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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Identification Of Unique Features And Exploration Of Leap Motion Controller For Detecting Hand Hygiene Stages, Rashmi Bakshi, Jane Courtney, Damon Berry, Graham Gavin Jan 2018

Identification Of Unique Features And Exploration Of Leap Motion Controller For Detecting Hand Hygiene Stages, Rashmi Bakshi, Jane Courtney, Damon Berry, Graham Gavin

Conference Papers

Hospital acquired infections (HAIs) are contracted by the patients during the hospital stay. Antibiotic resistant microbes are the major cause and spread due to the contaminated medical equipment, crowded hospitals, frequent transfer of patients from one unit to another and poor hand hygiene. [1] In high income countries, approximately 30% of patients in intensive care units are affected by at least one HAI. [2] Hand hygiene is identified as a measure to prevent cross-transmission and to reduce the rate of HAI. [3] Technology is now used as a means of assessing hand hygiene compliance. Current approaches involve the use of ...


A Collagen Based Tissue Engineered Heart Valve Shows Excellent Functionality And Remodelling After Dynamic Conditioning, Claire Brougham, Ricardo Moreira, Tanya J. Levingstone, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Petra Mela, Fergal J. O'Brien Dec 2015

A Collagen Based Tissue Engineered Heart Valve Shows Excellent Functionality And Remodelling After Dynamic Conditioning, Claire Brougham, Ricardo Moreira, Tanya J. Levingstone, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Petra Mela, Fergal J. O'Brien

Conference Papers

No abstract provided.


A Collagen‐Glycosaminoglycan‐Fibrin Scaffold For Heart Valve Tissue Engineering Applications, Claire Brougham, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Thomas Flanagan, Fergal O'Brien Sep 2014

A Collagen‐Glycosaminoglycan‐Fibrin Scaffold For Heart Valve Tissue Engineering Applications, Claire Brougham, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Thomas Flanagan, Fergal O'Brien

Conference Papers

The field of heart valve biology and tissue engineering a heart valve continue to expand. The presentatio ns at this meeting reflect the advances made in both areas due to the multi-disciplinary approach taken by many laboratories.


Investigation Of A New Material For Heart Valve Tissue Engineering, Claire Brougham, Gerard Cooney, Thomas Flanagan, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Fergal O'Brien Sep 2012

Investigation Of A New Material For Heart Valve Tissue Engineering, Claire Brougham, Gerard Cooney, Thomas Flanagan, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Fergal O'Brien

Conference Papers

No abstract provided.


A Wireless And Digital Electrode Bus Topology For Biopotential Measurement, Mark Nolan, Edward Burke, Eugene Coyle Jun 2012

A Wireless And Digital Electrode Bus Topology For Biopotential Measurement, Mark Nolan, Edward Burke, Eugene Coyle

Conference Papers

The conventional biopotential measurement configuration utilises long lead wires which connect measuring electrodes to signal conditioning circuitry. The majority of bioelectric signals that are measured from the human body have a tiny signal amplitude (5µV-5mV range) and thus any interference that is induced on the lead wires can have a detrimental effect on the original signal. In this paper, we present an alternative configuration, in which digitisation occurs on the electrode, potentially providing enhanced signal measurement as well as significant benefits in terms of the simplification of the physical interconnections between electrodes. Multiple electrodes are combined to form a digital ...


The Presence Of Regional Accents In Electrolarynx Speech And The Resultant Effect On Overall Intelligibility., Brian Madden, Eugene Coyle Apr 2012

The Presence Of Regional Accents In Electrolarynx Speech And The Resultant Effect On Overall Intelligibility., Brian Madden, Eugene Coyle

Conference Papers

During voiced speech, the larynx provides quasi-periodic acoustic excitation of the vocal tract. In most electrolarynxes, mechanical vibrations are produced by a linear electromechanical actuator, the armature of which percusses against a metal or plastic plate at a frequency within the range of glottal excitation. In this paper, a phonological analysis of a section of results from an online perceptual intelligibility test was performed which compared speech produced using a novel hands-free electrolarynx and a commercially available electrolarynx. A portion of the test consisted of a closed-set format containing a selection of four sets of four random CVC audio samples ...


Investigation Of A New Material For Heart Valve Tissue Engineering, Claire Brougham, Nian Shen, Allison Cudsworth, Thomas Flanagan, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Fergal O'Brien Jan 2012

Investigation Of A New Material For Heart Valve Tissue Engineering, Claire Brougham, Nian Shen, Allison Cudsworth, Thomas Flanagan, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Fergal O'Brien

Conference Papers

No abstract provided.


