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Theses/Dissertations

Life Sciences

2014

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Induction Of Differentiation Of Dental Pulp-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (Dpsc), Aubrey Young Dec 2014

Induction Of Differentiation Of Dental Pulp-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (Dpsc), Aubrey Young

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Mesenchymal stem cells are derived from a variety of human tissues and are being bioengineered and studied for possible uses in the advancement of medicine. Recent efforts are being focused on Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSC's) due to the accessibility of this tissue. Many factors influence DPSC quality and quantity, including the specific methods used to isolate, collect, concentrate, and store these isolates once they are removed. Ancillary factors, such as the choice of media, the selection of early versus late passage cells, and cryopreservation techniques may also influence the differentiation potential and proliferative capacity of DPSC isolates.

The ...


An Optogenetic Brain-Machine Interface For Spatiotemporal Neuromodulation, Ryan Andrew Baumgartner Dec 2014

An Optogenetic Brain-Machine Interface For Spatiotemporal Neuromodulation, Ryan Andrew Baumgartner

Theses and Dissertations

Direct neural stimulation has recently become a standard therapy for neurological disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, Essential Tremors, and Dystonia. Currently, deep brain electro-stimulation and neuro-pharmaceutical treatments are the dominant therapeutic options available to the public. As our understanding of brain function and neurological diseases improves, we are able to develop more advanced neuromodulation techniques. These methods could become viable treatment solutions for treating brain dysfunction. Optogenetics, first introduced by a research team led by Karl Deisseroth at Stanford University, has proved to be a versatile technique with remarkable potential to be used in treatments for brain disorders, dysfunction ...


Role Of Sensation In Altered Phalanx Grip Force In Persons With Stroke, Leah R. Enders Dec 2014

Role Of Sensation In Altered Phalanx Grip Force In Persons With Stroke, Leah R. Enders

Theses and Dissertations

Many individuals experience hand impairment after stroke leading to decreased ability to perform daily living activities. Previous research studies have investigated how stroke survivors' pinch grip control differs from healthy individuals, even though many individuals can only grasp with power grip after stroke. Furthermore, many stroke survivors experience tactile sensory deficit in their paretic limb in addition to motor deficit. It is currently unknown how stroke induced tactile sensory deficit affects power grip force directional control, which is important in terms of preventing object slippage and power grip normal force generation. Additionally it is unknown if power grip could be ...


A Portable Impedance Biosensing System Based On A Laptop With Labview For Rapid Detection Of Avian Influenza Virus, Yixiang Wang Dec 2014

A Portable Impedance Biosensing System Based On A Laptop With Labview For Rapid Detection Of Avian Influenza Virus, Yixiang Wang

Theses and Dissertations

Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) H5N1 is a highly pathogenic virus found not only in birds but also in human. Rapid and sensitive detection method is needed to help prevent the spread of AIV H5N1. In this study, a portable impedance biosensing system based on a laptop with LabVIEW software was developed for detection of AIV H5N1. First, a virtual instrument was programmed with LabVIEW software to form a platform for impedance measurement, data processing and control. The audio card of a laptop was used as a function generator while a data acquisition card was used with the signal channels for ...


Development And Characterization Of An Autologous Whole Cell Breast Cancer Vaccine, Samantha Leigh Kurtz Dec 2014

Development And Characterization Of An Autologous Whole Cell Breast Cancer Vaccine, Samantha Leigh Kurtz

Theses and Dissertations

Approximately 40,000 women will die from breast cancer in the United States in 2014. About 90% of these deaths will be due to metastases, rather than the primary tumor and majority of metastases are due to the recurrence and progression of non-metastatic disease. Current adjuvant treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation, have severe side effects and may result in overtreatment and drug resistance.

Since greater than 90% of patients are diagnosed between stages I-III and have minimal residual disease after treatment, there is an opportunity to treat patients with an autologous breast cancer vaccine. Autologous vaccines under development have ...


