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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Directed Acyclic Graph Continuous Max-Flow Image Segmentation For Unconstrained Label Orderings, John Sh Baxter, Martin Rajchl, A. Jonathan Mcleod, Jing Yuan, Terry M. Peters Feb 2017

Directed Acyclic Graph Continuous Max-Flow Image Segmentation For Unconstrained Label Orderings, John Sh Baxter, Martin Rajchl, A. Jonathan Mcleod, Jing Yuan, Terry M. Peters

Robarts Imaging Publications

Label ordering, the specification of subset–superset relationships for segmentation labels, has been of increasing interest in image segmentation as they allow for complex regions to be represented as a collection of simple parts. Recent advances in continuous max-flow segmentation have widely expanded the possible label orderings from binary background/foreground problems to extendable frameworks in which the label ordering can be specified. This article presents Directed Acyclic Graph Max-Flow image segmentation which is flexible enough to incorporate any label ordering without constraints. This framework uses augmented Lagrangian multipliers and primal–dual optimization to develop a highly parallelized solver implemented ...


Shape Complexes: The Intersection Of Label Orderings And Star Convexity Constraints In Continuous Max-Flow Medical Image Segmentation., John S H Baxter, Jiro Inoue, Maria Drangova, Terry M Peters Oct 2016

Shape Complexes: The Intersection Of Label Orderings And Star Convexity Constraints In Continuous Max-Flow Medical Image Segmentation., John S H Baxter, Jiro Inoue, Maria Drangova, Terry M Peters

Robarts Imaging Publications

Optimization-based segmentation approaches deriving from discrete graph-cuts and continuous max-flow have become increasingly nuanced, allowing for topological and geometric constraints on the resulting segmentation while retaining global optimality. However, these two considerations, topological and geometric, have yet to be combined in a unified manner. The concept of "shape complexes," which combine geodesic star convexity with extendable continuous max-flow solvers, is presented. These shape complexes allow more complicated shapes to be created through the use of multiple labels and super-labels, with geodesic star convexity governed by a topological ordering. These problems can be optimized using extendable continuous max-flow solvers. Previous approaches ...


Diagnostic Quality Assessment Of Compressed Sensing Accelerated Magnetic Resonance Neuroimaging., Mohammad Kayvanrad, Amy Lin, Rohit Joshi, Jack Chiu, Terry Peters Aug 2016

Diagnostic Quality Assessment Of Compressed Sensing Accelerated Magnetic Resonance Neuroimaging., Mohammad Kayvanrad, Amy Lin, Rohit Joshi, Jack Chiu, Terry Peters

Robarts Imaging Publications

PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of compressed sensing (CS) reconstructions for specific clinical magnetic resonance neuroimaging applications beyond more conventional acceleration techniques such as parallel imaging (PI) and low-resolution acquisitions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Raw k-space data were acquired from five healthy volunteers on a 3T scanner using a 32-channel head coil using T2 -FLAIR, FIESTA-C, time of flight (TOF), and spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) sequences. In a series of blinded studies, three radiologists independently evaluated CS, PI (GRAPPA), and low-resolution images at up to 5× accelerations. Synthetic T2 -FLAIR images with artificial lesions were used to assess diagnostic accuracy for ...


Optimization-Based Interactive Segmentation Interface For Multiregion Problems., John S H Baxter, Martin Rajchl, Terry M Peters, Elvis C S Chen Apr 2016

Optimization-Based Interactive Segmentation Interface For Multiregion Problems., John S H Baxter, Martin Rajchl, Terry M Peters, Elvis C S Chen

Robarts Imaging Publications

Interactive segmentation is becoming of increasing interest to the medical imaging community in that it combines the positive aspects of both manual and automated segmentation. However, general-purpose tools have been lacking in terms of segmenting multiple regions simultaneously with a high degree of coupling between groups of labels. Hierarchical max-flow segmentation has taken advantage of this coupling for individual applications, but until recently, these algorithms were constrained to a particular hierarchy and could not be considered general-purpose. In a generalized form, the hierarchy for any given segmentation problem is specified in run-time, allowing different hierarchies to be quickly explored. We ...


