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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Modulation Of Biological Responses To 2 Ns Electrical Stimuli By Field Reversal, Esin B. Sözer, P. Thomas Vernier Jun 2019

Modulation Of Biological Responses To 2 Ns Electrical Stimuli By Field Reversal, Esin B. Sözer, P. Thomas Vernier

Bioelectrics Publications

Nanosecond bipolar pulse cancellation, a recently discovered Phenomenon, is modulation of the effects of a unipolar electric pulse exposure by a second pulse of opposite polarity. This attenuation of biological response by reversal of the electric field direction has been reported with pulse durations from 60 ns to 900 ns for a wide range of endpoints, and it is not observed with conventional electroporation pulses of much longer duration (> 100 mu s) where pulses are additive regardless of polarity. The most plausible proposed mechanisms involve the field-driven migration of ions to and from the membrane interface (accelerated membrane discharge). Here ...


Study Of Abc Membrane Transporters In Single Live Cells, Preeyaporn Songkiatisak Apr 2018

Study Of Abc Membrane Transporters In Single Live Cells, Preeyaporn Songkiatisak

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

The multidrug ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters (efflux pumps) are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes and they can extrude diverse structurally unrelated substrates, such as antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents out of the cells. The efflux pumps are responsible for multidrug resistance (MDR) and the failure of numerous treatments in infections and cancers. All ABC membrane transporters share a common modular topology containing two transmembrane domains (TMDs) and two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs). The underlying molecular mechanisms regarding how the similar structural ABC membrane transporters could selectively extrude a wide variety of substrates and cause MDR, are not yet fully ...


Asymmetric Patterns Of Small Molecule Transport After Nanosecond And Microsecond Electropermeabilization, Esin B. Sözer, C. Florencia Pocetti, P. Thomas Vernier Jan 2018

Asymmetric Patterns Of Small Molecule Transport After Nanosecond And Microsecond Electropermeabilization, Esin B. Sözer, C. Florencia Pocetti, P. Thomas Vernier

Bioelectrics Publications

Imaging of fluorescent small molecule transport into electropermeabilized cells reveals polarized patterns of entry, which must reflect in some way the mechanisms of the migration of these molecules across the compromised membrane barrier. In some reports, transport occurs primarily across the areas of the membrane nearest the positive electrode (anode), but in others cathode-facing entry dominates. Here we compare YO-PRO-1, propidium, and calcein uptake into U-937 cells after nanosecond (6 ns) and microsecond (220 µs) electric pulse exposures. Each of the three dyes exhibits a different pattern. Calcein shows no preference for anode- or cathode-facing entry that is detectable with ...


Dielectric Properties Of Isolated Adrenal Chromaffin Cells Determined By Microfluidic Impedance Spectroscopy, A. C. Sabuncu, M. Stacey, G. L. Graviso, N. Semenova, P. T. Vernier, N. Leblanc, I. Chatterjee, J. Zaklit Jan 2018

Dielectric Properties Of Isolated Adrenal Chromaffin Cells Determined By Microfluidic Impedance Spectroscopy, A. C. Sabuncu, M. Stacey, G. L. Graviso, N. Semenova, P. T. Vernier, N. Leblanc, I. Chatterjee, J. Zaklit

Bioelectrics Publications

Knowledge of the dielectric properties of biological cells plays an important role in numerical models aimed at understanding how high intensity ultrashort nanosecond electric pulses affect the plasma membrane and the membranes of intracellular organelles. To this end, using electrical impedance spectroscopy, the dielectric properties of isolated, neuroendocrine adrenal chromaffin cells were obtained. Measured impedance data of the cell suspension, acquired between 1 kHz and 20 MHz, were fit into a combination of constant phase element and Cole-Cole models from which the effect of electrode polarization was extracted. The dielectric spectrum of each cell suspension was fit into a Maxwell-Wagner ...