Amphiphilic Degradable Polymer/Hydroxyapatite Composites As Smart Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds: A Dissertation, Artem B. Kutikov Nov 2014

Amphiphilic Degradable Polymer/Hydroxyapatite Composites As Smart Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds: A Dissertation, Artem B. Kutikov

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Over 600,000 bone-grafting operations are performed each year in the United States. The majority of the bone used for these surgeries comes from autografts that are limited in quantity or allografts with high failure rates. Current synthetic bone grafting materials have poor mechanical properties, handling characteristics, and bioactivity. The goal of this dissertation was to develop a clinically translatable bone tissue engineering scaffold with improved handling characteristics, bioactivity, and smart delivery modalities. We hypothesized that this could be achieved through the rational selection of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved materials that blend favorably with hydroxyapatite (HA), the principle ...


Acrolein As A Novel Therapeutic Target For Spinal Cord Injury Induced Neuropathic Pain, Jonghyuck Park Oct 2014

Acrolein As A Novel Therapeutic Target For Spinal Cord Injury Induced Neuropathic Pain, Jonghyuck Park

Open Access Dissertations

Despite years of research, post-spinal cord injury (SCI) chronic neuropathic pain remains refractory to treatment and drastically impairs quality of life for SCI victims beyond paralysis. Although inflammation and free radicals contribute to neuropathic pain in SCI, the mechanism is not completely clear. We have recently demonstrated that acrolein, a product and catalyst of lipid peroxidation, induces a vicious cycle of oxidative stress, amplifying its effects and perpetuating oxidative stress and inflammation. In the current study, we have confirmed that acrolein is elevated significantly at least two weeks post-SCI which coincides with the emergence of hyperalgesia (mechanical, cold and thermal ...


Understanding Preferred Leg Stiffness And Layered Control Strategies For Locomotion, Zhuohua H. Shen Oct 2014

Understanding Preferred Leg Stiffness And Layered Control Strategies For Locomotion, Zhuohua H. Shen

Open Access Dissertations

Despite advancement in the field of robotics, current legged robots still cannot achieve the kind of locomotion stability animals and humans have. In order to develop legged robots with greater stability, we need to better understand general locomotion dynamics and control principles. Here we demonstrate that a mathematical modeling approach could greatly enable the discovery and understanding of general locomotion principles. ^ It is found that animal leg stiffness when scaled by its weight and leg length falls in a narrow region between 7 and 27. Rarely in biology does such a universal preference exist. It is not known completely why ...


Hierarchical Cell Fluid Extracellular Matrix Interaction In Cell Microenvironment, Soham Ghosh Oct 2014

Hierarchical Cell Fluid Extracellular Matrix Interaction In Cell Microenvironment, Soham Ghosh

Open Access Dissertations

Hierarchical structural interactions between components of cell microenvironment, the extracellular matrix (ECM), cytoplasm, nucleus and fluid, are important phenomena that decide cell level physiological process and tissue engineering applications. One of those tissue engineering modalities is freezing of biomaterials, important in a wide variety of biomedical applications including cryopreservation and cryosurgeries. In order to design these applications, freezing-induced changes of the cells and tissues and corresponding biophysical mechanisms need to be well understood. Although the effects of freezing on cells in suspension have been extensively studied, the intracellular mechanics of cells embedded in the extracellular matrix (ECM) during freezing are ...


Theory For Diffusional Encounters In Heterogeneous Environments And Multivalent Electrolyte Screening Of Charged Interface, Ran Li Oct 2014

Theory For Diffusional Encounters In Heterogeneous Environments And Multivalent Electrolyte Screening Of Charged Interface, Ran Li

Open Access Dissertations

We develop a theory for encounter rates in a three-dimensional system of connected compartments. The model of connected compartments exhibits the length-scale dependent diffusion that is observed in many heterogeneous environments, such as porous catalysts and biological environments. We discovered a dimensionless number that is the dominant scaling variable and obtained, for the first time, an analytical expression for the encounter rate. The new theory generalizes the classic Smoluchowski diffusion limit to the case of heterogeneous environments. The new theory is tested using Brownian dynamics simulations.^ We also experimentally investigated the behavior of multivalent electrolyte near a charged solid-liquid interface ...


