ...


Protective Effects Of Milk Phospholipids Against Uv-Induced Dna Damage In Human Skin Cells, Lan-Anh Nguyen Dec 2014

Protective Effects Of Milk Phospholipids Against Uv-Induced Dna Damage In Human Skin Cells, Lan-Anh Nguyen

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the US. The American Academy of Dermatology estimated that more than 3.5 million new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed in the US each year and 1 in 5 Americans will likely to develop skin cancer in their life time. Most cases of skin cancer are caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. Some of the most common sunscreen ingredients are unstable and can form harmful radicals upon exposure to UV radiation. There is a strong clinical need for a more stable and effective sunscreen ingredient ...


Vascular Reactivity In Newly-Formed And Mature Arterialized Collateral Capillaries, Sara K. Hellstrom Dec 2014

Vascular Reactivity In Newly-Formed And Mature Arterialized Collateral Capillaries, Sara K. Hellstrom

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) is a globally-prevalent cardiovascular disease in which atherosclerotic plaques narrow arterial lumen diameters and restrict blood flow to downstream tissues. The impact of these occlusions can be mitigated by collateral vessels that connect parallel arterial branches and act as natural bypasses to maintain perfusion. In animal models that lack collateral arterioles, capillaries that connect terminal arteriolar segments can arterialize and form functional collaterals following an ischemic event; however, in the early stages of development, vasodilation is impaired. We explored the mechanism of impaired vasodilation in arterialized collateral capillaries (ACCs) and pre-existing collaterals (PECs) by evaluating ...


The Effect Of Artery Bifurcation Angles On Fluid Flow And Wall Shear Stress In The Middle Cerebral Artery, Zachary Ramey Jones Dec 2014

The Effect Of Artery Bifurcation Angles On Fluid Flow And Wall Shear Stress In The Middle Cerebral Artery, Zachary Ramey Jones

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Saccular aneurysms are the abnormal plastic deformation of veins and arteries that can lead to lethal thrombus genesis or internal hemorrhaging. Medication and surgery greatly reduce the mortality rates, but treatment is limited by predicting who will develop aneurysms. A common location for saccular aneurysm genesis is at the main middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation. The main MCA bifurcation is comprised of the M1 MCA segment, parent artery, and two M2 segments, daughter arteries. Studies have found that the lateral angle (LA) ratio of the MCA bifurcation is correlated with aneurysm formation. The LA ratio is defined as the angle ...


Development, Characterization, And Optimization Of Process For Minimal Functional Barrier And Channel Width In Nitrocellulose Paper Microfluidic Diagnostic Platforms, Ryan Daniel Silva Sep 2014

Development, Characterization, And Optimization Of Process For Minimal Functional Barrier And Channel Width In Nitrocellulose Paper Microfluidic Diagnostic Platforms, Ryan Daniel Silva

Biomedical Engineering

A central goal of diagnostic microfluidics is to reduce the cost of diagnostic medicine by reducing the equipment and reagents needed to perform diagnostic tests. The literature has demonstrated that a wax printer can be used to pattern nitrocellulose paper with hydrophobic barriers to direct a sample in a defined reaction path, eliminating the need for external pumps and controllers. However, manufacturing methods for minimizing sample volume (and thus reagent volume) in a paper-diagnostic chip have not been well defined. In this work, we experimentally determine manufacturing processes for creating functional features of minimal size—effectively reducing the sample size ...


Microvascular Topology And Intravascular Endothelial Cell Labeling In The Gracilis Anterior Muscle Of Balb/C Mice, Paul Heckler Ii Aug 2014

Microvascular Topology And Intravascular Endothelial Cell Labeling In The Gracilis Anterior Muscle Of Balb/C Mice, Paul Heckler Ii

Biomedical Engineering

Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) affects approximately 200 million individuals globally. The major underlying cause of PAOD is an inflammatory disease known as atherosclerosis, which results from the build-up of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in the sub-intimal space. This initiates a complex cascade of events that lead to plaque growth. Plaque growth can then expand into the lumen of the vessel and result in occlusion and/or thrombosis. Symptoms of the disease can include claudication, ulcers, and/or gangrene, although many patients are asymptomatic. Similar to other forms of ischemic disease, risk factors for PAOD include hypertension, diabetes, and smoking. Common ...


