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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Novel Small Airway Model Using Electrospun Decellularized Lung Extracellular Matrix, Bethany M. Young Jan 2016

Novel Small Airway Model Using Electrospun Decellularized Lung Extracellular Matrix, Bethany M. Young

Theses and Dissertations

Chronic respiratory diseases affects many people worldwide with little known about the mechanisms diving the pathology, making it difficult to find a cure. Improving the understanding of smooth muscle and extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction is key to developing a remedy to this leading cause of death. With currently no relevant or controllable in vivo or in vitro model to investigate diseased and normal interactions of small airway components, the development of a physiologically relevant in vitro model with comparable cell attachment, signaling, and organization is necessary to develop new treatments for airway disease. The goal of this study is to ...


Characterization Of Fibrin Matrix Incorporated Electrospun Polycaprolactone Scaffold, Cho Yi Wong Jan 2016

Characterization Of Fibrin Matrix Incorporated Electrospun Polycaprolactone Scaffold, Cho Yi Wong

Theses and Dissertations

Specific objective: Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) aims to regenerate the lost attachment apparatus caused by periodontal disease through the use of a barrier membrane. For the GTR procedures to be successful, barrier membranes are required to be present at the surgical site for an extended period of time (weeks to months). Synthetic membranes have the advantage of prolonged presence in a wound site; however, they do not actively contribute to wound healing. Biologic membranes are recognized by the host tissue and participate in wound healing but have the disadvantage of early resorption. Therefore, the goal of this study is to ...


Improved Capability Of A Computational Foot/Ankle Model Using Artificial Neural Networks, Ruchi D. Chande Jan 2016

Improved Capability Of A Computational Foot/Ankle Model Using Artificial Neural Networks, Ruchi D. Chande

Theses and Dissertations

Computational joint models provide insight into the biomechanical function of human joints. Through both deformable and rigid body modeling, the structure-function relationship governing joint behavior is better understood, and subsequently, knowledge regarding normal, diseased, and/or injured function is garnered. Given the utility of these computational models, it is imperative to supply them with appropriate inputs such that model function is representative of true joint function. In these models, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or Computerized Tomography (CT) scans and literature inform the bony anatomy and mechanical properties of muscle and ligamentous tissues, respectively. In the case of the latter, literature ...


An Investigation Of Kinetic Visual Biofeedback On Dynamic Stance Symmetry, Trisha J. Massenzo Jan 2016

An Investigation Of Kinetic Visual Biofeedback On Dynamic Stance Symmetry, Trisha J. Massenzo

Theses and Dissertations

The intent of the following research is to utilize task-specific, constraint-induced therapies and apply towards dynamic training for symmetrical balance. Modifications to an elliptical trainer were made to both measure weight distributions during dynamic stance as well as provide kinetic biofeedback through a man-machine interface. Following a review of the background, which includes research from several decades that are seminal to current studies, a design review is discussed to cover the design of the modified elliptical (Chapter 2).

An initial study was conducted in a healthy sample population in order to determine the best visual biofeedback representation by comparing different ...


In-House Fabrication Of Multi-Sized Polystyrene Microcarriers For Neural Stem Cell Expansion, Jessica Forrester Jan 2016

In-House Fabrication Of Multi-Sized Polystyrene Microcarriers For Neural Stem Cell Expansion, Jessica Forrester

Theses and Dissertations

The clinical demand for neural stem cells drives the need for a reproducible method used to generate a large quantity of well-characterized cells to support regenerative therapies. Microcarriers are currently being used as a scaffold for stem cell culture to aid in this expansion process because they provide a larger surface area while also requiring fewer cell passages compared to monolayer culture. The main objective of this project was to investigate how human neural stem cell attachment, proliferation, and multipotency would respond to three-dimensional (3D) culture using peptide-coated microcarriers of varying diameters. In this study, multi-sized polystyrene microcarriers were fabricated ...


An Injectable Stem Cell Delivery System For Treatment Of Musculoskeletal Defects, Shirae Leslie Jan 2016

An Injectable Stem Cell Delivery System For Treatment Of Musculoskeletal Defects, Shirae Leslie

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research was to develop a system of injectable hydrogels to deliver stem cells to musculoskeletal defects, thereby allowing cells to remain at the treatment site and secrete soluble factors that will facilitate tissue regeneration. First, production parameters for encapsulating cells in microbeads were determined. This involved investigating the effects of osmolytes on alginate microbead properties, and the effects of alginate microbead cell density, alginate microbead density, and effects of osteogenic media on microencapsulated cells. Although cells remained viable in the microbeads, alginate does not readily degrade in vivo for six months. Therefore, a method to incorporate ...


A Computational Study Of Curvature In The Outflow Graft Of A Continuous Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device, Laura Patterson Jan 2016

A Computational Study Of Curvature In The Outflow Graft Of A Continuous Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device, Laura Patterson

Theses and Dissertations

Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are an increasingly utilized therapy for end-stage heart failure. Thrombosis within the graft from the pump to the aorta has been documented, but is poorly researched. This study examines the effect of graft geometry, as measured by radius of curvature, bend angle, and diameter, on thrombogenic flow patterns within the graft for a range of flow conditions. It also examines the effect blood properties, including viscosity and density, on these flow patterns. The results indicated that radius of curvature had a powerful effect on thrombogenic flow patterns. Flowrate and bend angle were also influential. The ...