Biophysical Tools To Study Cellular Mechanotransduction, Ismeel Muhamed, Farhan Chowdhury, Venkat Maruthamuthu Feb 2017

Biophysical Tools To Study Cellular Mechanotransduction, Ismeel Muhamed, Farhan Chowdhury, Venkat Maruthamuthu

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

The cell membrane is the interface that volumetrically isolates cellular components from the cell's environment. Proteins embedded within and on the membrane have varied biological functions: reception of external biochemical signals, as membrane channels, amplification and regulation of chemical signals through secondary messenger molecules, controlled exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, organized recruitment and sequestration of cytosolic complex proteins, cell division processes, organization of the cytoskeleton and more. The membrane's bioelectrical role is enabled by the physiologically controlled release and accumulation of electrochemical potential modulating molecules across the membrane through specialized ion channels (e.g., Na, Ca2+, K channels). The ...


Biochemical And Histological Differences Between Costal And Articular Cartilages, Michael W. Stacey Jan 2017

Biochemical And Histological Differences Between Costal And Articular Cartilages, Michael W. Stacey

Bioelectrics Publications

Biologically, costal cartilage is an understudied tissue type and much is yet to be learned regarding underlying mechanisms related to form and function, and how these relate to disease states, specifically chest wall deformity. Chest wall deformities have a component of inheritance, implying underlying genetic causes; however the complexity of inheritance suggests multiple genetic components. At our Centre investigations were performed on gene expression of key select genes from costal cartilage removed at surgery of patients with chest wall deformity to show high expression of decorin, a key player in collagen fiber formation and growth. Also, the degree of tissue ...


Effects Of High Voltage Nanosecond Electric Pulses On Eukaryotic Cells (In Vitro): A Systematic Review, Tina Batista Napotink, Matej Reberšek, P. Thomas Vernier, Babara Mali, Damijan Miklavčič Jan 2016

Effects Of High Voltage Nanosecond Electric Pulses On Eukaryotic Cells (In Vitro): A Systematic Review, Tina Batista Napotink, Matej Reberšek, P. Thomas Vernier, Babara Mali, Damijan Miklavčič

Bioelectrics Publications

For this systematic review, 203 published reports on effects of electroporation using nanosecond high-voltage electric pulses (nsEP) on eukaryotic cells (human, animal, plant) in vitro were analyzed. A field synopsis summarizes current published data in the field with respect to publication year, cell types, exposure configuration, and pulse duration. Published data were analyzed for effects observed in eight main target areas (plasma membrane, intracellular, apoptosis, calcium level and distribution, survival, nucleus, mitochondria, stress) and an additional 107 detailed outcomes. We statistically analyzed effects of nsEP with respect to three pulse duration groups: A: 1–10 ns, B: 11–100 ns ...


In Situ Oh Generation From O2- And H2o2 Plays A Critical Role In Plasma Induced Cell Death, Dehui Xu, Dingxing Liu, Biqing Wang, Chen Chen, Zeyu Chen, Dong Li, Yanjie Yang, Hailan Chen, Michael G. Kong Jan 2015

In Situ Oh Generation From O2- And H2o2 Plays A Critical Role In Plasma Induced Cell Death, Dehui Xu, Dingxing Liu, Biqing Wang, Chen Chen, Zeyu Chen, Dong Li, Yanjie Yang, Hailan Chen, Michael G. Kong

Bioelectrics Publications

Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) are considered to be the most important species for biomedical applications, including cancer treatment. However, it is not known which species exert the greatest biological effects, and the nature of their interactions with tumor cells remains ill-defined. These questions were addressed in the present study by exposing human mesenchymal stromal and LP-1 cells to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by CAP and evaluating cell viability. Superoxide anion (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were the two major species present in plasma, but their respective concentrations ...


Diffuse, Non-Polar Electropermeabilization And Reduced Propidium Uptake Distinguish The Effect Of Nanosecond Electric Pulses, Iurii Semenov, Christian Zemlin, Olga N. Pakhomova, Shu Xiao, Andrei G. Pakhomov Jan 2015

Diffuse, Non-Polar Electropermeabilization And Reduced Propidium Uptake Distinguish The Effect Of Nanosecond Electric Pulses, Iurii Semenov, Christian Zemlin, Olga N. Pakhomova, Shu Xiao, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

Ca2+ activation and membrane electroporation by 10-ns and 4-ms electric pulses (nsEP and msEP) were compared in rat embryonic cardiomyocytes. The lowest electric field which triggered Ca2+ transients was expectedly higher for nsEP (36 kV/cm)than forms EP (0.09 kV/cm) but the respective doses were similar (190 and460 mJ/g). At higher intensities, both stimuli triggered prolonged firing in quiescent cells. An increase of basal Ca2+ level by N10 nM in cells with blocked voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and depleted Ca2+ depot occurred at 63 kV/cm (nsEP) or 0.14 kV/cm ...