Investigating Hemodynamic Responses To Electrical Neurostimulation, Sean Youra Aug 2014

Investigating Hemodynamic Responses To Electrical Neurostimulation, Sean Youra

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Since the 1900s, the number of deaths attributable to cardiovascular disease has steadily risen. With the advent of antihypertensive drugs and non-invasive surgical procedures, such as intravascular stenting, these numbers have begun to level off. Despite this trend, the number of patients diagnosed with some form of cardiovascular disease has only increased. By 2030, prevalence of coronary heart disease is expected to increase approximately by 18% in the United States. By 2050, prevalence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease is expected to increase approximately by 98% in the U.S. No single drug or surgical intervention offers a complete solution to ...


A Rubric For Electrochemical Testing Of Metallic Biomaterials, Frederick G. De La Fuente Aug 2014

A Rubric For Electrochemical Testing Of Metallic Biomaterials, Frederick G. De La Fuente

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Corrosion is a major factor for the failure of metallic medical implants. Testing a metal’s suseptability to corrosion prior to implantation is key to a successful implantation. Electrochemical processes were used in this study to evaluate the characteristics of corrosion of both AISI 316 stainless steel and titanium alloy Ti6Al4V, welded and non-welded. Linear, potentiodynamic, and cyclic polarization curves were produced by the PARC 2273 potentiostat showing the corrosion tendencies of the metals in four unique solutions 3.5% NaCl, 0.35% NaCl, phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS), and Butterfield phosphate buffered solution (BPS). The concentration of chloride ions ...


Nerve Fiber Diameter Measurements Using Hematoxylin And Eosin Staining And Brightfield Microscopy To Assess The Novel Method Of Characterizing Peripheral Nerve Fiber Distributions By Group Delay, Jorge Arturo Vazquez Aug 2014

Nerve Fiber Diameter Measurements Using Hematoxylin And Eosin Staining And Brightfield Microscopy To Assess The Novel Method Of Characterizing Peripheral Nerve Fiber Distributions By Group Delay, Jorge Arturo Vazquez

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Peripheral neuropathies are a set of common diseases that affect the peripheral nervous system, causing damage to vital connections between various parts of the body and the brain and spinal cord. Different clinical conditions are known to selectively impact various size nerve fibers, which often makes it difficult to diagnose which peripheral neuropathy a patient might have. The nerve conduction velocity diagnostic test provides clinically useful information in the diagnosis of some peripheral neuropathies. This method is advantageous because it tends to be minimally invasive yet it provides valuable diagnostic information. However, this test does not determine characteristics of peripheral ...


Design, Characterization And Application Of A Multiple Input Stethoscope Apparatus, Spencer Geng Wong Aug 2014

Design, Characterization And Application Of A Multiple Input Stethoscope Apparatus, Spencer Geng Wong

Master's Theses and Project Reports

For this project, the design, implementation, characterization, calibration and possible applications of a multiple transducer stethoscope apparatus were investigated. The multi-transducer sensor array design consists of five standard stethoscope diaphragms mounted to a rigid frame for a-priori knowledge of their relative spatial locations in the x-y plane, with compliant z-direction positioning to ensure good contact and pressure against the subject’s skin for reliable acoustic coupling. When this apparatus is properly placed on the body, it can digitally capture the same important body sounds investigated with standard acoustic stethoscopes; especially heart sounds. Acoustic signal inputs from each diaphragm are converted ...


