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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Treatment Of Neurodegenerative Disorders Through The Blood-Brain Barrier Using Nanocarriers, Nitya Poovaiah, Zahra Davoudi, Haisheng Peng, Benjamin Schlichtmann, Surya K. Mallapragada, Balaji Narasimhan, Qun Wang Aug 2018

Treatment Of Neurodegenerative Disorders Through The Blood-Brain Barrier Using Nanocarriers, Nitya Poovaiah, Zahra Davoudi, Haisheng Peng, Benjamin Schlichtmann, Surya K. Mallapragada, Balaji Narasimhan, Qun Wang

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Neurodegenerative diseases refer to disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) that are caused by neuronal degradations, dysfunctions, or death. Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease (APHD) are regarded as the three major neurodegenerative diseases. There is a vast body of literature on the causes and treatments of these neurodegenerative diseases. However, the main obstacle in developing an effective treatment strategy is the permeability of the treatment components to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Several strategies have been developed to improve this obstruction. For example, nanomaterials facilitate drug delivery to the BBB due to their size. They ...


Solution Of Population Balance Equations In Applications With Fine Particles: Mathematical Modeling And Numerical Schemes, Tan Trung Nguyen, Frédérique Laurent, Rodney O. Fox, Marc Massot Nov 2016

Solution Of Population Balance Equations In Applications With Fine Particles: Mathematical Modeling And Numerical Schemes, Tan Trung Nguyen, Frédérique Laurent, Rodney O. Fox, Marc Massot

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The accurate description and robust simulation, at relatively low cost, of global quantities (e.g. number density or volume fraction) as well as the size distribution of a population of fine particles in a carrier fluid is still a major challenge for many applications. For this purpose, two types of methods are investigated for solving the population balance equation with aggregation, continuous particle size change (growth and size reduction), and nucleation: the extended quadrature method of moments (EQMOM) based on the work of Yuan et al.[52]and a hybrid method (TSM) between the sectional and moment methods, considering two ...


Strongly Coupled Fluid-Particle Flows In Vertical Channels. I. Reynolds-Averaged Two-Phase Turbulence Statistics, Jesse Capecelatro, Olivier Desjardins, Rodney O. Fox Mar 2016

Strongly Coupled Fluid-Particle Flows In Vertical Channels. I. Reynolds-Averaged Two-Phase Turbulence Statistics, Jesse Capecelatro, Olivier Desjardins, Rodney O. Fox

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Simulations of strongly coupled (i.e., high-mass-loading) fluid-particle flows in vertical channels are performed with the purpose of understanding the fundamental physics of wall-bounded multiphase turbulence. The exact Reynolds-averaged (RA) equations for high-mass-loading suspensions are presented, and the unclosed terms that are retained in the context of fully developed channel flow are evaluated in an Eulerian–Lagrangian (EL) framework for the first time. A key distinction between the RA formulation presented in the current work and previous derivations of multiphase turbulence models is the partitioning of the particle velocity fluctuations into spatially correlated and uncorrelated components, used to define the ...


Strongly Coupled Fluid-Particle Flows In Vertical Channels. Ii. Turbulence Modeling, Jesse Capecelatro, Olivier Desjardins, Rodney O. Fox Jan 2016

Strongly Coupled Fluid-Particle Flows In Vertical Channels. Ii. Turbulence Modeling, Jesse Capecelatro, Olivier Desjardins, Rodney O. Fox

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

In Part I, simulations of strongly coupled fluid-particle flow in a vertical channel were performed with the purpose of understanding, in general, the fundamental physics of wall-bounded multiphase turbulence and, in particular, the roles of the spatially correlated and uncorrelated components of the particle velocity.The exact Reynolds-averaged (RA) equations for high-mass-loading suspensions were presented, and the unclosed terms that are retained in the context of fully developed channel flow were evaluated in an Eulerian–Lagrangian (EL) framework. Here, data from the EL simulations are used to validate a multiphase Reynolds-stress model (RSM) that predicts the wall-normal distribution of the ...


