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Theses/Dissertations

Molecular, Cellular, and Tissue Engineering

2017

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Syngenic Adipose-Derived Stem/Stromal Cells Delivered In Decellularized Adipose Tissue Scaffolds Enhance In Vivo Tissue Regeneration Through Host Cell Recruitment, Kevin P. Robb Dec 2017

Syngenic Adipose-Derived Stem/Stromal Cells Delivered In Decellularized Adipose Tissue Scaffolds Enhance In Vivo Tissue Regeneration Through Host Cell Recruitment, Kevin P. Robb

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) represents a promising adipogenic bioscaffold for applications in soft tissue augmentation or reconstruction. With the goal of investigating the role of syngeneic donor adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) and host myeloid cells during in vivo adipose tissue regeneration, transgenic reporter mouse strains were used to track these cell populations within ASC-seeded and unseeded DAT scaffolds. Donor ASCs were obtained from dsRed transgenic mice. These cells were shown to express characteristic cell surface markers, and multilineage differentiation capacity was confirmed. To facilitate cell tracking, DAT scaffolds were subcutaneously implanted into MacGreen mice in which myeloid cells express ...


Design And Synthesis Of Analogs Of Myo-Inositol, Serine, And Cysteine To Enable Chemical Biology Studies, Tanei J. Ricks Dec 2017

Design And Synthesis Of Analogs Of Myo-Inositol, Serine, And Cysteine To Enable Chemical Biology Studies, Tanei J. Ricks

Doctoral Dissertations

Phosphorylated myo-inositol compounds including inositol phosphates (InsPs) as well as the phosphatidylinositol polyphosphate lipids (PIPns) are critical biomolecules that regulate many of the most important biological processes and pathways. They are aberrant in many disease states due to their regulatory function. The same is true of the phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) which can serve as a marker to begin apoptosis. However, the full scope of activities of these structures is not clear, particularly since techniques that enable global detection and analysis of the production of these compounds spatially and temporally are lacking. With all of these obstacles in ...


Effects Of Uniaxial Cyclic Strain On Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Maria Alejandra Zeballos Castro Dec 2017

Effects Of Uniaxial Cyclic Strain On Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Maria Alejandra Zeballos Castro

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Despite the high prevalence of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), the underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis have not been found yet. Therefore, it is extremely important to study CAVD and understand how it develops. For this matter, we decided to study the potential of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) for use in tissue-engineered models of heart valves. EPCs were chosen as the cell source of interest for this study due to their high neovascularization potential and use in regenerative medicine and cardiovascular tissue engineering.

In this project, we aimed to engineer the microenvironment of cells that are involved in the formation of ...


Influence Of Fibroblasts On Functional Arteriogenesis In A Murine Chronic Hindlimb Ischemia Model, Ashli A. Santos Sep 2017

Influence Of Fibroblasts On Functional Arteriogenesis In A Murine Chronic Hindlimb Ischemia Model, Ashli A. Santos

Biomedical Engineering

Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) occurs when there is a narrowing or blockage – usually a buildup of plaque - within the arteries that reduces blood flow to tissues which can chronic ischemia. As with most diseases, early detection and proactive treatment are important to maximize prognosis. Exercise effectively treats PAOD, but due to ischemic pain in the limbs, or intermittent claudication (IC), exercise can become painful and difficult. Due to the buildup of plaque, occlusions create an ischemic environment that changes the pressure distribution in collateral networks and increases the shear stress in transverse collaterals. Those two responses signal the beginning ...


Intravenous Administration Of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles In The Chicken Model, Huong Thi Ngoc Le Aug 2017

Intravenous Administration Of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles In The Chicken Model, Huong Thi Ngoc Le

Theses and Dissertations

To be used in health care, the safety and effectiveness of nanoparticles needs to be tested in a living organism. The objective of this project was to develop the chicken as a convenient animal model to examine tissue targeting of intravenously (i.v.)-injected iron oxide (IO) nanoparticles. In Experiment 1, different doses of IO-COOH were i.v. injected into chickens; blood was collected at 0, 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes post-injection; liver, spleen, lung, and kidney were collected after the last blood collection. For Experiment 2, IO-COOH and IO-PEG were i.v. injected into chickens; blood and the ...