Structure-Functionality Relationship Of Collagen Scaffolds For Tissue Engineering, Seungman Park Oct 2014

Structure-Functionality Relationship Of Collagen Scaffolds For Tissue Engineering, Seungman Park

Open Access Dissertations

Tissue engineering is a promising technology that enables scientists to create artificial organs or replace damaged tissues using animal cells and other components. For successful tissue regeneration, many factors should be taken into account, however, three components are most crucial: cell, scaffold, and soluble factor(s). In order to check the functionality after regeneration of desired tissues, various approaches have been attempted, depending on the physical, biological, and chemical properties of the tissues. Recently, the importance of the extracellular matrix (ECM) microstructure is being considered to be important in this regard. The ECM is closely associated with various functional properties ...


Intranuclear Strain Measured By Iterative Warping In Cells Under Mechanical And Osmotic Stress, Jonathan T Henderson Oct 2014

Intranuclear Strain Measured By Iterative Warping In Cells Under Mechanical And Osmotic Stress, Jonathan T Henderson

Open Access Dissertations

The nucleus is a membrane bound organelle and regulation center for gene expression in the cell. Mechanical forces transfer to the nucleus directly and indirectly through specific cellular cytoskeletal structures and pathways. There is increasing evidence that the transferred forces to the nucleus orchestrate gene expression activity. Methods to characterize nuclear mechanics typically study isolated cells or cells embedded in 3D gel matrices. Often report only aspect ratio and volume changes, measures that oversimplify the inherent complexity of internal strain patterns. This presents technical challenges to simultaneously observe small scale nuclear mechanics and gene expression levels inside the nuclei of ...


Advances In Image Acquisition And Filtering For Mri Neuroimaging At 7 Tesla, Andrew T. Curtis Sep 2014

Advances In Image Acquisition And Filtering For Mri Neuroimaging At 7 Tesla, Andrew T. Curtis

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Performing magnetic resonance imaging at high magnetic field strength promises many improvements over low fields that are of direct benefit in functional neuroimaging. This includes the possibility of improved signal-to-noise levels, and increased BOLD functional contrast and spatial specificity. However, human MRI at 7T and above suffers from unique engineering challenges that limit the achievable gains. In this thesis, three technological developments are introduced, all of which address separate issues associated with functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging at very high magnetic field strengths.

First, the image homogeneity problem is addressed by investigating methods of RF shimming — modifying the excitation portion of ...


Impedance Biosensors For The Rapid Detection Of Viral And Bacterial Pathogens Using Avian Influenza Virus Subtypes H5n1 And H7n2 And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 As Model Targets, Jacob David Lum Aug 2014

Impedance Biosensors For The Rapid Detection Of Viral And Bacterial Pathogens Using Avian Influenza Virus Subtypes H5n1 And H7n2 And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 As Model Targets, Jacob David Lum

Theses and Dissertations

This research investigated impedance biosensors for the rapid detection of viral and bacterial pathogens using avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5N1 and H7N2 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 as the model targets, which were chosen due to their impact on the agricultural and food industries. For the detection of AIV H7N2, a single stranded DNA aptamer was selected using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). The selected aptamer and a previously selected aptamer against AIV H5N1 were used in a microfluidics chip with an embedded interdigitated array microelectrode to fabricate an impedance biosensor for specific detection of AIV ...


Construction Of 3d Biomimetic Tissue Niches For Directing Pancreatic Lineage Differentiation Of Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Weiwei Wang Aug 2014

Construction Of 3d Biomimetic Tissue Niches For Directing Pancreatic Lineage Differentiation Of Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Weiwei Wang

Theses and Dissertations

The potential of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to differentiate into insulin producing beta cells offers great hope for cell-based therapy for diabetes treatment. However, in vitro pancreatic differentiation of hESCs remains challenging. In the past decade, most protocols for differentiating pancreatic cells have been focused on the use of signaling molecule cocktails on 2D substrates. Studies on embryonic development biology strongly suggest that extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a critical role on hESCs behavior. In this work, we first established a 3D collagen scaffold culture system for hESCs differentiating into definitive endoderm (DE), which is the first and most important ...


