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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

In Vivo Brainstem Imaging In Alzheimer’S Disease: Potential For Biomarker Development, David J. Braun, Linda J. Van Eldik Sep 2018

In Vivo Brainstem Imaging In Alzheimer’S Disease: Potential For Biomarker Development, David J. Braun, Linda J. Van Eldik

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

The dearth of effective treatments for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the largest public health issues worldwide, costing hundreds of billions of dollars per year. From a therapeutic standpoint, research efforts to date have met with strikingly little clinical success. One major issue is that trials begin after substantial pathological change has occurred, and it is increasingly clear that the most effective treatment regimens will need to be administered earlier in the disease process. In order to identify individuals within the long preclinical phase of AD who are likely to progress to dementia, improvements are required in biomarker ...


Multimodal Imaging Evidence For Axonal And Myelin Deterioration In Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment, Brian T. Gold, Yang Jiang, David K. Powell, Charles D. Smith Jan 2012

Multimodal Imaging Evidence For Axonal And Myelin Deterioration In Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment, Brian T. Gold, Yang Jiang, David K. Powell, Charles D. Smith

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

White matter (WM) microstructural declines have been demonstrated in Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, the pattern of WM microstructural changes in aMCI after controlling for WM atrophy is unknown. Here, we address this issue through joint consideration of aMCI alterations in fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity, as well as macrostructural volume in WM and gray matter compartments. Participants were 18 individuals with aMCI and 24 healthy seniors. Voxelwise analyses of diffusion tensor imaging data was carried out using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and voxelwise analyses of high-resolution structural data was conducted ...


Alterations In Multiple Measures Of White Matter Integrity In Normal Women At High Risk For Alzheimer's Disease, Brian T. Gold, David K. Powell, Anders H. Andersen, Charles D. Smith Oct 2010

Alterations In Multiple Measures Of White Matter Integrity In Normal Women At High Risk For Alzheimer's Disease, Brian T. Gold, David K. Powell, Anders H. Andersen, Charles D. Smith

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

There is evidence that disruption of white matter (WM) microstructure is an early event in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the neurobiological bases of WM microstructural declines in presymptomatic AD are unknown. In the present study we address this issue using a multimodal imaging approach to the study of presymptomatic AD. Participants were 37 high-risk (both family history of dementia and one or more APOE4 alleles) women and 20 low-risk (neither family history nor APOE4) women. Groups were matched for age, education, neuropsychological performance, and vascular factors that could affect white matter. Whole-brain analyses of diffusion tensor ...


Functional Dissociation In Frontal And Striatal Areas For Processing Of Positive And Negative Reward Information, Xun Liu, David K. Powell, Hongbin Wang, Brian T. Gold, Christine R. Corbly, Jane E. Joseph Apr 2007

Functional Dissociation In Frontal And Striatal Areas For Processing Of Positive And Negative Reward Information, Xun Liu, David K. Powell, Hongbin Wang, Brian T. Gold, Christine R. Corbly, Jane E. Joseph

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

Reward-seeking behavior depends critically on processing of positive and negative information at various stages such as reward anticipation, outcome monitoring, and choice evaluation. Behavioral and neuropsychological evidence suggests that processing of positive (e.g., gain) and negative (e.g., loss) reward information may be dissociable and individually disrupted. However, it remains uncertain whether different stages of reward processing share certain neural circuitry in frontal and striatal areas, and whether distinct but interactive systems in these areas are recruited for positive and negative reward processing. To explore these issues, we used a monetary decision-making task to investigate the roles of frontal ...


Dissociation Of Automatic And Strategic Lexical-Semantics: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evidence For Differing Roles Of Multiple Frontotemporal Regions, Brian T. Gold, David A. Balota, Sara J. Jones, David K. Powell, Charles D. Smith, Anders H. Andersen Jun 2006

Dissociation Of Automatic And Strategic Lexical-Semantics: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evidence For Differing Roles Of Multiple Frontotemporal Regions, Brian T. Gold, David A. Balota, Sara J. Jones, David K. Powell, Charles D. Smith, Anders H. Andersen

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

Behavioral research has demonstrated three major components of the lexical-semantic processing system: automatic activation of semantic representations, strategic retrieval of semantic representations, and inhibition of competitors. However, these component processes are inherently conflated in explicit lexical-semantic decision tasks typically used in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research. Here, we combine the logic of behavioral priming studies and the neurophysiological phenomenon of fMRI priming to dissociate the neural bases of automatic and strategic lexical-semantic processes across a series of three studies. A single lexical decision task was used in all studies, with stimulus onset asynchrony or linguistic relationship between prime and ...