Investigation Of Hippocampal Substructures In Focal Temporal Lobe Epilepsy With And Without Hippocampal Sclerosis At 7t., Brendan G Santyr, Maged Goubran, Jonathan C Lau, Benjamin Y M Kwan, Fateme Salehi, Donald H Lee, Seyed M Mirsattari, Jorge G Burneo, David A Steven, Andrew G Parrent, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Robert R Hammond, Terry M Peters, Ali R Khan Jan 2016

Investigation Of Hippocampal Substructures In Focal Temporal Lobe Epilepsy With And Without Hippocampal Sclerosis At 7t., Brendan G Santyr, Maged Goubran, Jonathan C Lau, Benjamin Y M Kwan, Fateme Salehi, Donald H Lee, Seyed M Mirsattari, Jorge G Burneo, David A Steven, Andrew G Parrent, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Robert R Hammond, Terry M Peters, Ali R Khan

Robarts Imaging Publications

PURPOSE: To provide a more detailed investigation of hippocampal subfields using 7T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the identification of hippocampal sclerosis in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients (n = 13) with drug-resistant TLE previously identified by conventional imaging as having hippocampal sclerosis (HS) or not (nine without HS, four HS) and 20 age-matched healthy controls were scanned and compared using a 7T MRI protocol. Using a manual segmentation scheme to delineate hippocampal subfields, subfield-specific volume changes and apparent transverse relaxation rate ( R2*) were studied between the two groups. In addition, qualitative assessment at 7T and clinical outcomes ...


Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Histology Correlation In The Neocortex In Temporal Lobe Epilepsy., Maged Goubran, Robert R Hammond, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Jorge G Burneo, Seyed Mirsattari, David A Steven, Andrew G Parrent, Terry M Peters, Ali R Khan Jan 2015

Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Histology Correlation In The Neocortex In Temporal Lobe Epilepsy., Maged Goubran, Robert R Hammond, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Jorge G Burneo, Seyed Mirsattari, David A Steven, Andrew G Parrent, Terry M Peters, Ali R Khan

Robarts Imaging Publications

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the histopathological correlates of quantitative relaxometry and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and to determine their efficacy in epileptogenic lesion detection for preoperative evaluation of focal epilepsy.

METHODS: We correlated quantitative relaxometry and DTI with histological features of neuronal density and morphology in 55 regions of the temporal lobe neocortex, selected from 13 patients who underwent epilepsy surgery. We made use of a validated nonrigid image registration protocol to obtain accurate correspondences between in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and histology images.

RESULTS: We found T1 to be a predictor of neuronal density in the neocortical gray matter (GM ...


In Vivo Mri Signatures Of Hippocampal Subfield Pathology In Intractable Epilepsy., Maged Goubran, Boris C Bernhardt, Diego Cantor-Rivera, Jonathan C Lau, Charlotte Blinston, Robert R Hammond, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Jorge G Burneo, Seyed M Mirsattari, David A Steven, Andrew G Parrent, Andrea Bernasconi, Neda Bernasconi, Terry M Peters, Ali R Khan Jan 2015

In Vivo Mri Signatures Of Hippocampal Subfield Pathology In Intractable Epilepsy., Maged Goubran, Boris C Bernhardt, Diego Cantor-Rivera, Jonathan C Lau, Charlotte Blinston, Robert R Hammond, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Jorge G Burneo, Seyed M Mirsattari, David A Steven, Andrew G Parrent, Andrea Bernasconi, Neda Bernasconi, Terry M Peters, Ali R Khan

Robarts Imaging Publications

OBJECTIVES: Our aim is to assess the subfield-specific histopathological correlates of hippocampal volume and intensity changes (T1, T2) as well as diff!usion MRI markers in TLE, and investigate the efficacy of quantitative MRI measures in predicting histopathology in vivo.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We correlated in vivo volumetry, T2 signal, quantitative T1 mapping, as well as diffusion MRI parameters with histological features of hippocampal sclerosis in a subfield-specific manner. We made use of on an advanced co-registration pipeline that provided a seamless integration of preoperative 3 T MRI with postoperative histopathological data, on which metrics of cell loss and gliosis were ...