Design And Study Of The Efflux Function Of The Egfp Fused Mexab-Oprm Membrane Transporter In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Using Spectroscopy, Feng Ding, Kerry J. Lee, Ardeschir Vahedi-Faridi, Hiroshi Yoneyama, Christopher J. Osgood, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu Jan 2014

Design And Study Of The Efflux Function Of The Egfp Fused Mexab-Oprm Membrane Transporter In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Using Spectroscopy, Feng Ding, Kerry J. Lee, Ardeschir Vahedi-Faridi, Hiroshi Yoneyama, Christopher J. Osgood, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Multidrug membrane transporters (efflux pumps) can selectively extrude a variety of structurally and functionally diverse substrates (e.g., chemotoxics, antibiotics), leading to multidrug resistance (MDR) and ineffective treatment of a wide variety of diseases. In this study, we have designed and constructed a fusion gene (egfp-mexB) of N-terminal mexB with C-terminal egfp, inserted it into a plasmid vector (pMMB67EH), and successfully expressed it in the Δ MexB (MexB deletion) strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosato create a new strain that expresses MexA-(EGFP-MexB)-OprM. We characterized the fusion gene using gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing, and determined its expression in live ...


Dielectric Characterization Of Coastal Cartilage Chondrocytes, Michael W. Stacey, Ahmet C. Sabuncu, Ali Beskok Jan 2014

Dielectric Characterization Of Coastal Cartilage Chondrocytes, Michael W. Stacey, Ahmet C. Sabuncu, Ali Beskok

Bioelectrics Publications

BACKGROUND: Chondrocytes respond to biomechanical and bioelectrochemical stimuli by secreting appropriate extracellular matrix proteins that enable the tissue to withstand the large forces it experiences. Although biomechanical aspects of cartilage are well described, little is known of the bioelectrochemical responses. The focus of this study is to identify bioelectrical characteristics of human costal cartilage cells using dielectric spectroscopy.

METHODS: Dielectric spectroscopy allows non-invasive probing of biological cells. An in house computer program is developed to extract dielectric properties of human costal cartilage cells from raw cell suspension impedance data measured by a microfluidic device. The dielectric properties of chondrocytes are ...


Primary Pathways Of Intracellular Ca2+ Mobilization By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field, Iurii Semenov, Shu Xiao, Andrei G. Pakhomov Jan 2013

Primary Pathways Of Intracellular Ca2+ Mobilization By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field, Iurii Semenov, Shu Xiao, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

Permeabilization of cell membranous structures by nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) triggers transient rise of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), which determines multifarious downstream effects. By using fast ratiometric Ca2+ imaging with Fura-2, we quantified the external Ca2+ uptake, compared it with Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and analyzed the interplay of these processes. We utilized CHO cells which lack voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, so that the nsPEF-induced [Ca2+]i changes could be attributed primarily to electroporation. We found that a single 60-ns pulse caused fast [Ca2+]i increase by Ca2 ...


Evaluation Of Delivery Conditions For Cutaneous Plasmid Electrotransfer Using A Multielectrode Array, Bernadette Ferraro, Loree C. Heller, Yolmari L. Cruz, Siqi Guo, Amy Donate, Richard Heller May 2011

Evaluation Of Delivery Conditions For Cutaneous Plasmid Electrotransfer Using A Multielectrode Array, Bernadette Ferraro, Loree C. Heller, Yolmari L. Cruz, Siqi Guo, Amy Donate, Richard Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Electroporation (EP) is a simple in vivo method to deliver normally impermeable molecules, such as plasmid DNA, to a variety of tissues. Delivery of plasmid DNA by EP to a large surface area is not practical because the distance between the electrode pairs, and therefore the applied voltage, must be increased to effectively permeabilize the cell membrane. The design of the multielectrode array (MEA) incorporates multiple electrode pairs at a fixed distance to allow for delivery of plasmid DNA to the skin, potentially reducing the sensation associated with in vivo EP. In this report, we evaluate the effects of field ...