Efficiency Evaluation Of A Magnetically Driven Multiple Disk Centrifugal Blood Pump, Kayla H. Moody Jan 2016

Efficiency Evaluation Of A Magnetically Driven Multiple Disk Centrifugal Blood Pump, Kayla H. Moody

Theses and Dissertations

Heart failure is expected to ail over 8 million people in America by 2030 leaving many in need of cardiac replacement. To accommodate this large volume of people, ventricular assist devices (VADs) are necessary to provide mechanical circulatory support. Current VADs exhibit issues such as thrombosis and hemolysis caused by large local pressure drops and turbulent flow within the pump. Multiple disk centrifugal pumps (MDCPs) use shearing and centrifugal forces to produce laminar flow patterns and eliminate large pressure drops within the pump which greatly reduce risks that are in current VADs. The MDCP has a shaft drive system (SDS ...


The Molecular And Mechanical Mechanisms Of The Age-Associated Increase In The Severity Of Experimental Ventilator Induced Lung Injury, Joseph Ames Herbert Jan 2016

The Molecular And Mechanical Mechanisms Of The Age-Associated Increase In The Severity Of Experimental Ventilator Induced Lung Injury, Joseph Ames Herbert

Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

Background

The majority of patients requiring mechanical ventilation are over the age of 65 and advanced age is known to increase the severity of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and mortality. However, the mechanisms which predispose aging ventilator patients to increased mortality rates are not fully understood.

Pulmonary edema is a hallmark of VILI and the severity of edema increases with age. Ventilation with conservative fluid management decreases mortality rates in acute respiratory distress (ARDS) patients, but has not been investigated in VILI. We hypothesized that age-associated increases in pulmonary edema promote age-related increases in ventilator-associated mortality. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER ...


In Vitro Visualization Of Pediatric Sized Mechanical Heart Valve Performance Using Aortic Root Model In Mock Circulatory Loop, Sarah Lederer Jan 2016

In Vitro Visualization Of Pediatric Sized Mechanical Heart Valve Performance Using Aortic Root Model In Mock Circulatory Loop, Sarah Lederer

Theses and Dissertations

Congenital heart valve disease is one of the most common abnormalities in children, with common valve defects being aortic stenosis, mitral stenosis, and valvular regurgitation. Although adult sized mechanical heart valve (MHV) replacements are widely studied and utilized, there are currently no FDA approved prosthetic heart valves available for the pediatric population. This is due to a variety of reasons such as a limited patient pool for clinical trials, limited valve sizes, and complex health histories in children. Much like adult sized mechanical heart valves, potential complications with pediatric heart valve replacements include thrombosis, blood damage due to high shear ...


Development And Characterization Of Lung Derived Extracellular Matrix Hydrogels, Robert A. Pouliot Jan 2016

Development And Characterization Of Lung Derived Extracellular Matrix Hydrogels, Robert A. Pouliot

Theses and Dissertations

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) including emphysema is a devastating condition, increasing in prevalence in the US and worldwide. There remains no cure for COPD, rather only symptomatic treatments. Due to unique challenges of the lung, translation of therapies for acute lung injury to target chronic lung diseases like COPD has not been successful. We have been investigating lung derived extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels as a novel approach for delivery of cellular therapies to the pulmonary system.

During the course of this work we have developed and characterized a lug derived ECM hydrogel that exhibits “injectability,” allowing cells or dugs ...


Role Of E-Cadherin Force In The Spatial Regulation Of Cell Proliferation, Abhinav Mohan Jan 2016

Role Of E-Cadherin Force In The Spatial Regulation Of Cell Proliferation, Abhinav Mohan

Theses and Dissertations

Cell proliferation and contact inhibition play a major role in maintaining epithelial cell homeostasis. A hallmark of epithelial cells is strong cell-cell junctions. These junctions include E-Cadherin, a type of adherens junction that is critical for both barrier function and contact inhibition. Prior experiments by other groups have shown that adherens junctions are subject to mechanical tension. Externally applied forces (e.g. stretch) results in changes in E-Cadherin forces that coordinate proliferation. My current work tests the hypothesis that E-Cadherin forces mediate the spatial regulation of cell proliferation even in the absence of externally applied forces.


Characterization Of Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) Blends And Fabrication Of Soft Micropillar Arrays For Force Detection, Thomas J. Petet Jr Jan 2016

Characterization Of Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) Blends And Fabrication Of Soft Micropillar Arrays For Force Detection, Thomas J. Petet Jr

Theses and Dissertations

Diseases involving fibrosis cause tens of thousands of deaths per year in the US alone. These diseases are characterized by a large amount of extracellular matrix, causing stiff abnormal tissues that may not function correctly. To take steps towards curing these diseases, a fundamental understanding of how cells interact with their substrate and how mechanical forces alter signaling pathways is vital. Studying the mechanobiology of cells and the interaction between a cell and its extracellular matrix can help explain the mechanisms behind stem cell differentiation, cell migration, and metastasis. Due to the correlation between force, extracellular matrix assembly, and substrate ...