Registration Of In-Vivo To Ex-Vivo Mri Of Surgically Resected Specimens: A Pipeline For Histology To In-Vivo Registration., Maged Goubran, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Robert R Hammond, Catherine Currie, Jorge G Burneo, Andrew G Parrent, Terry M Peters, Ali R Khan Jan 2015

Registration Of In-Vivo To Ex-Vivo Mri Of Surgically Resected Specimens: A Pipeline For Histology To In-Vivo Registration., Maged Goubran, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Robert R Hammond, Catherine Currie, Jorge G Burneo, Andrew G Parrent, Terry M Peters, Ali R Khan

Robarts Imaging Publications

BACKGROUND: Advances in MRI have the potential to improve surgical treatment of epilepsy through improved identification and delineation of lesions. However, validation is currently needed to investigate histopathological correlates of these new imaging techniques. The purpose of this work is to develop and evaluate a protocol for deformable image registration of in-vivo to ex-vivo resected brain specimen MRI. This protocol, in conjunction with our previous work on ex-vivo to histology registration, completes a registration pipeline for histology to in-vivo MRI, enabling voxel-based validation of novel and existing MRI techniques with histopathology.

NEW METHOD: A combination of image-based and landmark-based 3D ...


Quantitative Relaxometry And Diffusion Mri For Lateralization In Mts And Non-Mts Temporal Lobe Epilepsy., Ali R Khan, Maged Goubran, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Robert R Hammond, Jorge G Burneo, Andrew G Parrent, Terry M Peters Mar 2014

Quantitative Relaxometry And Diffusion Mri For Lateralization In Mts And Non-Mts Temporal Lobe Epilepsy., Ali R Khan, Maged Goubran, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Robert R Hammond, Jorge G Burneo, Andrew G Parrent, Terry M Peters

Robarts Imaging Publications

We developed novel methodology for investigating the use of quantitative relaxometry (T1 and T2) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for lateralization in temporal lobe epilepsy. Patients with mesial temporal sclerosis confirmed by pathology (N=8) and non-MTS unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (N=6) were compared against healthy controls (N=19) using voxel-based analysis restricted to the anterior temporal lobes, and laterality indices for each MRI metric (T1, T2, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, axial and radial diffusivities) were computed based on the proportion of significant voxels on each side. The diffusivity metrics were the most lateralizing MRI metrics in MTS ...


Stationary Wavelet Transform For Under-Sampled Mri Reconstruction., Mohammad H Kayvanrad, A Jonathan Mcleod, John S H Baxter, Charles A Mckenzie, Terry M Peters Jan 2014

Stationary Wavelet Transform For Under-Sampled Mri Reconstruction., Mohammad H Kayvanrad, A Jonathan Mcleod, John S H Baxter, Charles A Mckenzie, Terry M Peters

Robarts Imaging Publications

In addition to coil sensitivity data (parallel imaging), sparsity constraints are often used as an additional lp-penalty for under-sampled MRI reconstruction (compressed sensing). Penalizing the traditional decimated wavelet transform (DWT) coefficients, however, results in visual pseudo-Gibbs artifacts, some of which are attributed to the lack of translation invariance of the wavelet basis. We show that these artifacts can be greatly reduced by penalizing the translation-invariant stationary wavelet transform (SWT) coefficients. This holds with various additional reconstruction constraints, including coil sensitivity profiles and total variation. Additionally, SWT reconstructions result in lower error values and faster convergence compared to DWT. These concepts ...


