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Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Characterization Of Computed Tomography Radiomic Features Using Texture Phantoms, Muhammad Shafiq Ul Hassan Apr 2018

Characterization Of Computed Tomography Radiomic Features Using Texture Phantoms, Muhammad Shafiq Ul Hassan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Radiomics treats images as quantitative data and promises to improve cancer prediction in radiology and therapy response assessment in radiation oncology. However, there are a number of fundamental problems that need to be solved in order to potentially apply radiomic features in clinic. The first basic step in computed tomography (CT) radiomic analysis is the acquisition of images using selectable image acquisition and reconstruction parameters. Radiomic features have shown large variability due to variation of these parameters. Therefore, it is important to develop methods to address these variability issues in radiomic features due to each CT parameter. To this end ...


Elastin-Like Polypeptide Fusion Tag As A Protein-Dependent Solubility Enhancer Of Cysteine-Knot Growth Factors, Tamina L. Johnson Apr 2018

Elastin-Like Polypeptide Fusion Tag As A Protein-Dependent Solubility Enhancer Of Cysteine-Knot Growth Factors, Tamina L. Johnson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Elastin-like peptide (ELP) fusions promote therapeutic delivery and efficacy. Recombinant proteins, like neurotrophins, lack bioavailability, have short in vivo half-lives, and require high manufacturing costs. Fusing recombinant proteins with genetically encodable ELPs will increase bioavailability, enhance in vivo solubilization, as well as provide a cost-effective method for purification without the need for chromatography. During expression of neurotrophin-ELP (N-ELP) fusions, dense water-insoluble aggregates known as inclusion bodies (IBs) are formed. Inclusion bodies are partially and misfolded proteins that usually require denaturants like Urea for solubilization. Strong denaturants arrest ELPs stimuli-responsive property and increase unwanted aggregation, making purification difficult, yet possible. The ...


Nano-Photonic Waveguides For Chemical And Biomedical Sensing, Surya Venkatasekhar Cheemalapati May 2016

Nano-Photonic Waveguides For Chemical And Biomedical Sensing, Surya Venkatasekhar Cheemalapati

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, advances in the fields of Photonics, and Plasmonics, and specifically, single cell analysis and waveguide sensing will be addressed. The first part of the dissertation is on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) optimization and experimental demonstration of a nano-scale instrument that allows sensing at the cellular and subcellular levels. A new design of plasmonic coupler into a nanoscale waveguide is proposed and optimized using FDTD simulations. Following this, a subcellular nanoendoscope that can locally excite fluorescence in labelled cell organelles and collect the emitted fluorescent light for detailed spectrum analysis is fabricated and tested. The nanoendoscope has ...


Increasing 18f-Fdg Pet/Ct Capabilities In Radiotherapy For Lung And Esophageal Cancer Via Image Feature Analysis, Jasmine Alexandria Oliver Mar 2016

Increasing 18f-Fdg Pet/Ct Capabilities In Radiotherapy For Lung And Esophageal Cancer Via Image Feature Analysis, Jasmine Alexandria Oliver

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an imaging modality that has become increasingly beneficial in Radiotherapy by improving treatment planning (1). PET reveals tumor volumes that are not well visualized on computed tomography CT or MRI, recognizes metastatic disease, and assesses radiotherapy treatment (1). It also reveals areas of the tumor that are more radiosensitive allowing for dose painting - a non-homogenous dose treatment across the tumor (1). However, PET is not without limitations. The quantitative unit of PET images, the Standardized Uptake Value (SUV), is affected by many factors such as reconstruction algorithm, patient weight, and tracer uptake time (2). In ...


Fabrication Of Tissue Precursors Induced By Shape-Changing Hydrogels, Olukemi O. Akintewe Jan 2015

Fabrication Of Tissue Precursors Induced By Shape-Changing Hydrogels, Olukemi O. Akintewe

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Scaffold based tissue reconstruction inherently limits regenerative capacity due to inflammatory response and limited cell migration. In contrast, scaffold-free methods promise formation of functional tissues with both reduced adverse host reactions and enhanced integration. Cell-sheet engineering is a well-known bottom-up tissue engineering approach that allows the release of intact cell sheet from a temperature responsive polymer such as poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (pNIPAAm). pNIPAAm is an ideal template for culturing cell sheets because it undergoes a sharp volume-phase transition owing to the hydrophilic and hydrophobic interaction around its lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of 32°C, a temperature close to physiological temperature. Compared ...


Edge Cross-Section Profile For Colonoscopic Object Detection, Yi Wang Jan 2012

Edge Cross-Section Profile For Colonoscopic Object Detection, Yi Wang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, claiming close to 50,000 lives annually in the United States alone. Colonoscopy is an important screening tool that has contributed to a significant decline in colorectal cancer-related deaths. During colonoscopy, a tiny video camera at the tip of the endoscope generates a video signal of the internal mucosa of the human colon. The video data is displayed on a monitor for real-time diagnosis by the endoscopist. Despite the success of colonoscopy in lowering cancer-related deaths, a significant miss rate for detection of both large polyps and cancers is estimated ...


Heterogeneous Modeling Of Medical Image Data Using B-Spline Functions, Olya Grove Jan 2011

Heterogeneous Modeling Of Medical Image Data Using B-Spline Functions, Olya Grove

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ongoing developments in the field of medical imaging modalities have pushed the frontiers of modern medicine and biomedical engineering, prompting the need for new applications to improve diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases.

Biomedical data visualization and modeling rely predominately on manual processing and utilization of voxel and facet based homogeneous models. Biological structures are naturally heterogeneous and in order to accurately design and biomimic biological structures, properties such as chemical composition, size and shape of biological constituents need to be incorporated in the computational biological models.

Our proposed approach involves generating a density point cloud based on the intensity ...


Biological Effective Dose (Bed) Distribution Matching For Obtaining Brachytherapy Prescription Doses & Dosimetric Optimization For Hybrid Seed Brachytherapy, Jakub Pritz Jan 2011

Biological Effective Dose (Bed) Distribution Matching For Obtaining Brachytherapy Prescription Doses & Dosimetric Optimization For Hybrid Seed Brachytherapy, Jakub Pritz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Radioactive seed implant brachytherapy is a common radiotherapy treatment method for prostate cancer. In current clinical practice, a seed consists of a single isotope, such as 125I or 103Pd. A seed containing a mixture of two isotopes has been proposed for prostate cancer treatment. This study investigates a method for defining a prescription dose for new seed compositions based on matching the biological equivalent dose (BED) of a reference plan.

Ten prostate cancer cases previously treated using single isotope seeds (5 using 125I seeds and 5 using 103Pd seeds) were selected for this study. Verification of the method was done ...


A Novel Device For Cell-Cell Electrofusion, Justin T. Stewart Jan 2011

A Novel Device For Cell-Cell Electrofusion, Justin T. Stewart

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cell transplantation therapy is a potentially powerful tool and can be used to replace defective cells with healthy cells. This offers the possibility of alleviating the destructive symptoms for many diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, spinal cord trauma, Type I diabetes and many more. While there are many diseases that could be positively impacted from cell transplantation therapy, the focus of this research is insulin dependent, Type I Diabetes.

The Islets of Langerhans are composed of various types of cells located in the pancreas and are responsible for a variety of biochemical functions. Specifically, the ...