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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Designing Synthetic Environments To Control Valvular Interstital Cells In Vitro, Kent E. Coombs May 2018

Designing Synthetic Environments To Control Valvular Interstital Cells In Vitro, Kent E. Coombs

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

Aortic valve disease (AVD) is a large contributor to health costs in the United States affecting 2.8% of the population greater than 75 years old. With a growing elderly population due to medical advances, AVD will continue to rise in prevalence over time. Current treatments for AVD are insufficient due to a lack of preventative therapies and the bioprosthetic valves used for surgical replacement have major limitations. Tissue engineered heart valves (TEHVs) present an ideal solution to current AVD needs because of their biocompatibility, capability to integrate with the host’s tissue, and ability to utilize the natural repair ...


The Impact Of The Mitochondrial Metabolism Of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Upon Differentiation, Stefanie T. Shahan May 2017

The Impact Of The Mitochondrial Metabolism Of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Upon Differentiation, Stefanie T. Shahan

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be differentiated into any cell type found in the body. The derivation of a stem cell derived β cell (SC-β) capable of responding to glucose by secreting insulin was hugely significant for diabetes research and opened up the possibility of cell replacement therapy to combat this widespread disease (Pagliuca et al. 2014). The optimization of differentiation procedures such as this could improve yield, function, cost, and efficiency of a stem cell-derived product. Current approaches to improve differentiation are primarily focused on signal transduction pathways, while the metabolic state of the cells has received little ...


Electrospinning Of Poly (Ester Amide) Fibres For Mesenchymal Progenitor Cell Differentiation, Sarah Kiros Oct 2016

Electrospinning Of Poly (Ester Amide) Fibres For Mesenchymal Progenitor Cell Differentiation, Sarah Kiros

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The in vitro vascular tissue engineering paradigm seeks to produce biologically responsive vascular substitutes using cells, biodegradable scaffolds, and bioreactors to mature the tissue for the potential treatment of vascular occlusions and to create 3D tissue models for pre-clinical testing. In this work, a poly (ester amide) (PEA) derived from from L-phenylalanine, sebacoyl chloride and 1,4 butanediol was synthesized and electrospun to form both 3D fibrous mats and tubular constructs. Both the polymer solution concentration and mandrel rotation speed were optimized to fabricate bead-free fibres. Cytocompatibility and proliferation studies using mesenchymal progenitor 10T1/2 cells showed PEA fibres were ...


Microengineering The Neural Tube, Christopher Demers Aug 2015

Microengineering The Neural Tube, Christopher Demers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Early embryonic development is a complex and highly regulated orchestra of instructive cues that collectively guide naïve stem cells towards progressively more specialized fates. In the neural tube, the precursor structure to the brain and spinal cord, these signals emanate from ‘organizing centers’ surrounding the neural tube. These organizing centers send out soluble cues or morphogens that diffuse tens to hundreds of microns to recipient cells residing in the neural tube. Re-creating this dynamic landscape of cues in vitro is impossible using standard cell culture tools and techniques. However, microfluidics is perfectly suited to fill this gap, allowing precise control ...


Engineering Complex Microenvironments For Directed Stem Cell Differentiation, Michael Louis Floren Jan 2015

Engineering Complex Microenvironments For Directed Stem Cell Differentiation, Michael Louis Floren

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Loss of vascular function associated with cardiovascular disease, such as arthrosclerosis, represents the leading medical epidemic in the United States and typically requires surgical intervention through synthetic or autologous vascular grafts. To overcome the limitations associated with adult cell sources, which are often restricted by supply or compromised by disease, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as potential candidates for vascular tissue engineering. While evidence suggests the roles of several factors influencing MSC differentiation into vascular phenotypes, including matrix rigidity, geometry and chemistry, the phenomena associated with these events are still largely unknown. Further, the development of mature vascular phenotypes ...


Construction Of 3d Biomimetic Tissue Niches For Directing Pancreatic Lineage Differentiation Of Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Weiwei Wang Aug 2014

Construction Of 3d Biomimetic Tissue Niches For Directing Pancreatic Lineage Differentiation Of Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Weiwei Wang

Theses and Dissertations

The potential of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to differentiate into insulin producing beta cells offers great hope for cell-based therapy for diabetes treatment. However, in vitro pancreatic differentiation of hESCs remains challenging. In the past decade, most protocols for differentiating pancreatic cells have been focused on the use of signaling molecule cocktails on 2D substrates. Studies on embryonic development biology strongly suggest that extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a critical role on hESCs behavior. In this work, we first established a 3D collagen scaffold culture system for hESCs differentiating into definitive endoderm (DE), which is the first and most important ...