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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

The Development Of A Temporomandibular Force Simulator To Study Craniofacial Strain In-Vitro, Kenneth Kc Ip Jun 2018

The Development Of A Temporomandibular Force Simulator To Study Craniofacial Strain In-Vitro, Kenneth Kc Ip

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

An in-vitro musculoskeletal loading simulator was developed to replicate the internal forces of mastication, and then employed in a comparison of clinically relevant facial fracture repairs. Muscle forces are simulated by pneumatic pistons via 3D printed mounts that are reverse-engineered from CT scan to match muscle attachment sites, which are adhered to bone in order to simulate native stress distributions. Bite force and bone strain pattern of the craniofacial structure under load were measured using a force sensor and strain gauges respectively. In a series of five fresh-frozen cadaveric heads, it was found that strain patterns of the craniofacial structure ...


Nuclear Rupture In Progeria Expressing Cells, Kranthidhar Bathula Jan 2018

Nuclear Rupture In Progeria Expressing Cells, Kranthidhar Bathula

Theses and Dissertations

Cells regularly take on various types of force in the body. They have structures that are able to mediate, transfer and respond to the forces. A mutation in force regulating proteins such as lamin in the nucleus or the KASH domain which connects the nucleus to the cytoskeleton of the cell can cause catastrophic events to occur. The aims of this study were to better understand the response of the nucleus when structural proteins are mutated or are not present while under force. Progeria, a rare disease where an additional farnesyl group is attached to lamin was used in this ...


Exploring New Therapeutic Strategies For Osteoarthritis: From Genetic Manipulation Of Skeletal Tissues To Chemically-Modified Synthetic Hydrogels, Henry Huang Mar 2017

Exploring New Therapeutic Strategies For Osteoarthritis: From Genetic Manipulation Of Skeletal Tissues To Chemically-Modified Synthetic Hydrogels, Henry Huang

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Osteoarthritis (OA), a degenerative disease of articular joints, is the leading cause of chronic disability in the US and affects more than a third of adults over 65 years old. Due to the obesity epidemic and an aging population, the prevalence of OA is expected to rise in both young and old adults. There are no disease modifying OA drugs. Therefore, providing any treatment options that delay the onset or progression of OA is highly desirable. The scope of this dissertation examines two different strategies to promote translational therapies for OA. The first approach investigated whether Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor ...


The Effect Of Twist On The Mechanical Properties Of The Intervertebral Disc, Maxine Harvey-Burgess Jan 2017

The Effect Of Twist On The Mechanical Properties Of The Intervertebral Disc, Maxine Harvey-Burgess

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Introduction: Intervertebral disc (IVD) herniation is a common injury to the IVD and a frequent source of low back pain. IVD herniation occurs when the nucleus pulposus migrates through both the inter- and intralamellar matrices of the annulus fibrosus (AF). There are a number of mechanical risk factors associated with herniation, including repetitive flexion and twist. In vivo, twist combined with repetitive flexion has been associated with increased experience of low back pain and herniation. Additionally, in vitro, when repetitive flexion is combined with twist, IVD herniation occurs more easily than repetitive flexion alone. However, the mechanisms behind this relationship ...


Injury Risk Assessment Of The Femur In Children With Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Jessica Marie Fritz Apr 2016

Injury Risk Assessment Of The Femur In Children With Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Jessica Marie Fritz

Dissertations (2009 -)

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder characterized by increased bone fragility and decreased bone mass, which leads to high rates of bone fracture. OI has a prevalence of 1/5,000 to 1/10,000 in the United States. About 90% of persons with OI have a genetic mutation in the coding for collagen type I, which is the major protein of connective tissues, including bone. While its prevalence classifies it as a rare disease, it is the most common disorder of bone etiology. Until recently, little was known about the mechanics and materials of OI bone or their ...


Evaluation Of Tissue-Engineered Tendon Enthesis Polymer Constructs, Joshua A. Bundy Bs, Mary Beth Wade Phd, Hitomi Nakao Md, Phillip Mcclellan Phd, Qing Yu Phd, Robin Jacquet-Childs Ms, William J. Landis Phd Jan 2014

Evaluation Of Tissue-Engineered Tendon Enthesis Polymer Constructs, Joshua A. Bundy Bs, Mary Beth Wade Phd, Hitomi Nakao Md, Phillip Mcclellan Phd, Qing Yu Phd, Robin Jacquet-Childs Ms, William J. Landis Phd

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Both scientists and clinicians have proposed tissue engineering as the future of medicine. The possibilities for tissue engineering, that is, fabrication of tissues and organs in the laboratory and their translation to patients, appear to be endless, and many believe that this new approach in medicine will result in abolishing many common ailments, injuries, and congenital defects. Injuries to a tendon enthesis, the normal tissue connection between tendon and bone, are of particular concern to clinicians because of their frequency and failure to repair as a result of surgery. While these injuries may not be life threatening, they can certainly ...


Development Of A Protocol To Measure Gene Expression In The Mouse Tibia, Daniel Hoover Jun 2012

Development Of A Protocol To Measure Gene Expression In The Mouse Tibia, Daniel Hoover

Biomedical Engineering

Numerous molecular factors active in bone tissue direct fracture repair and remodeling which can be altered by disease conditions such as Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) and Osteoporosis. Methods of molecular biology are commonly applied to investigate the expression and role of these molecular factors. This project presents a robust three-step protocol for examining gene expression in the mouse tibia. The protocol begins with isolating RNA from a flash frozen tibia sample. The isolated RNA is reverse transcribed into cDNA. Finally, PCR is performed to indentify expressed genes. Establishing this protocol will allow further research into the mechanisms of bone remodeling ...