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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Dendritic Cell Migration And Traction Force Generation In Engineered Microenvironments, Brendon Guenther Ricart Dec 2010

Dendritic Cell Migration And Traction Force Generation In Engineered Microenvironments, Brendon Guenther Ricart

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent initiators of the adaptive immune response. Their trafficking from sites of inflammation to lymphoid tissue is essential to their function. Exactly how dendritic cells integrate multiple chemotactic cues to organize an accurate migratory path is not fully understood. We first characterize DC random motility (chemokinesis) on extracellular matrix proteins in the presence of chemokines. Then, using a microfluidic device, we present both single and competing chemokine gradients to murine bone-marrow derived DCs in a controlled, time-invariant microenvironment. We show that in counter gradients, CCL19 is 10 to 100 fold more potent than other chemokines CCL21 ...


Characterization And Analysis Techniques Of A Dynamic In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Model, Ryan Everett Woodhouse Dec 2010

Characterization And Analysis Techniques Of A Dynamic In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Model, Ryan Everett Woodhouse

Biomedical Engineering

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is responsible for maintaining the sensitive environment required by the brain. Although the BBB is necessary for proper functioning of the brain, it acts as an obstacle for doctors attempting to treat neurological disease. For a drug to act upon the brain, it must first pass through the discriminating BBB. For this reason, much research has been performed in recent years in order to create an in vitro model of the BBB on which drugs targeted for the central nervous system may be tested. The main goal of this project is to create an in vitro ...


Meniscus Tissue Engineering With Nanofibrous Scaffolds, Brendon M. Baker Aug 2010

Meniscus Tissue Engineering With Nanofibrous Scaffolds, Brendon M. Baker

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The fibrocartilaginous menisci dwell between the articular surfaces of the knee and play a central role in joint function. Damage through trauma or degenerative changes is a common orthopaedic injury, disrupts the meniscus mechanical function, and leads to the precocious development of osteoarthritis. The current standard of treatment is removal of the damaged tissue, a procedure that does not re-establish normal knee mechanics. Given the frequency of meniscal injury, a restorative repair strategy remains a major unmet need in orthopaedic medicine. With the goal of replacing damaged meniscus with engineered biologic tissue that can restore meniscal function, this work focuses ...


Combinatorial Polymer Synthesis And High-Throughput Screening Technology To Identify Optimal Approaches For Mineralized Tissue Engineering, Darren M. Brey Aug 2010

Combinatorial Polymer Synthesis And High-Throughput Screening Technology To Identify Optimal Approaches For Mineralized Tissue Engineering, Darren M. Brey

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The general tissue engineering approach is to combine cells, scaffolding, and signaling molecules in a manner that treats damaged or diseased tissues. Progress in the field has been made incrementally since changes to these inputs require meticulous iterative steps. However, recent advances in combinatorial chemistry and high through-put screening (HTS) technology have made available a wider range of potential scaffold materials with diverse properties, as well as new methods to accelerate the process of testing soluble factors or combinations of factors.

To this end, a library of poly(β-amino ester)s has been developed as the first combinatorial library of ...


Enhancing Mesenchymal Stem Cell Chondrogenesis For Cartilage Tissue Engineering, Alice H. Huang Aug 2010

Enhancing Mesenchymal Stem Cell Chondrogenesis For Cartilage Tissue Engineering, Alice H. Huang

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Articular cartilage provides a bearing surface for transmitting forces across joints. The poor ability of cartilage to self-repair has motivated efforts to engineer replacement tissues, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can undergo chondrogenesis, have emerged as a promising cell source. To date however, the functional properties of MSC-based constructs remain lower than those of the native tissue and of chondrocyte-based constructs cultured identically. Therefore, the overall objective of this thesis is to better understand the transcriptional and functional limitations underlying chondrogenic differentiation and enhance MSC chondrogenesis.

Toward this end, established tissue engineering strategies from the chondrocyte literature were applied ...


Regulation Of Angiogenesis By Adhesive And Mechanical Cues From The Extracellular Matrix, Colette Shen May 2010

Regulation Of Angiogenesis By Adhesive And Mechanical Cues From The Extracellular Matrix, Colette Shen

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Angiogenesis, the sprouting of new capillaries from existing blood vessels, is essential for the survival of tissues and normally occurs during development and wound healing. Successful vascularization of engineered tissues is currently a major challenge, as it is critical for the survival and incorporation of implanted tissue replacements. While the role of soluble factors in regulating angiogenesis is well established, there is significant interest in uncovering the contributions of cellular interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM). We chose to study the role of cell-ECM adhesion in regulating angiogenesis, with the hypothesis that quantitative changes in the degree of cell-ECM adhesion ...