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Articles 1 - 13 of 13

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Fractionation And Characterization Of Lignin Streams From Genetically Engineered Switchgrass, Enshi Liu Jan 2017

Fractionation And Characterization Of Lignin Streams From Genetically Engineered Switchgrass, Enshi Liu

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

Development of biomass feedstocks with desirable traits for cost-effective conversion is one of the main focus areas in biofuels research. As suggested by techno-economic analyses, the success of a lignocellulose-based biorefinery largely relies on the utilization of lignin to generate value-added products, i.e. fuels and chemicals. The fate of lignin and its structural/compositional changes during pretreatment have received increasing attention; however, the effect of genetic modification on the fractionation, depolymerization and catalytic upgrading of lignin from genetically engineered plants is not well understood. This study aims to fractionate and characterize the lignin streams from a wild-type and two ...


Automated Solid-Substrate Cultivation Of The Anaerobic Bacterium Clostridium Thermocellum, Mathew J. Ruwaya Jan 2016

Automated Solid-Substrate Cultivation Of The Anaerobic Bacterium Clostridium Thermocellum, Mathew J. Ruwaya

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

The organism Clostridium thermocellum grows on cellulosic substrates and produces ethanol, acetate, lactate, formic acid, and CO2. The organic acids produced alter the growth environment in which the bacteria grows and ultimately inhibit bacterial growth. One method which has been used successfully to maintain the system at acceptable growth conditions is to intermittently flush out the spent media and metabolic products and replace with new fermentation media. Our goal was to design and build an automated system that will automatically flush the spent media from the growing culture and resupply new media without manual intervention. An automated control system ...


Development And Application Of Gadolinium Free Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Fibrosis Imaging For Multiscale Study Of Heart Failure In Patients With End Stage Renal Disease, Tori A. Stromp Jan 2016

Development And Application Of Gadolinium Free Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Fibrosis Imaging For Multiscale Study Of Heart Failure In Patients With End Stage Renal Disease, Tori A. Stromp

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a powerful tool to noninvasively image ventricular fibrosis. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR identifies focal and, with T1 mapping, diffuse fibrosis. Despite prevalent cardiac fibrosis and heart failure, patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) are excluded from LGE. Absence of a suitable diagnostic has limited the understanding of heart failure and obstructed development of therapies in the setting of ESRD. A quantitative, gadolinium free fibrosis detection method could overcome this critical barrier, propelling the advancement of diagnostic, monitoring, and therapy options. This project describes the development of a gadolinium free CMR technique and application ...


Experimental-Computational Analysis Of Vigilance Dynamics For Applications In Sleep And Epilepsy, Farid Yaghouby Jan 2015

Experimental-Computational Analysis Of Vigilance Dynamics For Applications In Sleep And Epilepsy, Farid Yaghouby

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. Sleep problems can cooccur with epilepsy, and adversely affect seizure diagnosis and treatment. In fact, the relationship between sleep and seizures in individuals with epilepsy is a complex one. Seizures disturb sleep and sleep deprivation aggravates seizures. Antiepileptic drugs may also impair sleep quality at the cost of controlling seizures. In general, particular vigilance states may inhibit or facilitate seizure generation, and changes in vigilance state can affect the predictability of seizures. A clear understanding of sleep-seizure interactions will therefore benefit epilepsy care providers and improve quality of life in patients ...


Up Regulation Of Heat Shock Protein 70b (Hsp70b) And Ssa1 In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Via Hsp70a-Rbcs2 And Psad Promoter, B. Kirtley Amos Jan 2015

Up Regulation Of Heat Shock Protein 70b (Hsp70b) And Ssa1 In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Via Hsp70a-Rbcs2 And Psad Promoter, B. Kirtley Amos

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

Fabrication of effective algae cultivation systems adjacent to coal-fired power plants to fixate waste CO2 would represent a sizable step towards achieving a carbon neutral energy cycle. However, emission gas would elevate the algal cultivation system temperature and decreases its pH without expensive preprocessing. Increased temperature and acidity constitutes a profound stress on the algae. Although stressed algae produce heat shock proteins (HSPs) that promote protein folding and protect against stress, the ordinary biological response is insufficient to protect against coal flue gas. Experimental upregulation of HSPs could make algae respond to the stress caused by high temperatures and ...


Target-Directed Biosynthetic Evolution: Redirecting Plant Evolution To Genomically Optimize A Plant’S Pharmacological Profile, Dustin Paul Brown Jan 2015

Target-Directed Biosynthetic Evolution: Redirecting Plant Evolution To Genomically Optimize A Plant’S Pharmacological Profile, Dustin Paul Brown

Theses and Dissertations--Neuroscience

The dissertation describes a novel method for plant drug discovery based on mutation and selection of plant cells. Despite the industry focus on chemical synthesis, plants remain a source of potent and complex bioactive metabolites. Many of these have evolved as defensive compounds targeted on key proteins in the CNS of herbivorous insects, for example the insect dopamine transporter (DAT). Because of homology with the human DAT protein some of these metabolites have high abuse potential, but others may be valuable in treating drug dependence. This dissertation redirects the evolution of a native Lobelia species toward metabolites with greater activity ...