Human Metaphase Chromosome Analysis Using Image Processing, Akila M.S Subasinghe Arachchige Jul 2014

Human Metaphase Chromosome Analysis Using Image Processing, Akila M.S Subasinghe Arachchige

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Development of an effective human metaphase chromosome analysis algorithm can optimize expert time usage by increasing the efficiency of many clinical diagnosis processes. Although many methods exist in the literature, they are only applicable for limited morphological variations and are specific to the staining method used during cell preparation. They are also highly influenced by irregular chromosome boundaries as well as the presence of artifacts such as premature sister chromatid separation.

Therefore an algorithm is proposed in this research which can operate with any morphological variation of the chromosome across images from multiple staining methods. The proposed algorithm is capable ...


Development Of An Efficient Human Hepatocyte Culture Platform For Assessing Novel Therapeutic Efficacy Against Plasmodium Liver Parasites, Steven Patrick Maher Jul 2014

Development Of An Efficient Human Hepatocyte Culture Platform For Assessing Novel Therapeutic Efficacy Against Plasmodium Liver Parasites, Steven Patrick Maher

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Malaria is a critical and global public health problem, affecting over 200 million people every year, resulting in over 500,000 deaths. A vaccine is not currently available and only one drug, primaquine, is effective against the dormant stages of Plasmodium vivax. Preclinical assessment of novel therapeutic drugs and vaccines is hampered by the lack of an in vitro liver model for P. falciparum and P. vivax. To provide a stable human hepatocyte-based culture platform for parasite development, we engineered a microfluidic bilayer device capable of both simple and complex culture methods, including perfusion and co-culture, to better understand the ...


Particle Swarm Optimization Using Multiple Neighborhood Connectivity And Winner Take All Activation Applied To Biophysical Models Of Inferior Colliculus Neurons, Brandon S. Coventry Jul 2014

Particle Swarm Optimization Using Multiple Neighborhood Connectivity And Winner Take All Activation Applied To Biophysical Models Of Inferior Colliculus Neurons, Brandon S. Coventry

Open Access Theses

Age-related hearing loss is a prevalent neurological disorder, affecting as many as 63% of adults over the age of 70. The inability to hear and understand speech is a cause of much distress in aged individuals and is becoming a major public health concern as age-related hearing loss has also been correlated with other neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's dementia. The Inferior Colliculus (IC) is a major integrative auditory center, receiving excitatory and inhibitory inputs from several brainstem nuclei. This complex balance of excitation and inhibition gives rise to complex neural responses, which are measured in terms of firing ...


Plasmonic Optical Sensors: Performance Analysis And Engineering Towards Biosensing, Peipei Jia Jun 2014

Plasmonic Optical Sensors: Performance Analysis And Engineering Towards Biosensing, Peipei Jia

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing for quantitative analysis of chemical reactions and biological interactions has become one of the most promising applications of plasmonics. This thesis focuses on performance analysis for plasmonic sensors and implementation of plamonic optical sensors with novel nanofabrication techniques.

A universal performance analysis model is established for general two-dimensional plasmonic sensors. This model is based on the fundamental facts of surface plasmon theory. The sensitivity only depends on excitation light wavelength as well as dielectric properties of metal and dielectrics. The expression involves no structure-specified parameters, which validates this formula in broad cases of periodic, quasiperiodic ...


Smooth Muscle Cell Organization In The Stem Region Of The Gracilis Collateral Circulation, Amanda Krall Jun 2014

Smooth Muscle Cell Organization In The Stem Region Of The Gracilis Collateral Circulation, Amanda Krall

Biomedical Engineering

Many patients who suffer from the ischemic Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease (PAOD) experience intermittent claudication, which can be attributed to impaired vasodilation. Collateral vessels are the primary site of resistance to blood flow downstream; therefore maximizing vasodilation in collaterals is crucial for efficient circulation. Collaterals function as natural bypasses around the occluded arteries and the increase in flow into these vessels causes them to outwardly remodel into conduit vessels. However, functional vasodilation in the stem region of collateral vessels is impaired at day 7 following femoral ligation, which can be attributed to smooth muscle cell malfunction. However, the increase in ...