Soft Tissue Cutting With Ultrasonic Mechanical Waveguides, Mark Wylie, Garrett Mcguinness, Graham Gavin Sep 2011

Soft Tissue Cutting With Ultrasonic Mechanical Waveguides, Mark Wylie, Garrett Mcguinness, Graham Gavin

Conference Papers

The use of ultrasonic vibrations transmitted via small diameter wire waveguides represents a technology that has potential for minimally invasive procedures in surgery. This form of energy delivery results in distal tip mechanical vibrations with amplitudes of vibration of up to 50 μm and at frequencies between 20-50 kHz commonly reported. This energy can then be used by micro-cutting surgical tools and end effectors for a range of applications such as bone cutting, cement removal in joint revision surgery and soft tissue cutting. One particular application which has gained regulatory approval in recent years is in the area of cardiovascular ...


Impact Isolation Of Training Shoes, Nicci Daly, Stephen Tiernan Sep 2011

Impact Isolation Of Training Shoes, Nicci Daly, Stephen Tiernan

Conference Papers

ABSTRACT The increase in popularity of physical activities from fun runs to competitive marathons has lead to a huge industry in sports footwear, which is now worth $20bn annually. There is a resultant increase in injuries, largely due to the repeated and prolonged nature of the impact forces experienced by the leg. Clinical data indicates that the knee is the most common site of running related injury, followed by the lower leg and foot. The complexity of the ankle structure means that injuries are acute and the success rates of replacements are very low. Therefore research in this area is ...


Effects Of Β-Cyclodextrin As A Capping Agent On The Antibacterial Properties Of Agnps, Swarna Jaiswal, Brendan Duffy, Patrick Mchale Jul 2011

Effects Of Β-Cyclodextrin As A Capping Agent On The Antibacterial Properties Of Agnps, Swarna Jaiswal, Brendan Duffy, Patrick Mchale

Conference Papers

No abstract provided.


Comparing Fbg And Pcf Force Sensors In A Laparoscopic Smart Surgical Scissor Instrument, Dean Callaghan, Ginu Rajan, Mark Mcgrath, Eugene Coyle, Yuliya Semenova, Gerald Farrell Jun 2011

Comparing Fbg And Pcf Force Sensors In A Laparoscopic Smart Surgical Scissor Instrument, Dean Callaghan, Ginu Rajan, Mark Mcgrath, Eugene Coyle, Yuliya Semenova, Gerald Farrell

Conference Papers

This paper presents a sensorized laparoscopic surgical scissor instrument using both a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and a tapered photonic crystal fiber (PCF) as force sensors. The sensors are located on the blades for the detection of interaction forces generated between the instrument and tissue during cutting. The force sensitivity of each sensorized blade is examined. Results show that the scissor blade-PCF sensor arrangement outperforms the blade with the FBG during static loading calibration experimentation. Moreover, experiments show that the PCF based arrangement is less sensitive to temperature effects than its FBG counterpart. This negates the need for additional temperature ...


Surgical Cutting And Ablation By Energy Based Devices: Principles And Applications, Garrett Mcguinness, Joseph A. Mcgeough, Graham Gavin, Brendan O'Daly Jun 2011

Surgical Cutting And Ablation By Energy Based Devices: Principles And Applications, Garrett Mcguinness, Joseph A. Mcgeough, Graham Gavin, Brendan O'Daly

Conference Papers

Advances in ultrasound, radiofrequency, and water jet systems are facilitating their increased use in new medical ablation or cutting applications in fields as diverse as cardiology, orthopaedics, ophthalmology, dermatology, oncology and neurosurgery. These methods involve controlled alteration or destruction of tissues via the application of thermal, electrical or kinetic energy. This market segment is characterised by advanced devices capable of heating or cooling tissue from -200°C to 400°C, or inducing vibrations of up to 60 kHz to cause tissue damage. The medical conditions targeted primarily pertain to chronic and age-related diseases, but elective and cosmetic procedures are also ...


Radio-Frequency Breast Cancer Imaging Results For A Simplified Cylindrical Phantom, Giuseppe Ruvio, Raffaele Solimene, Antonietta D'Alterio, Max Ammann, Rocco Pierri Feb 2011

Radio-Frequency Breast Cancer Imaging Results For A Simplified Cylindrical Phantom, Giuseppe Ruvio, Raffaele Solimene, Antonietta D'Alterio, Max Ammann, Rocco Pierri

Conference Papers

Microwave imaging is a pervasive research field and
is useful in numerous applicative diagnostic noninvasive contexts. This paper focuses on two aspects. First, we perform a numerical investigation to assess the role played by fundamental parameters (i.e. number of sensors, operating frequency bandwidth) on cancer detection. To this end, a simplified cylindrical phantom probed by ideal two-dimensional dipoles (i.e. infinitely long along the axis of invariance) is considered. Second, in order to focus on the role of the antennas, we analyze, still by numerical simulations and for a simplified breast model, how performances vary when a realistic antenna ...