2d Wireform Process Improvement, Katy Conlin, Carlo Ebora, Jordan Gamble Jun 2014

2d Wireform Process Improvement, Katy Conlin, Carlo Ebora, Jordan Gamble

Mechanical Engineering

The body of this work has been created for Edwards Lifesciences in conjunction with senior project requirements. As such, the information produced and contained within is under a non‐disclosure agreement. As per request by sponsor, the body of the work will not be submitted to any outside parties, and the title page will serve as proof of completion.


Sonar For The Visually Impaired, Anastasia Newark, Edwin Ng, Scott Terhorst Jun 2014

Sonar For The Visually Impaired, Anastasia Newark, Edwin Ng, Scott Terhorst

Biomedical Engineering

There are currently no inexpensive assistive devices that allow the visually impaired detect low hanging objects that are above waist height and may cause injury, such as a rope or tree branch. The challenge presented to the team by the Quality of Life Plus Lab (QL+) was to develop a Sonar Cane device that attaches to a traditional white cane to address this problem. This device must be lightweight, inexpensive to manufacture, have a long battery life, and accurately detect obstacles to prevent user injury.


The Effect Of Neurostimulation On Blood Flow And Ischemic Pain, Stacey M. Fishman Jun 2014

The Effect Of Neurostimulation On Blood Flow And Ischemic Pain, Stacey M. Fishman

Biomedical Engineering

Chronic pain caused by lack of blood flow is known as ischemic pain. Neurostimulation, the application of electrical currents through a region of the body, is effective for pain modulation, and it is hypothesized that this can be explained by the gate control theory and alterations of the sympathetic output initiated by the metaboreflex. The decrease of sympathetic output reduces vasoconstriction and improves blood flow. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and interferential currents (IFC) stimulation, both non-invasive neurostimulation techniques, were evaluated for their effects on cutaneous blood flow on the palm. High or low frequency TENS and/or IFC, and ...


Development And Implementation Of Assessment Methods For Tissue-Engineered Blood Vessel Mimics, Tanner Stevenson Jun 2014

Development And Implementation Of Assessment Methods For Tissue-Engineered Blood Vessel Mimics, Tanner Stevenson

Biomedical Engineering

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), the most prevalent form of heart disease, is the result of clogged or damaged coronary arteries and claims around 380,000 Americans annually. A common treatment for CAD involves placing a stent into the artery in order to open the lumen and support the native tissue—a procedure that drastically reduces patient recovery times in comparison to heart bypass surgery. However, stents do not always interact well with the body and require additions such as surface coatings or drug elution in order for additional biocompatibility. These additions necessitate extensive in vitro and in vivo testing which ...


Functional Vasodilation Is Impaired In Arterialized Capillaries In The Spinotrapezius, Joshua P. Cutts Jun 2014

Functional Vasodilation Is Impaired In Arterialized Capillaries In The Spinotrapezius, Joshua P. Cutts

Biomedical Engineering

Ischemic diseases are the result of atherosclerotic plaques, which occlude conduit arteries. Ischemic disease in different tissues leads to different conditions, such as coronary artery disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease (CVD), and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Patient vasculature architecture is variable; some patients having many collateral vessels, which are connect one arterial branch to another, and readily serve as natural bypass routes to atherosclerotic occlusions, to enlarge and provide blood flow to tissue distal to the occlusion. Patients with many natural collateral vessels are ischemia protected. Unfortunately, not all patients have collateral arterioles to remodel into conduit vessels and provide ...


Smooth Muscle Cell Organization In The Stem Region Of The Gracilis Collateral Circulation, Amanda Krall Jun 2014

Smooth Muscle Cell Organization In The Stem Region Of The Gracilis Collateral Circulation, Amanda Krall

Biomedical Engineering

Many patients who suffer from the ischemic Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease (PAOD) experience intermittent claudication, which can be attributed to impaired vasodilation. Collateral vessels are the primary site of resistance to blood flow downstream; therefore maximizing vasodilation in collaterals is crucial for efficient circulation. Collaterals function as natural bypasses around the occluded arteries and the increase in flow into these vessels causes them to outwardly remodel into conduit vessels. However, functional vasodilation in the stem region of collateral vessels is impaired at day 7 following femoral ligation, which can be attributed to smooth muscle cell malfunction. However, the increase in ...