Isolation And Culture Of Myofiber-Derived Cells From The Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle, Ethan M. Tietze Jun 2017

Isolation And Culture Of Myofiber-Derived Cells From The Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle, Ethan M. Tietze

Biomedical Engineering

Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) involves distal artery occlusion by atherosclerotic plaques, which restricts blood flow and leads to ischemia in downstream tissues. Increased blood flow through preexisting collateral vessels leads to increased shear stress that triggers an outward remodeling of the vessel called arteriogenesis. In some cases this natural compensatory mechanism is able to sufficiently restore blood flow following arterial occlusion. However, for many individuals this process is insufficient to relieve peripheral ischemia, and patients experience intermittent claudication, or limb pain with locomotion or exercise. Without treatment, reduced blood flow can lead to tissue necrosis and potentially amputation. The ...


Development And Characterization Of Tissue Engineered Blood Vessel Mimics Under "Diabetic" Conditions, Shelby Gabrielle Kunz Jun 2017

Development And Characterization Of Tissue Engineered Blood Vessel Mimics Under "Diabetic" Conditions, Shelby Gabrielle Kunz

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The development of tissue engineered blood vessel mimics for the testing of intravascular devices in vitro has been established in the Cal Poly tissue engineering lab. Due to the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients and minimal accessible studies regarding the interactions between diabetes and intravascular devices used to treat vascular disease, there is a need for the development of diabetic models that more accurately represents diabetic processes occurring in the blood vessels, primarily endothelial dysfunction. This thesis aimed to create a diabetic blood vessel mimic by implementing a high glucose environment for culturing human endothelial cells from healthy ...


The Impact Of The Mitochondrial Metabolism Of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Upon Differentiation, Stefanie T. Shahan May 2017

The Impact Of The Mitochondrial Metabolism Of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Upon Differentiation, Stefanie T. Shahan

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be differentiated into any cell type found in the body. The derivation of a stem cell derived β cell (SC-β) capable of responding to glucose by secreting insulin was hugely significant for diabetes research and opened up the possibility of cell replacement therapy to combat this widespread disease (Pagliuca et al. 2014). The optimization of differentiation procedures such as this could improve yield, function, cost, and efficiency of a stem cell-derived product. Current approaches to improve differentiation are primarily focused on signal transduction pathways, while the metabolic state of the cells has received little ...


Development And Evaluation Of A Biocompatible Electroactive Sensor For Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement., Scott D. Cambron May 2017

Development And Evaluation Of A Biocompatible Electroactive Sensor For Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement., Scott D. Cambron

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Piezo-active composites have been implemented for sensing and transduction for decades. The 0-3 ceramic/polymer composite is one of the most common composite types used for sensing applications, owing to their tailorable properties of the two-phase composition, consisting of a three-dimensionally connected polymer/rubber matrix (inactive phase) with a dispersion of isolated piezo-ceramic particles (active phase). This thesis describes a method to develop novel biocompatible perivascular band comprised of a two-phase piezo-active composite to be fabricated using simple manufacturing processes. Biomaterials such as tissue scaffolds comprised of silk fibroin (SF) and chitosan (CS), and biocompatible soft rubbers will be implemented ...


Detection Of Leukocytes Stained With Acridine Orange Using Unique Spectral Features Acquired From An Image-Based Spectrometer, Courtney J. Hunter May 2017

Detection Of Leukocytes Stained With Acridine Orange Using Unique Spectral Features Acquired From An Image-Based Spectrometer, Courtney J. Hunter

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

A leukocyte differential count can be used to diagnosis a myriad blood disorders, such as infections, allergies, and efficacy of disease treatments. In recent years, attention has been focused on developing point-of-care (POC) systems to provide this test in global health settings. Acridine orange (AO) is an amphipathic, vital dye that intercalates leukocyte nucleic acids and acidic vesicles. It has been utilized by POC systems to identify the three main leukocyte subtypes: granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes. Subtypes of leukocytes can be characterized using a fluorescence microscope, where the AO has a 450 nm excitation wavelength and has two peak emission ...