Characterising 3d Soft Tissue Features On Joint Surfaces, Colm O'Kane Jan 2011

Characterising 3d Soft Tissue Features On Joint Surfaces, Colm O'Kane

Conference Papers

A crucial aspect of orthopaedic implant design is the prediction of surgical outcomes when the shape of a bone is necessarily altered by the addition of the implant. Matching native kinematics as closely as possible is generally considered a core aim of joint replacement surgery. The overall hypothesis behind this research is that soft tissue geometry, including cartilage thickness distribution and ligament attachment sites, influences kinematics in the knee joint. In order to enable investigation of possible links between geometry and kinematics, the ability to characterise the shape variation of the soft tissue relative to the underlying bony geometry must ...


Novel Bioelectrical Measurement Using A Digital Biopotential Monode, Mark Nolan, Edward Burke, Eugene Coyle Jan 2011

Novel Bioelectrical Measurement Using A Digital Biopotential Monode, Mark Nolan, Edward Burke, Eugene Coyle

Conference Papers

In conventional biopotential recording, two or more electrodes are placed on the body. A unipolar lead records the time-varying electrical potential at a single point (relative to a reference potential) via one signal electrode. A bipolar lead records the time-varying potential difference between two points via two signal electrodes. In each case, the signal electrodes are connected to high impedance amplifier inputs, while an additional electrode provides a low-impedance path between the amplifier and human subject. Bipolar leads are usually preferred since interference appearing at both signal electrodes can be eliminated using an instrumentation amplifier with high CMRR. A drawback ...


Intelligibility Of Electrolarynx Speech Using A Novel Hands-Free Actuator, Brian Madden, Mark Nolan, Ted Burke, James Condron, Eugene Coyle Jan 2011

Intelligibility Of Electrolarynx Speech Using A Novel Hands-Free Actuator, Brian Madden, Mark Nolan, Ted Burke, James Condron, Eugene Coyle

Conference Papers

During voiced speech, the larynx provides quasi-periodic acoustic excitation of the vocal tract. In most electrolarynxes, mechanical vibrations are produced by a linear electromechanical actuator, the armature of which percusses against a metal or plastic plate at a frequency within the range of glottal excitation. In this paper, the intelligibility of speech produced using a novel hands-free actuator is compared to speech produced using a conventional electrolarynx. Two able-bodied speakers (one male, one female) performed a closed response test containing 28 monosyllabic words, once using a conventional electrolarynx and a second time using the novel design. The resulting audio recordings ...


Augmented Control Of A Hands-Free Electrolarynx, Brian Madden, James Condron, Eugene Coyle Jan 2011

Augmented Control Of A Hands-Free Electrolarynx, Brian Madden, James Condron, Eugene Coyle

Conference Papers

During voiced speech, the larynx acts as the sound source, providing a quasi-periodic excitation of the vocal tract. Following a total laryngectomy, some people speak using an electrolarynx which employs an electromechanical actuator to perform the excitatory function of the absent larynx. Drawbacks of conventional electrolarynx designs include the monotonic sound emitted, the need for a free-hand to operate the device, and the difficulty experienced by many laryngectomees in adapting to its use. One improvement to the electrolarynx, which clinicians and users frequently suggest, is the provision of a convenient hands-free control facility. This would allow more natural use of ...


On Improving Electrooculogram-Based Computer Mouse Systems: The Accelerometer Trigger, Johnalan Keegan, Edward Burke, James Condron, Eugene Coyle Jan 2011

On Improving Electrooculogram-Based Computer Mouse Systems: The Accelerometer Trigger, Johnalan Keegan, Edward Burke, James Condron, Eugene Coyle

Conference Papers

Eye tracking is a well-established method of computer control for profoundly paralysed people (Anson et al., 2002). Cameras are commonly used to track eye movements (Morimoto et al., 2005) but one alternative is the bioelectrical signal known as the electrooculogram (EOG). There are some EOG mouse control systems that facilitate the use of GUI applications, but certain actions, which are straightforward using a conventional mouse, remain impossible. Unless the eyes are tracking a target, they move in saccades (jumps), making it impossible to voluntarily trace out smooth trajectories with one's gaze, as would be required to draw a smooth ...


