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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Tauopathies, Novel Optogenetic Tools, And The Future Of Artificial Intellience In Medicine., Jessica L. Binder Jul 2019

Tauopathies, Novel Optogenetic Tools, And The Future Of Artificial Intellience In Medicine., Jessica L. Binder

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

To this day, there is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related dementias (ADRD). With the daunting rise at an exponential rate of ADRD burden and related deaths, the necessity to find a new line of attack is vital. Pathological accumulation of microtubule associated protein tau in neurons is a major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related tauopathies. Attempts have been made to promote clearance of pathological tau (p-Tau) from neurons via autophagy. Transcription factor EB (TFEB) has shown to clear p-Tau from neurons via autophagy. However, sustained TFEB activation and autophagy can create burden ...


Developing A Synthetic Model Of The Candida Albicans Cell Wall Using Self-Assembled Monolayers To Host Beta-Glucan As Ligands, Ushnik Ghosh Apr 2019

Developing A Synthetic Model Of The Candida Albicans Cell Wall Using Self-Assembled Monolayers To Host Beta-Glucan As Ligands, Ushnik Ghosh

Biomedical Engineering ETDs

The goal of this investigation is to study mechanisms the immune cell receptor, Dectin-1, uses to identify the fungal cell species, Candida albicans. Dectin-1 identifies extracellular matrix polysaccharides that Candida albicans express known as β-glucan. To study the interaction of β-glucan – Dectin-1 at the nanoscopic scale, the investigators of this project have endeavored to model the Candida albicans cell wall with engineered Self-Assembled Monolayers presenting β-glucan as a ligand for immobilized Dectin-1 receptors. By engineering a simplified ex-vivo model of the Candida albicans cell wall, the investigators of this study aim to gain precise control of the composition and structure ...


Incorporation Of Egfr And Ron Receptors Into Nanodiscs, Cristina Flores-Cadengo Apr 2019

Incorporation Of Egfr And Ron Receptors Into Nanodiscs, Cristina Flores-Cadengo

Biomedical Engineering ETDs

Understanding the structure-function relationship of membrane receptors is essential to comprehend the crosstalk between key signaling pathways. Aberrant trans-activation between receptors can lead to tumorigenesis. Two of these receptors known to be involved in cancer development are receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), RON (Recepteur d'Origine Nantais) and EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor). There has been evidence of heterodimerization and crosstalk between these two receptors based on co-immunoprecipitation, however the structural requirements behind these interactions remain unknown. Structural studies could provide insights into these RTKs’ modes of dimerization and structure-function relationship. However, structural studies of full-length membrane proteins are often difficult ...


Chemically Modified Monolayer Surfaces Influence Valvular Interstitial Cell Attachment And Differentiation For Heart Valve Tissue Engineering, Matthew N. Rush Dec 2018

Chemically Modified Monolayer Surfaces Influence Valvular Interstitial Cell Attachment And Differentiation For Heart Valve Tissue Engineering, Matthew N. Rush

Nanoscience and Microsystems ETDs

As a cell mediated-process, valvular heart disease (VHD) results in significant morbidity and mortality world-wide. In the US alone, valvular heart disease VHD is estimated to affect 2.5% of the population with a disproportionate impact on an increasing elderly populous. It is well understood that the primary driver for valvular calcification is the differentiation of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) into an osteoblastic-like phenotype. However, the factors leading to the onset of osteoblastic-like VICs (obVICs) and resulting calcification are not fully understood and a more complete characterization of VIC differentiation and phenotypic change is required before treatment of valve disease ...


Developing Droplet Based 3d Cell Culture Methods To Enable Investigations Of The Chemical Tumor Microenvironment, Jacqueline A. De Lora Jul 2018

Developing Droplet Based 3d Cell Culture Methods To Enable Investigations Of The Chemical Tumor Microenvironment, Jacqueline A. De Lora

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

Adaptation of cancer cells to changes in the biochemical microenvironment in an expanding tumor mass is a crucial aspect of malignant progression, tumor metabolism, and drug efficacy. In vitro, it is challenging to mimic the evolution of biochemical gradients and the cellular heterogeneity that characterizes cancer tissues found in vivo. It is well accepted that more realistic and controllable in vitro 3D model systems are required to improve the overall cancer research paradigm and thus improve on the translation of results, but multidisciplinary approaches are needed for these advances. This work develops such approaches and demonstrates that new droplet-based cell-encapsulation ...


Designing Synthetic Environments To Control Valvular Interstital Cells In Vitro, Kent E. Coombs May 2018

Designing Synthetic Environments To Control Valvular Interstital Cells In Vitro, Kent E. Coombs

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

Aortic valve disease (AVD) is a large contributor to health costs in the United States affecting 2.8% of the population greater than 75 years old. With a growing elderly population due to medical advances, AVD will continue to rise in prevalence over time. Current treatments for AVD are insufficient due to a lack of preventative therapies and the bioprosthetic valves used for surgical replacement have major limitations. Tissue engineered heart valves (TEHVs) present an ideal solution to current AVD needs because of their biocompatibility, capability to integrate with the host’s tissue, and ability to utilize the natural repair ...