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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Understanding The Surface Fouling Mechanism Of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Microelectrodes Using Microfluidics For Neurochemical Detection, An-Yi Chang Jul 2017

Understanding The Surface Fouling Mechanism Of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Microelectrodes Using Microfluidics For Neurochemical Detection, An-Yi Chang

Doctoral Dissertations

Electrochemical methods are widely used for chronic neurochemical sensing, but thus far, the organic solution redox reactions fouled the electrodes' surface. It caused the reduction of sensitivity and the electrodes' lifetime.

Here, we present the boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond microelectrodes (BDUNCD) as the next generation electrode material for neurochemical sensor development. To aid in long-term chronic monitoring of neurochemicals, they have a wide window of electrochemical potential, extremely low background current, and excellent chemical inertness. The main research goal is to reduce the rate of electrode fouling due to the reaction by-products, and significantly extend their useful lifetime.

We systematically characterize ...


Dynamic Holography In Semiconductors And Biomedical Optics, Hao Sun Dec 2016

Dynamic Holography In Semiconductors And Biomedical Optics, Hao Sun

Open Access Dissertations

Three-dimensional scanning and display are rapidly-advancing new technologies with important commercial drivers such as 3D printing and remote imaging for big data applications. Holography is a natural approach to recording and displaying three-dimensional information because it uses phase-sensitive interferometry to record interference patterns when a reference beam encounters coherent light arriving from an object. The 3D information is contained in the values of wave optics. Holography is a broad field that goes beyond recording and displaying. For instance, holographic optical elements, which take advantage of holographic imaging principles, perform the functions of lenses, gratings or mirrors. Holographic interferometry is also ...


Direct Drug Screening And Lipid Profiling Using Ambient Mass Spectrometry, Yuan Su Apr 2016

Direct Drug Screening And Lipid Profiling Using Ambient Mass Spectrometry, Yuan Su

Open Access Dissertations

Mass spectrometry (MS) stands in an outstanding position in analysis of biological specimens owing to its abundant structural information, high accuracy, incomparable sensitivity, high speed, and the large variety of its applications. The ion source, an instrumental part for converting the analyte into ions, has played an important role in analyzing biological specimens by MS. However, the performance of conventional spray-based ionization methods always suffers from chemical interferences derived from complex biological matrices. A series of sample extraction, purification, and separation steps is required before the ionization, so as to ensure excellent performance of MS analysis. In order to simplify ...


Mutlifunctional Platforms For Gene And Drug Delivery For Cancer Therapy, Jeffery J. Ambrose Jr. Apr 2016

Mutlifunctional Platforms For Gene And Drug Delivery For Cancer Therapy, Jeffery J. Ambrose Jr.

Doctoral Dissertations

The National Cancer Institute and the American Cancer Society estimate that 1.6 million new cancer incidences and over half a million cancer related deaths occur annually [1][2]. Cancer the second most common cause of death in the United States [1], [2]. Although the causes of cancer can vary depending on cell type, all or almost all instances of cancer arise from a mutation or from an abnormal activation of the cellular genes that control cell growth and mitosis [3].

Treatment of a given cancer type depends on the subtype, stage and progression of the cancer. Varieties of cancer ...


Modeling And Control Of Nanoparticle Bloodstream Concentration For Cancer Therapies, Scarlett S. Bracey Oct 2013

Modeling And Control Of Nanoparticle Bloodstream Concentration For Cancer Therapies, Scarlett S. Bracey

Doctoral Dissertations

Currently, the most commonly used treatments for cancerous tumors (chemotherapy, radiation, etc.) have almost no method of monitoring the administration of the treatment for adverse effects in real time. Without any real time feedback or control, treatment becomes a "guess and check" method with no way of predicting the effects of the drugs based on the actual bioavailability to the patient's body. One particular drug may be effective for one patient, yet provide no benefit to another. Doctors and scientists do not routinely attempt to quantifiably explain this discrepancy. In this work, mathematical modeling and analysis techniques are joined ...


Functionalized Nanoparticles For Biological Imaging And Detection Applications, Bing C Mei Feb 2009

Functionalized Nanoparticles For Biological Imaging And Detection Applications, Bing C Mei

Doctoral Dissertations 1896 - February 2014

Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have gained tremendous attention in the last decade as a result of their size-dependent spectroscopic properties. These nanoparticles have been a subject of intense study to bridge the gap between macroscopic and atomic behavior, as well as to generate new materials for novel applications in therapeutics, biological sensing, light emitting devices, microelectronics, lasers, and solar cells. One of the most promising areas for the use of these nanoparticles is in biotechnology, where their size-dependent optical properties are harnessed for imaging and sensing applications. However, these nanoparticles, as synthesized, are often not stable ...


A Numerical Method For Obtaining An Optimal Temperature Distribution In A 3d Triple-Layered Cylindrical Skin Structure, Le Zhang Apr 2005

A Numerical Method For Obtaining An Optimal Temperature Distribution In A 3d Triple-Layered Cylindrical Skin Structure, Le Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

In recent years, it has been interesting to research hyperthermia combined with radiation and cytotoxic drugs to enhance the killing of tumors. The crucial problem is that when heating the tumor tissues, one needs to keep the surrounding normal tissue below a temperature that will produce harm. Thus, it is important to obtain the temperature field of the entire treatment region. The objective of this dissertation is to develop a numerical model for obtaining an optimal temperature distribution in a 3D triple-layered cylindrical skin structure. To this end, we pre-specify the temperatures to be obtained at the center and perimeter ...


A High -Order Finite Difference Method For Solving Bioheat Transfer Equations In Three-Dimensional Triple -Layered Skin Structure, Haofeng Yu Jul 2004

A High -Order Finite Difference Method For Solving Bioheat Transfer Equations In Three-Dimensional Triple -Layered Skin Structure, Haofeng Yu

Doctoral Dissertations

Investigations on instantaneous skin burns are useful for an accurate assessment of burn-evaluation and for establishing thermal protections for various purposes. Meanwhile, hyperthermia with radiation is important in the treatment of cancer, and it is essential for developers and users of hyperthermia systems to predict, and interpret correctly the biomass thermal and vascular response to heating. In this dissertation, we employ the well-known Pennes' bioheat transfer equation to predict the degree of skin burn and the temperature distribution in hyperthermia cancer treatment.

A fourth-order compact finite difference scheme is developed to solve Pennes' bioheat transfer equation in a three-dimensional single ...