Inhalable Nanocomposites And Anticancer Agents For Cancer Therapy, Nathanael A. Stocke Jan 2015

Inhalable Nanocomposites And Anticancer Agents For Cancer Therapy, Nathanael A. Stocke

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Cancer is designated as the leading cause of mortality worldwide and lung cancer is responsible for nearly 30% of all cancer related deaths. Over the last few decades mortality rates have only marginally increased and rates of recurrence remain high. These factors, among others, suggest the need for more innovative treatment modalities in lung cancer therapy. Targeted pulmonary delivery is well established for treating pulmonary diseases such as asthma and provides a promising platform for lung cancer therapy. Increasing local deposition of anticancer agents (ACAs) and reducing systemic exposure of these toxic moieties could lead to better therapeutic outcomes and ...


Investigation Of Cardiac Electrophysiology In Human Ventricular Tissue, Kathleen Brownson Jan 2014

Investigation Of Cardiac Electrophysiology In Human Ventricular Tissue, Kathleen Brownson

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Individuals with cardiomyopathy are at higher risk to die from sudden cardiac arrest than those with non-failing (NF) hearts. This study examined the differences in electrical properties of failing and NF human hearts in terms of cardiac memory through explicit control of diastolic intervals in a sinusoidal fashion, restitution of action potential duration (APD) through standard and dynamic pacing protocols, maximum rate of depolarization and APD alternans. Recordings of transmembrane potentials were made in tissues extracted from patients with heart failure and one donor NF heart. Computational simulations were performed using the O’Hara Rudy model for generating surrogates of ...


Noninvasive Near-Infrared Diffuse Optical Monitoring Of Cerebral Hemodynamics And Autoregulation, Ran Cheng Jan 2013

Noninvasive Near-Infrared Diffuse Optical Monitoring Of Cerebral Hemodynamics And Autoregulation, Ran Cheng

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Many cerebral diseases are associated with abnormal cerebral hemodynamics and impaired cerebral autoregulation (CA). CA is a mechanism to maintain cerebral blood flow (CBF) stable when mean arterial pressure (MAP) fluctuates. Evaluating these abnormalities requires direct measurements of cerebral hemodynamics and MAP. Several near-infrared diffuse optical instruments have been developed in our laboratory for hemodynamic measurements including near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), hybrid NIRS/DCS, and dual-wavelength DCS flow-oximeter. We utilized these noninvasive technologies to quantify CBF and cerebral oxygenation in different populations under different physiological conditions/manipulations. A commercial finger plethysmograph was used to continuously monitor MAP ...


The Effects Of Hydrostatic Pressure On Early Endothelial Tubulogenic Processes, Ryan M. Underwood Jan 2013

The Effects Of Hydrostatic Pressure On Early Endothelial Tubulogenic Processes, Ryan M. Underwood

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

The effects of mechanical forces on endothelial cell function and behavior are well documented, but have not been fully characterized. Specifically, fluid pressure has been shown to elicit physical and chemical responses known to be involved in the initiation and progression of endothelial cell-mediated vascularization. Central to the process of vascularization is the formation of tube-like structures. This process—tubulogenesis—is essential to both the physiological and pathological growth of tissues. Given the known effects of pressure on endothelial cells and its ubiquitous presence in the vasculature, we investigated pressure as a magnitude-dependent parameter for the regulation of endothelial tubulogenic ...


Protein Based Biomimetic Approachs To Surface Hemocompatibility And Biocompatibility Enhancement, Matthew Thomas Dickerson Jan 2012

Protein Based Biomimetic Approachs To Surface Hemocompatibility And Biocompatibility Enhancement, Matthew Thomas Dickerson

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

T. pallidum can survive a primary immune response and continue growing in the host for an extended period of time. T. pallidum is thought to bind serum fibronectin (FN) through Tp0483 on the surface to obscure antigens. A Tp0483 fragment (rTp0483) was adsorbed onto functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with FN. FN capture by adsorbed rTp0483 depended greatly on surface chemistry with COO- groups being best for FN binding. Hemocompatibility was determined by analysis of plasma protein adsorption, intrinsic pathway activation, and platelet activation. rTp0483+FN bound an equal or lesser amount of fibrinogen (Fg), human serum albumin (HSA), and factor ...


Bifunctional Bisphosphonates For Delivering Biomolecules To Bone, Jivan N. Yewle Jan 2012

Bifunctional Bisphosphonates For Delivering Biomolecules To Bone, Jivan N. Yewle

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Active targeting with controlled delivery of therapeutic agents to bone is an ideal approach for treatment of several bone diseases. Since bisphosphonates (BPs) are known to have high affinity to bone mineral and are being widely used in treatment of osteoporosis, they are well-suited for drug targeting to bone. For this purpose, bifunctional hydrazine-bisphosphonates (HBPs) with spacers of various lengths and lipophilicity were synthesized and studied. Crystal growth inhibition assays demonstrated that the HBPs with shorter spacers bound more strongly to bone mineral, hydroxyapatite (HA), than did alendronate. HBPs were also demonstrated to be non-toxic to MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. The targeted ...


Modeling And Quantitative Analysis Of White Matter Fiber Tracts In Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Xuwei Liang Jan 2011

Modeling And Quantitative Analysis Of White Matter Fiber Tracts In Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Xuwei Liang

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique to record incoherent motion of water molecules and has been used to detect micro structural white matter alterations in clinical studies to explore certain brain disorders. A variety of DTI based techniques for detecting brain disorders and facilitating clinical group analysis have been developed in the past few years. However, there are two crucial issues that have great impacts on the performance of those algorithms. One is that brain neural pathways appear in complicated 3D structures which are inappropriate and inaccurate to be approximated by simple 2D structures ...