Alternate Computer Input Device For Individuals With Quadriplegia, Tobais Elder, Michelle Martinez, David Sylvester Jun 2014

Alternate Computer Input Device For Individuals With Quadriplegia, Tobais Elder, Michelle Martinez, David Sylvester

Biomedical Engineering

This project details the design development of an alternative computer input system that allows a person with quadriplegia to move a computer's cursor and activate left and right click button inputs. After researching and analyzing possible solutions, an end design was chosen that most appropriately satisfied all user requirements and engineering specifications. This final design employs a head mounted Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) with 9 DoF (Degrees of Freedom) to track head movements and correlate these motions to computer cursor movements. A Sip-Puff Transducer monitors and interprets a user's application of negative and positive air pressure differentials to ...


Clear Circuit Contact Lens, Paul Hecker Ii, Phillip Azar, Alexander Do, Benny Ng, Errol Leon Jun 2014

Clear Circuit Contact Lens, Paul Hecker Ii, Phillip Azar, Alexander Do, Benny Ng, Errol Leon

Electrical Engineering

The clear active contact lens project aims to address safety and hazard awareness with an unexplored field of eye wear technology. With advancements in nanotechnology and the advent of circuits on contact lens, this project is one of the first research and development into this new field, following University of Washington and Google. The team focuses on the safety and biocompatibility of the contact lens for a comfortable ease of use. The designs push the limits of thin film printed technology with its pursuit of fine designs of 250μm antennas. The project streamlines the manufacturing process for a combination substrate ...


Team Omnimouse, Derek J. Halman, Josh B. Porter, Steven A. Silver, Ian S. Stemper Jun 2014

Team Omnimouse, Derek J. Halman, Josh B. Porter, Steven A. Silver, Ian S. Stemper

Computer Engineering

INFORMATION, DATA, FIGURES AND DRAWINGS EMBODIED IN THIS DOCUMENT ARE STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL AND ARE SUPPLIED ON THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THEY WILL NOT BE DISCLOSED TO THIRD PARTIES WITHOUT THE PRIOR WRITTEN CONSENT OF QUALITY OF LIFE PLUS.


Design And Validation Of A Wearable, Continuous, And Non-Invasive Hydration Monitor That Uses Ultrasonic Pulses To Detect Changes In Tissue Hydration Status, Zoie Engman Jun 2014

Design And Validation Of A Wearable, Continuous, And Non-Invasive Hydration Monitor That Uses Ultrasonic Pulses To Detect Changes In Tissue Hydration Status, Zoie Engman

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Chronic dehydration is an endemic problem for many population groups. Current methods of monitoring hydration status are invasive, time consuming, cannot be performed while exercising, and require lab resources. A proposed solution is a wearable, continuous, and non-invasive device that uses harm-free ultrasonic pulses to detect changes in tissue hydration status over time. Customer and engineering requirements were defined and used to guide the design process. Literature reviews were performed to identify essential information on dehydration, assess current methods, discover state of the art devices, and describe ultrasonic theory. Market research was performed to identify athletes as the target population ...


The Effect Of Fiber Depth On The Estimation Of Peripheral Nerve Fiber Diameter Using Group Delay And Simulated Annealing Optimization, Nam Tran Jun 2014

The Effect Of Fiber Depth On The Estimation Of Peripheral Nerve Fiber Diameter Using Group Delay And Simulated Annealing Optimization, Nam Tran

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Peripheral neuropathy refers to diseases of or injuries to the peripheral nerves in the human body. The damage can interfere with the vital connection between the central nervous system and other parts of the body, and can significantly reduce the quality of life of those affected. In the US, approximately between 15 and 20 million people over the age of 40 have some forms of peripheral neuropathy. The diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy often requires an invasive operation such as a biopsy because different forms of peripheral neuropathy can affect different types of nerve fibers. There are non-invasive methods available to ...