Perforation Of Arterial Tissue Using Kilohertz Frequency Ultrasound Delivered Via Wire Waveguides, Mark Wylie, Garrett Mcguinness, Graham Gavin Jan 2011

Perforation Of Arterial Tissue Using Kilohertz Frequency Ultrasound Delivered Via Wire Waveguides, Mark Wylie, Garrett Mcguinness, Graham Gavin

Conference Papers

An emerging technology proposes the use of low frequency-high power ultrasound transmitted via wire waveguides for the disruption and ablation of atherosclerotic lesions, more specifically advanced fibrous or calcified plaques such as chronic total occlusions (CTO). This energy delivery selectively ablates rigid diseased tissue by means of direct mechanical contact, cavitation and other forces generated by the intense dynamic pressure fields generated.

The first clinical device using this energy delivery was granted FDA approval in 2007 [1] for the ablation of CTOs and most research to date has focused on ablation and disruption of hard, fibrous or calcified tissues [2 ...


Blood Vessel Diameter Estimation System Using Active Contours, Jane Courtney, Ana Tizon Jan 2011

Blood Vessel Diameter Estimation System Using Active Contours, Jane Courtney, Ana Tizon

Conference Papers

The study and analysis of blood vessel geometry has become the basis of medical applications related to early diagnosis and effective monitoring of therapies in vascular diseases. This paper presents a new method to trace the outline of blood vessels from imperfect images and extract useful information about their dimensions in an automated manner. The system consists of a segmentation procedure that uses two Active Contours to detect blood vessel boundaries and a novel approach to measure blood vessel diameters directly as the distance between two points. We have succeeded in designing and implementing an automated, robust, measurement method that ...


Intelligibility Of Electrolarynx Speech Using A Novel Actuator, Brian Madden, Mark Nolan, Ted Burke, James Condron, Eugene Coyle Jun 2010

Intelligibility Of Electrolarynx Speech Using A Novel Actuator, Brian Madden, Mark Nolan, Ted Burke, James Condron, Eugene Coyle

Conference Papers

During voiced speech, the larynx provides quasi-periodic acoustic excitation of the vocal tract. Following a laryngectomy, some people speak using an electrolarynx which replaces the excitatory function of the absent larynx. Drawbacks of conventional electrolarynx designs include the buzzing monotonic sound emitted, the need for a free hand to operate the device, and difficulty experienced by many laryngectomees in adapting to its use. Despite these shortcomings, it remains the preferred method of speech rehabilitation for a substantial minority of laryngectomees. In most electrolarynxes, mechanical vibrations are produced by a linear electromechanical actuator, the armature of which percusses against a metal ...


A Multi-Variable Analysis Of Transient Near-Wall Haemodynamics In A Stented Coronary Artery, Jonathan Murphy, Fergal Boyle Jan 2010

A Multi-Variable Analysis Of Transient Near-Wall Haemodynamics In A Stented Coronary Artery, Jonathan Murphy, Fergal Boyle

Conference Papers

No abstract provided.


Estimation Of 3d Shape In The Patellofemoral Joint Using Statistical Shape Models And 2d Data, Colm O'Kane Jan 2010

Estimation Of 3d Shape In The Patellofemoral Joint Using Statistical Shape Models And 2d Data, Colm O'Kane

Conference Papers

Disorders of the patellofemoral joint (PFJ) including PF osteoarthritis and PF pain disorder have been estimated to represent 25% of all patients presenting for knee joint treatment. The diagnosis and treatment of these disorders is curtailed by lack of understanding of the mechanical operation of the joint. A crucial aspect to be considered in understanding contact patterns and kinematics of the PFJ is the alignment of the patella in the trochlear groove. Investigation of patellar alignment necessitates accurate knowledge of the 3D articular surfaces of both patella and femur, along with underlying bone geometry. These 3D data are generally obtained ...


Accelerometer Based Measurement For The Mapping Of Neck Surface Vibrations During Vocalized Speech, Mark Nolan, Brian Madden, Edward Burke Sep 2009

Accelerometer Based Measurement For The Mapping Of Neck Surface Vibrations During Vocalized Speech, Mark Nolan, Brian Madden, Edward Burke

Conference Papers

This paper presents a detailed study of the vibrations on the surface of the neck during a vocalization of predefined fundamental frequency and intensity. This study was carried out as part of a wider investigation into the use of laryngeal vibrations as a channel of communication. Another potential application of this study is in identifying a suitable location for a hands-free electro-larynx for laryngectomees.

An analog accelerometer, with dimensions 5x5x1.6mm and of mass 80mg, was used to perform the measurements. It was connected to a 12-bit analog-to-digital converter via single strands of insulated wire with a diameter of 100μm ...