Exploring New Therapeutic Strategies For Osteoarthritis: From Genetic Manipulation Of Skeletal Tissues To Chemically-Modified Synthetic Hydrogels, Henry Huang Mar 2017

Exploring New Therapeutic Strategies For Osteoarthritis: From Genetic Manipulation Of Skeletal Tissues To Chemically-Modified Synthetic Hydrogels, Henry Huang

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Osteoarthritis (OA), a degenerative disease of articular joints, is the leading cause of chronic disability in the US and affects more than a third of adults over 65 years old. Due to the obesity epidemic and an aging population, the prevalence of OA is expected to rise in both young and old adults. There are no disease modifying OA drugs. Therefore, providing any treatment options that delay the onset or progression of OA is highly desirable. The scope of this dissertation examines two different strategies to promote translational therapies for OA. The first approach investigated whether Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor ...


Assessing Dprestin & Nadc1 (Indy) Interaction On Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation In A Drosophila Model Of Kidney Stones, Jessica Lin Jan 2017

Assessing Dprestin & Nadc1 (Indy) Interaction On Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation In A Drosophila Model Of Kidney Stones, Jessica Lin

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Calcium oxalate (CaOx) accounts for >70%of kidney stones, yet why CaOx stones form is poorly understood. While several factors contribute to the stone aggregation and growth, elucidating the roles of oxalate transporters can help demystify this phenomenon. Using a Drosophila model to study the formation and inhibition of CaOx crystals in the fly Malpighian tubule (MT), oxalate transport via dPrestin—the fly Slc26a6 Cl-/Ox2- exchanger was studied using both electrophysiology and MT dissection with CaOx birefringence assays. Here, the fly model suffices as it recapitulates renal oxalate excretion. Additionally, the mammalian dicarboxylate transporter NaDC1 (Indy in Drosophila ...


Studying The Role Of Cell Competition In Tumor Progression Via A Two-Dimensional Vertex Model, Bixi Kang Jan 2017

Studying The Role Of Cell Competition In Tumor Progression Via A Two-Dimensional Vertex Model, Bixi Kang

Theses and Dissertations

Tumor progression fate relies on the cell competition between tumorous cells and the surrounding regular cells. Studies on the Drosophila wing imaginal disc illustrate that cell competition can act either as a tumor suppressing or as a tumor promoting mechanism. However, how cell competition alters its role in tumor development via underlying molecular mechanisms as well as the role played by mechanical effects is still poorly understood. Here we study the role of cell competition in the early stage of tumor progression, using a simulation code of epithelial tissue (TiFoSi), which allows to include feedback between tissue growth, mechanics and ...


Quantifying The Effects Of Hydrostatic Pressure On Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Binding By The Human Endothelium, Taylor R. Mckenty Jan 2017

Quantifying The Effects Of Hydrostatic Pressure On Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Binding By The Human Endothelium, Taylor R. Mckenty

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Fluid pressures regulate endothelial cell (EC) tubulogenic activity involving fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and its receptor, FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2). Our lab has recently shown that sustained 20 mmHg hydrostatic pressure (HP) upregulates EC sprout formation in a FGF2-dependent fashion. This upregulation of sprout formation may be due to enhanced FGF-2 / FGFR2 interactions in the presence of 20 mmHg HP. We hypothesize that exposure of ECs to 20 mmHg sustained HP enhances FGF-2 binding kinetics. We used a custom hydrostatic pressure system, immunofluorescence, and FACS to quantify FGF-2 binding by ECs in the absence or presence of a range ...


Development Of An Electrospun And 3d Printed Cellular Delivery Device For Dermal Wound Healing, Ryan M. Clohessy Jan 2017

Development Of An Electrospun And 3d Printed Cellular Delivery Device For Dermal Wound Healing, Ryan M. Clohessy

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research was to develop a system of individualized medicine that could be applied to dermal wounds serving as a wound dressing and synthetic extracellular matrix while delivering stem cells to the wound bed. First, fabrication parameters for electrospinning polymer fibers were determined. This involved evaluating fiber morphology with respect to polymer selection and solution concentration. Next, construct fabrication was examined to produce an integrated void space, or cargo area, suitable to maintain stem cells. In vitro studies to ensure stem cell viability and phenotype were conducted, and results supported the notion that cells could be administered ...