Detection Of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Using Support Vector Machines In Multi-Parametric Quantitative Mr Imaging., Diego Cantor-Rivera, Ali R Khan, Maged Goubran, Seyed M Mirsattari, Terry M Peters Jan 2014

Detection Of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Using Support Vector Machines In Multi-Parametric Quantitative Mr Imaging., Diego Cantor-Rivera, Ali R Khan, Maged Goubran, Seyed M Mirsattari, Terry M Peters

Robarts Imaging Publications

The detection of MRI abnormalities that can be associated to seizures in the study of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a challenging task. In many cases, patients with a record of epileptic activity do not present any discernible MRI findings. In this domain, we propose a method that combines quantitative relaxometry and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with support vector machines (SVM) aiming to improve TLE detection. The main contribution of this work is two-fold: on one hand, the feature selection process, principal component analysis (PCA) transformations of the feature space, and SVM parameterization are analyzed as factors constituting a classification ...


Image Registration Of Ex-Vivo Mri To Sparsely Sectioned Histology Of Hippocampal And Neocortical Temporal Lobe Specimens., Maged Goubran, Cathie Crukley, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Terence M Peters, Ali R Khan Dec 2013

Image Registration Of Ex-Vivo Mri To Sparsely Sectioned Histology Of Hippocampal And Neocortical Temporal Lobe Specimens., Maged Goubran, Cathie Crukley, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Terence M Peters, Ali R Khan

Robarts Imaging Publications

Intractable or drug-resistant epilepsy occurs in up to 30% of epilepsy patients, with many of these patients undergoing surgical excision of the affected brain region to achieve seizure control. Recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences and analysis techniques have the potential to detect abnormalities not identified with diagnostic MRI protocols. Prospective studies involving pre-operative imaging and collection of surgically-resected tissue provide a unique opportunity for verification and tuning of these image analysis techniques, since direct comparison can be made against histopathology, and can lead to better prediction of surgical outcomes and potentially less invasive procedures. To carry out MRI and ...


Use Of Imaging Biomarkers To Assess Perfusion And Glucose Metabolism In The Skeletal Muscle Of Dystrophic Mice, Nabeel Ahmad, Ian Welch, Robert Grange, Jennifer Hadway, Savita Dhanvantari, David Hill, Ting-Yim Lee, Lisa M Hoffman Jun 2011

Use Of Imaging Biomarkers To Assess Perfusion And Glucose Metabolism In The Skeletal Muscle Of Dystrophic Mice, Nabeel Ahmad, Ian Welch, Robert Grange, Jennifer Hadway, Savita Dhanvantari, David Hill, Ting-Yim Lee, Lisa M Hoffman

Robarts Imaging Publications

BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe neuromuscular disease that affects 1 in 3500 boys. The disease is characterized by progressive muscle degeneration that results from mutations in or loss of the cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin, from the glycoprotein membrane complex, thus increasing the susceptibility of contractile muscle to injury. To date, disease progression is typically assessed using invasive techniques such as muscle biopsies, and while there are recent reports of the use of magnetic resonance, ultrasound and optical imaging technologies to address the issue of disease progression and monitoring therapeutic intervention in dystrophic mice, our study aims to validate ...


Fusion And Visualization Of Intraoperative Cortical Images With Preoperative Models For Epilepsy Surgical Planning And Guidance., A Wang, S M Mirsattari, A G Parrent, T M Peters Jan 2011

Fusion And Visualization Of Intraoperative Cortical Images With Preoperative Models For Epilepsy Surgical Planning And Guidance., A Wang, S M Mirsattari, A G Parrent, T M Peters

Robarts Imaging Publications

OBJECTIVE: During epilepsy surgery it is important for the surgeon to correlate the preoperative cortical morphology (from preoperative images) with the intraoperative environment. Augmented Reality (AR) provides a solution for combining the real environment with virtual models. However, AR usually requires the use of specialized displays, and its effectiveness in the surgery still needs to be evaluated. The objective of this research was to develop an alternative approach to provide enhanced visualization by fusing a direct (photographic) view of the surgical field with the 3D patient model during image guided epilepsy surgery.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We correlated the preoperative plan ...