Developent Of A Phospholipid Encapsulation Process For Quantum Dots To Be Used In Biologic Applications, Logan Grimes Jun 2014

Developent Of A Phospholipid Encapsulation Process For Quantum Dots To Be Used In Biologic Applications, Logan Grimes

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The American Cancer Society predicts that 1,665,540 people will be diagnosed with cancer, and 585,720 people will die from cancer in 2014. One of the most common types of cancer in the United States is skin cancer. Melanoma alone is predicted to account for 10,000 of the cancer related deaths in 2014. As a highly mobile and aggressive form of cancer, melanoma is difficult to fight once it has metastasized through the body. Early detection in such varieties of cancer is critical in improving survival rates in afflicted patients. Present methods of detection rely on visual ...


Tht And Capillary Electrophoresis To Monitor The Effects Of Solutions Conditions On Amylin Aggregation, Michael May May 2014

Tht And Capillary Electrophoresis To Monitor The Effects Of Solutions Conditions On Amylin Aggregation, Michael May

Theses and Dissertations

Amylin (hIAPP) aggregates have been found in 90% of patients with type II diabetes at autopsy, and are suspected to play a role in the death of islet &beta-cells1. However, this aggregation process is not well understood. Here, we explore methods that utilize capillary electrophoresis (CE) as a means to better understand amylin's aggregation process.

We examined the effects of solutions conditions: agitation, pH, salt, and temperature on amylin aggregation using Thioflavin T, dot blots, and capillary electrophoresis. Thiofalvin T was used to predict the lag time to &beta-sheet formation. Our results indicated all variables with the exception ...


Comparing Virus Ultrafiltration Of Bacteriophages With Filtration Of Minute Virus Of Mice, Kent Smith May 2014

Comparing Virus Ultrafiltration Of Bacteriophages With Filtration Of Minute Virus Of Mice, Kent Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Industrial production of protein therapeutics demand rigorous testing and clearance of viruses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration dictate the purity of pharmaceuticals with regards to viral contamination. As this testing is time consuming and expensive using mammalian cells and viruses, bacteriophages may provide a faster and cheaper alternative for membrane filtration processes. We used ultrafiltration membranes to filter protein solutions with viruses. Two bacteriophages were tested against membranes with two different pore sizes. These membranes were then tested by inverting the membrane's orientation. Flux measurements and log virus removal data were taken. Flux and log virus removal ...


Oriented Collagen And Applications Of Waveguide Evanescent Field Scattering (Wefs) Microscopy, Qamrun Nahar Apr 2014

Oriented Collagen And Applications Of Waveguide Evanescent Field Scattering (Wefs) Microscopy, Qamrun Nahar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis, Waveguide Evanescent Field Scattering (WEFS) microscopy is developed as a non-invasive, label-free live cell imaging technique. This new high-contrast imaging can be employed to study the first hundred nanometers from the surface as it utilizes the evanescent field of a waveguide as the illumination source. Previously, waveguide evanescent field fluorescence (WEFF) microscopy was developed as a fluorescence imaging technique comparable to the total internal reflection fluorescent (TIRF) microscopy. Both the WEFF and WEFS technique utilizes the same fundamental concepts except in WEFS microscopy imaging is accomplished without the application of any fluorescent labeling. In this work, bacterial ...


Combined Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence-Surface Acoustic Wave (Mef-Saw) Biosensor, Samuel Morrill Mar 2014

Combined Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence-Surface Acoustic Wave (Mef-Saw) Biosensor, Samuel Morrill

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Immunofluorescence assays are capable of both detecting the amount of a protein and the location of the protein within a cell or tissue section. Unfortunately, the traditional technique is not capable of detecting concentrations on the nanoscale. Also, the technique suffers from non-specific attachment, which can cause false-positives, as well as photobleaching when detecting lower concentrations is attempted. There is also a time constraint problem since the technique can take from many hours to a few days in some cases.

In this work, metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) is used to lower the detection limit and reduce photobleaching. Unfortunately, MEF also increases ...