Characterizing The Reproducibility Of The Properties Of Electrospun Poly(D,L-Lactide-Co-Glycolide) Scaffolds For Tissue-Engineered Blood Vessel Mimics, Toni M. Pipes Jun 2014

Characterizing The Reproducibility Of The Properties Of Electrospun Poly(D,L-Lactide-Co-Glycolide) Scaffolds For Tissue-Engineered Blood Vessel Mimics, Toni M. Pipes

Master's Theses and Project Reports

“Blood vessel mimics” (BVMs) are tissue-engineered constructs that serve as in vitro preclinical testing models for intravascular devices. The Cal Poly Tissue Engineering lab specifically uses BVMs to test the cellular response to stent implantation. PLGA scaffolds are electrospun in-house using the current “Standard Protocol” and used as the framework for these constructs. The performance of BVMs greatly depends on material and mechanical properties of the scaffolds. It is desirable to create BVMs with reproducible properties so that they can be consistent models that ultimately generate more reliable results for intravascular device testing. Reproducibility stems from the consistency of the ...


Neuromodulation: Action Potential Modeling, Vladimir Ruzov Jun 2014

Neuromodulation: Action Potential Modeling, Vladimir Ruzov

Master's Theses and Project Reports

There have been many different studies performed in order to examine various properties of neurons. One of the most important properties of neurons is an ability to originate and propagate action potential. The action potential is a source of communication between different neural structures located in different anatomical regions. Many different studies use modeling to describe the action potential and its properties. These models mathematically describe physical properties of neurons and analyze and explain biological and electrochemical processes such as action potential initiation and propagation. Therefore, one of the most important functions of neurons is an ability to provide communication ...


Developent Of A Phospholipid Encapsulation Process For Quantum Dots To Be Used In Biologic Applications, Logan Grimes Jun 2014

Developent Of A Phospholipid Encapsulation Process For Quantum Dots To Be Used In Biologic Applications, Logan Grimes

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The American Cancer Society predicts that 1,665,540 people will be diagnosed with cancer, and 585,720 people will die from cancer in 2014. One of the most common types of cancer in the United States is skin cancer. Melanoma alone is predicted to account for 10,000 of the cancer related deaths in 2014. As a highly mobile and aggressive form of cancer, melanoma is difficult to fight once it has metastasized through the body. Early detection in such varieties of cancer is critical in improving survival rates in afflicted patients. Present methods of detection rely on visual ...


Material Differences In Equine Cortical And Trabecular Bone, Ryan B. Allen Apr 2014

Material Differences In Equine Cortical And Trabecular Bone, Ryan B. Allen

Master's Theses and Project Reports

A greater understanding of bone materials would be beneficial in creating more accurate computer models and in the making of biomedical products involving bone. This study set out to determine whether cortical and trabecular bone are two separate materials, or whether they are the same material with a variance in porosity. To answer this question, samples were taken from different sections of the equine metacarpus, underwent densitometry analysis and were statistically analyzed. The majority of results suggest that the material is the same between varying densities of bone and thus the same between cortical and trabecular bone. These particular results ...


Design Of Controlled Environment For Tissue Engineering, Malcolm Gerald Lapera Feb 2014

Design Of Controlled Environment For Tissue Engineering, Malcolm Gerald Lapera

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Design of Controlled Environment for Tissue Engineering

Malcolm Lapera

Tissue engineering aims at relieving the need for donor tissue and organs by developing a process of creating viable tissues in the laboratory setting. With over 120,000 people awaiting a transplant, the need for generating tissue engineered organs is very large [3]. In order for organs to be engineered, a few issues need to be overcome. A work space that both creates an environment which maintains cell viability over an extended period of time as well as accommodates the necessary fabrication equipment will be needed to further tissue engineering research ...