Polymeric Multifunctional Nanomaterials For Theranostics, Haisheng Peng, Xiaoying Liu, Guangtian Wang, Minghui Li, Kaitlin M. Bratlie, Eric W. Cochran, Qun Wang Jan 2015

Polymeric Multifunctional Nanomaterials For Theranostics, Haisheng Peng, Xiaoying Liu, Guangtian Wang, Minghui Li, Kaitlin M. Bratlie, Eric W. Cochran, Qun Wang

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Nanocarriers provide a platform to integrate therapy and diagnostics, which is an emerging direction in medical practice. Beyond simply therapeutic functionality, theranostic nanomaterials have been designed to deliver multiple components and imaging agents, facilitating simultaneous and synergistic diagnosis and therapies. In this article, polymeric materials with diverse functionalities and properties for manufacturing theranostic nanomaterials are discussed and compared. We focused on recent advancements in polymeric multifunctional nanomaterials for synergistic theranostics. The drugs and imaging agents were encapsulated within and/or conjugated to the surface of the nanocarriers, according to the fabrication process and carrier type. In parallel with therapy, polymeric ...


Matrix Metalloproteinase-14 Is A Mechanically Regulated Activator Of Secreted Mmps And Invasion, Amanda Haage, Dong Hyun Nam, Xin Ge, Ian C. Schneider Jul 2014

Matrix Metalloproteinase-14 Is A Mechanically Regulated Activator Of Secreted Mmps And Invasion, Amanda Haage, Dong Hyun Nam, Xin Ge, Ian C. Schneider

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are extracellular matrix (ECM) degrading enzymes and have complex and specific regulation networks. This includes activation interactions, where one MMP family member activates another. ECM degradation and MMP activation can be initiated by several different stimuli including changes in ECM mechanical properties or intracellular contractility. These mechanical stimuli are known enhancers of metastatic potential. MMP-14 facilitates local ECM degradation and is well known as a major mediator of cell migration, angiogenesis and invasion. Recently, function blocking antibodies have been developed to specifically block MMP-14, providing a useful tool for research as well as therapeutic applications. Here we ...


Synthesis And Functionalization Of Virus-Mimicking Cationic Block Copolymers With Pathogen-Associated Carbohydrates As Potential Vaccine Adjuvants, J. R. Adams, M. Goswami, N. L.B. Pohl, Surya K. Mallapragada Mar 2014

Synthesis And Functionalization Of Virus-Mimicking Cationic Block Copolymers With Pathogen-Associated Carbohydrates As Potential Vaccine Adjuvants, J. R. Adams, M. Goswami, N. L.B. Pohl, Surya K. Mallapragada

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

We report the synthesis of a family of amphiphilic pentablock polymers with different cationic blocks and with controlled architectures as potential vaccine carriers for subunit vaccines. The temperature and pH-dependent micellization and gelation of these pentablock copolymers can provide a depot for sustained protein and gene delivery. The amphiphilic central triblock promotes cellular endocytosis, good gene delivery and has been used effectively as a vaccine adjuvant. The pentablock copolymer outer blocks condense DNA spontaneously as a result of electrostatic interactions for sustained combinational therapy. This family of polymers with different cationic groups was evaluated based on DNA complexation-ability and cytotoxicity ...


Understanding Biocatalyst Inhibition By Carboxylic Acids, Laura R. Jarboe, Liam Royce, Ping Liu Sep 2013

Understanding Biocatalyst Inhibition By Carboxylic Acids, Laura R. Jarboe, Liam Royce, Ping Liu

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Carboxylic acids are an attractive biorenewable chemical in terms of their flexibility and usage as precursors for a variety of industrial chemicals. It has been demonstrated that such carboxylic acids can be fermentatively produced using engineered microbes, such as Escherichia coli andSaccharomyces cerevisiae. However, like many other attractive biorenewable fuels and chemicals, carboxylic acids become inhibitory to these microbes at concentrations below the desired yield and titer. In fact, their potency as microbial inhibitors is highlighted by the fact that many of these carboxylic acids are routinely used as food preservatives. This review highlights the current knowledge regarding the ...