Deregulation Of Fatty Acid Transport In Escherichia Coli For Enhanced Control Of Biodegradable Plastic Copolymer Production, Ryan A. Scheel Jan 2014

Deregulation Of Fatty Acid Transport In Escherichia Coli For Enhanced Control Of Biodegradable Plastic Copolymer Production, Ryan A. Scheel

Honors Theses

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are one possible alternative for petroleum-based plastics that have been shown to be produced effectively in bacterial systems utilizing fatty acids. The global regulatory genes arcA and ompR are known to regulate steps involved in fatty acid transport and metabolism, making them promising candidates for research. In this study, we deleted the arcA and ompR genes in order to deregulate fatty acid uptake. To measure the effect of these deletions, copolymers were produced using recombinant E. coli and the repeating unit composition was analyzed. Residual fatty acid levels in media were also measured to determine a difference in ...


Investigation Of Cardiac Electrophysiology In Human Ventricular Tissue, Kathleen Brownson Jan 2014

Investigation Of Cardiac Electrophysiology In Human Ventricular Tissue, Kathleen Brownson

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Individuals with cardiomyopathy are at higher risk to die from sudden cardiac arrest than those with non-failing (NF) hearts. This study examined the differences in electrical properties of failing and NF human hearts in terms of cardiac memory through explicit control of diastolic intervals in a sinusoidal fashion, restitution of action potential duration (APD) through standard and dynamic pacing protocols, maximum rate of depolarization and APD alternans. Recordings of transmembrane potentials were made in tissues extracted from patients with heart failure and one donor NF heart. Computational simulations were performed using the O’Hara Rudy model for generating surrogates of ...


Real-Time Single-Molecule Observations Of Proteins At The Solid-Liquid Interface, Blake Brianna Langdon Jan 2014

Real-Time Single-Molecule Observations Of Proteins At The Solid-Liquid Interface, Blake Brianna Langdon

Chemical & Biological Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Non-specific protein adsorption to solid surfaces is pervasive and observed across a broad spectrum of applications including biomaterials, separations, pharmaceuticals, and biosensing. Despite great interest in and considerable literature dedicated to the phenomena, a mechanistic understanding of this complex phenomena is lacking and remains controversial, partially due to the limits of ensemble-averaging techniques used to study it. Single-molecule tracking (SMT) methods allow us to study distinct protein dynamics (e.g. adsorption, desorption, diffusion, and intermolecular associations) on a molecule-by-molecule basis revealing the protein population and spatial heterogeneity inherent in protein interfacial behavior. By employing single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy ...


A Novel Selection Technology For The Discovery Of High-Affinity Human Proteins, David Busha Jan 2014

A Novel Selection Technology For The Discovery Of High-Affinity Human Proteins, David Busha

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Proteins that bind with high-affinity to cellular targets can be useful therapeutic treatments. High-throughput affinity screening of large protein libraries is often more successful at discovering novel high-affinity proteins than rational-design approaches. Display techniques such and phage and yeast display are commonly used in this screening process. However, bacteria and yeast cells can misfold or otherwise inappropriately express mammalian and human proteins due to differences in codon usage, protein folding machinery and post-translational modifications. Therefore, a display system that is entirely based in human cells could aid in the discovery of novel, high-affinity proteins. No such system has been described ...


Were Neandertal Humeri Adapted For Spear Thrusting Or Throwing? A Finite Element Study, Michael Anthony Berthaume Jan 2014

Were Neandertal Humeri Adapted For Spear Thrusting Or Throwing? A Finite Element Study, Michael Anthony Berthaume

Masters Theses

An ongoing debate concerning Neandertal ecology is whether or not they utilized long range weaponry. The anteroposteriorly expanded cross-section of Neandertal humeri have led some to argue they thrusted their weapons, while the rounder cross-section of Late Upper Paleolithic modern human humeri suggests they threw their weapons. We test the hypothesis that Neandertal humeri were built to resist strains engendered by thrusting rather than throwing using finite element models of one Neandertal, one Early Upper Paleolithic (EUP) human and three recent human humeri, representing a range of cross-sectional shapes and sizes. Electromyography and kinematic data and articulated skeletons were used ...