Development And Validation Of A Novel Resonant Energy Transfer (Fret) Biosensor To Measure Tensile Forces At The Linc Complex In Live Cells, Paul Arsenovic Jan 2017

Development And Validation Of A Novel Resonant Energy Transfer (Fret) Biosensor To Measure Tensile Forces At The Linc Complex In Live Cells, Paul Arsenovic

Theses and Dissertations

There is a large body of evidence supporting the theory that cell physiology largely depends on the mechanical properties of its surroundings or micro-environment. More recently studies have shown that changes to intra-cellular mechanical properties can also have a meaningful impact on cell function and in some cases lead to the progression of ailments or disease. For example, small changes to the protein sequence of a structural nuclear envelope protein called lamin-A is known to cause a variety of neurological and musculoskeletal diseases referred to as laminopathies. Currently, there is little incite into how these mutations lead to disease progression ...


Modulating The Innate Immune Response To Electrospun Scaffolds And Polymer Degradative Byproducts, Daniel Abebayehu Jan 2017

Modulating The Innate Immune Response To Electrospun Scaffolds And Polymer Degradative Byproducts, Daniel Abebayehu

Theses and Dissertations

Implanted biomaterials often induce inflammation that frequently leads to the foreign body response, fibrosis, and the failure of the implant. Thus, it is important to evaluate how cells interact with materials to promote a more regenerative response. It is critical to determine how to modulate the response of tissue resident innate immune cells, as they are among the first cells to interact with implanted materials. Among tissue resident innate immune cells are mast cells, which are inflammatory sentinels that degranulate and orchestrate the fate of other cell populations, such as monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes. Mast cells have also been reported ...


A 3d Biomimetic Scaffold Using Electrospinning For Tissue Engineering Applications, Samerender Nagam Hanumantharao Jan 2017

A 3d Biomimetic Scaffold Using Electrospinning For Tissue Engineering Applications, Samerender Nagam Hanumantharao

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Electrospinning holds great promise for designing functional 3D biomimetic scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. The technique allows for the reproducible fabrication of 3D scaffolds with control over the porosity and thickness. In this work, a novel method for the synthesis of a 3D electroactive scaffold using electrospinning from polycaprolactone (PCL), Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) and Polyaniline (PANI) is reported. Additional scaffolds involving different morphologies of PCL, PCL-PVDF and PCL-PANI-PVDF were also fabricated and evaluated. The scaffolds were characterized using electron microscopy to visualize the morphologies. Infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of polymers and their respective phases in the ...


Epithelial-Mesenchymal Crosstalk Influences Cancer-Related Cell Behavior: A 3d Lung Alveolus-Fibroblast Co-Culture System, Jessica Kole Hall Jan 2017

Epithelial-Mesenchymal Crosstalk Influences Cancer-Related Cell Behavior: A 3d Lung Alveolus-Fibroblast Co-Culture System, Jessica Kole Hall

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Lung cancer is a devastating disease that kills more individuals in the United States than any other cancer. The tumor microenvironment is increasingly recognized as playing a major role in the progression of cancer. Thus, studying the interactions among lung cancer cells, non-malignant cells and the surrounding matrix is critical for understanding and treating lung cancer. Three-dimensional in vitro co-culture systems allow for tissue-relevant platforms that better recapitulate the native cell environment. In this work, we employed a cyst templating technique to culture alveolar epithelial cells on photodegradable microspheres and subsequently encapsulated the cell-covered spheres within poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG ...


Developing Afm Techniques For Testing Peg Hydrogels, Hannah L. Cebull, Jessica Stukel, Rebecca Willits Jan 2017

Developing Afm Techniques For Testing Peg Hydrogels, Hannah L. Cebull, Jessica Stukel, Rebecca Willits

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Many instruments are used to find elastic properties of biological samples using methods such as tensile and bending tests, but using the atomic force microscope (AFM) is considered a non-destructive method because it can provide repeated local stiffness information without damaging the sample. It additionally allows the sample to be tested in an aqueous environment, which is optimal for soft materials such as hydrogels. The nanoindentation is performed via cantilever, measuring the deflection of the cantilever during the contact of the sample using a laser. Compared to hard samples, testing soft materials can present more challenges when working with the ...