Electroporation-Mediated Delivery Of A Naked Dna Plasmid Expressing Vegf To The Porcine Heart Enhances Protein Expression, W. G. Marshall Jr., B. A. Boone, J. D. Burgos, S. I. Gografe, M. K. Baldwin, M. L. Danielson, M. J. Larson, D. R. Caretto, Y. Cruz, B. Ferraro, L. C. Heller, K. E. Ugen, M. J. Jaroszeski, R. Heller Jan 2010

Electroporation-Mediated Delivery Of A Naked Dna Plasmid Expressing Vegf To The Porcine Heart Enhances Protein Expression, W. G. Marshall Jr., B. A. Boone, J. D. Burgos, S. I. Gografe, M. K. Baldwin, M. L. Danielson, M. J. Larson, D. R. Caretto, Y. Cruz, B. Ferraro, L. C. Heller, K. E. Ugen, M. J. Jaroszeski, R. Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Gene therapy is an attractive method for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, using current strategies, induction of gene expression at therapeutic levels is often inefficient. In this study, we show a novel electroporation (EP) method to enhance the delivery of a plasmid expressing an angiogenic growth factor (vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF), which is a molecule previously documented to stimulate revascularization in coronary artery disease. DNA expression plasmids were delivered in vivo to the porcine heart with or without coadministered EP to determine the potential effect of electrically mediated delivery. The results showed that plasmid delivery through EP significantly ...


Regulation Of Intracellular Calcium Concentration By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields, Shaka S. Scarlett, Jody A. White, Peter F. Blackmore, Karl H. Schoenbach, Juergen Kolb Jan 2009

Regulation Of Intracellular Calcium Concentration By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields, Shaka S. Scarlett, Jody A. White, Peter F. Blackmore, Karl H. Schoenbach, Juergen Kolb

Bioelectrics Publications

Changes in [Ca2+]i response of individual Jurkat cells to nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) of 60 ns and field strengths of 25, 50, and 100 kV/cm were investigated. The magnitude of the nsPEF-induced rise in [Ca2+]i was dependent on the electric field strength. With 25 and 50 kV/cm, the [Ca2+]i response was due to the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and occurred in less than 18 ms. With 100 kV/cm, the increase in [Ca2+]i was due to both internal release and to influx across the plasma membrane ...


Comparison Of Electrically Mediated And Liposome-Complexed Plasmid Dna Delivery To The Skin, Loree C. Heller, Mark J. Jaroszeski, Domenico Coppola, Richard Heller Dec 2008

Comparison Of Electrically Mediated And Liposome-Complexed Plasmid Dna Delivery To The Skin, Loree C. Heller, Mark J. Jaroszeski, Domenico Coppola, Richard Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

BACKGROUND: Electroporation is an established technique for enhancing plasmid delivery to many tissues in vivo, including the skin. We have previously demonstrated efficient delivery of plasmid DNA to the skin utilizing a custom-built four-plate electrode. The experiments described here further evaluate cutaneous plasmid delivery using in vivo electroporation. Plasmid expression levels are compared to those after liposome mediated delivery.

METHODS: Enhanced electrically-mediated delivery, and less extensively, liposome complexed delivery, of a plasmid encoding the reporter luciferase was tested in rodent skin. Expression kinetics and tissue damage were explored as well as testing in a second rodent model.

RESULTS: Experiments confirm ...


Stimulation Of Capacitative Calcium Entry In Hl-60 Cells By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields, Jody A. White, Peter F. Blackmore, Karl H. Schoenbach, Stephen J. Beebe Jan 2004

Stimulation Of Capacitative Calcium Entry In Hl-60 Cells By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields, Jody A. White, Peter F. Blackmore, Karl H. Schoenbach, Stephen J. Beebe

Bioelectrics Publications

Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) are hypothesized to affect intracellular structures in living cells providing a new means to modulate cell signal transduction mechanisms. The effects of nsPEFs on the release of internal calcium and activation of calcium influx in HL-60 cells were investigated by using real time fluorescent microscopy with Fluo-3 and fluorometry with Fura-2. nsPEFs induced an increase in intracellular calcium levels that was seen in all cells. With pulses of 60 ns duration and electric fields between 4 and 15 kV/cm, intracellular calcium increased 200-700 nM, respectively, above basal levels (similar to100 nM), while the uptake ...