An Investigation Of The Use Of A High Resolution Adc As A Digital Biopotential Amplifier, Damon Berry, Frank Duignan, Richard Hayes Jul 2009

An Investigation Of The Use Of A High Resolution Adc As A Digital Biopotential Amplifier, Damon Berry, Frank Duignan, Richard Hayes

Conference Papers

Sigma delta analogue to digital converters have been used in many signal processing applications including some commercially available systems for sampling of bio-signals Bio-potential amplifiers have traditionally utilised specialised highquality analogue components to amplify bio-signals.

The central aim of this work is to investigate the benefits of using high-resolution sigma delta conversion as a digital amplification stage in the signal path of a bio-potential amplifier. A number of system arrangements specific to bio-potential measurement are presented and discussed. These arrangements are designed to use the high resolution capacity of the sigma delta converter in different ways, providing different benefits. To ...


Comparing Stent Design Using Computational Fluid Dynamics To Predict Wall Shear Stress Based Parameters, Jonathan Murphy, Fergal Boyle Jan 2009

Comparing Stent Design Using Computational Fluid Dynamics To Predict Wall Shear Stress Based Parameters, Jonathan Murphy, Fergal Boyle

Conference Papers

No abstract provided.


A Mobile Ecg Monitoring System With Context Collection, Jin Peng Li, Damon Berry, Richard Hayes Jan 2009

A Mobile Ecg Monitoring System With Context Collection, Jin Peng Li, Damon Berry, Richard Hayes

Conference Papers

Preventative health management represents a shift from the traditional approach of reactive treatment-based healthcare towards a proactive wellness-management approach where patients are encouraged to stay healthy with expert support when they need it, at any location and any time. This work represents a step along the road towards proactive, preventative healthcare for cardiac patients. It seeks to develop a smart mobile ECG monitoring system that requests and records context information about what is happening around the subject when an arrhythmia event occurs. Context information about the subject’s activities of daily living will, it is hoped, provide an enriched data ...


Therapeutic Ultrasound Angioplasty: The Risk Of Arterial Perforation. An In Vitro Study, Mark Wylie, Garrett Mcguinness, Graham Gavin Jan 2009

Therapeutic Ultrasound Angioplasty: The Risk Of Arterial Perforation. An In Vitro Study, Mark Wylie, Garrett Mcguinness, Graham Gavin

Conference Papers

The use of therapeutic ultrasound delivered via small diameter wire waveguides may represent an emerging minimally invasive approach in the treatment of chronic total occlusions (CTOs), calcified and fibrous plaques. The distal-tip mechanical vibrations (typically 0-210 μm peak-to-peak) have been reported to debulk rigid calcified and fibrous tissues while healthy elastic arterial tissue remains largely unaffected. The risk of arterial (healthy tissue) perforation with energized waveguides is not fully understood. An ultrasonic apparatus capable of delivering a range of wire waveguide distal-tip displacements, up to 80 μm peak-to-peak (p-p), at an operational frequency of 22.5 KHz (+/- 6%) has been ...


Ultrasonic Angioplasty: Assessing The Risk Of Arterial Perforation, Mark Wylie, Garrett Mcguinness, Graham Gavin Jan 2009

Ultrasonic Angioplasty: Assessing The Risk Of Arterial Perforation, Mark Wylie, Garrett Mcguinness, Graham Gavin

Conference Papers

Atherosclerosis is a cardiovascular disease that effects large and medium muscular arteries (such as coronary and iliac) and also large elastic arteries (such as aorta) [1]. It causes thickening of the arterial wall and over time can result in a completely blocked artery or chronic total occlusion (CTO). While the majority of atherosclerotic lesions can be attempted by typical Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) such as balloon and stent implantation, calcified CTOs are often problematic as they do not lend themselves to be accessed by the guidewire which is required to implant the balloon and stent. Excessive guidewire pushing force ...


Accelerometer Based Measurement Of Body Movement For Communication, Play, And Creative Expression, Mark Nolan, Edward Burke, Frank Duignan Nov 2008

Accelerometer Based Measurement Of Body Movement For Communication, Play, And Creative Expression, Mark Nolan, Edward Burke, Frank Duignan

Conference Papers

This paper presents a newly designed wireless accelerometer-based movement measurement device. The device is capable of measuring activity ranging from gross body movements to more subtle vibrations emanating from the body, including laryngeal vibration and the mechanomyogram (mechanical vibrations from working muscles). The main body of the device, which is less than 20cm3 in volume and weighs less than 50g, contains a microcontroller, wireless transceiver, battery, and one accelerometer. A supplementary accelerometer module is connected to the main device by thin wires. This module is very light weight and can therefore be directly attached to the skin to measure laryngeal ...