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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Understanding The Surface Fouling Mechanism Of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Microelectrodes Using Microfluidics For Neurochemical Detection, An-Yi Chang Jul 2017

Understanding The Surface Fouling Mechanism Of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Microelectrodes Using Microfluidics For Neurochemical Detection, An-Yi Chang

Doctoral Dissertations

Electrochemical methods are widely used for chronic neurochemical sensing, but thus far, the organic solution redox reactions fouled the electrodes' surface. It caused the reduction of sensitivity and the electrodes' lifetime.

Here, we present the boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond microelectrodes (BDUNCD) as the next generation electrode material for neurochemical sensor development. To aid in long-term chronic monitoring of neurochemicals, they have a wide window of electrochemical potential, extremely low background current, and excellent chemical inertness. The main research goal is to reduce the rate of electrode fouling due to the reaction by-products, and significantly extend their useful lifetime.

We systematically characterize ...


Generalized Partial Directed Coherence And Centrality Measures In Brain Networks For Epileptogenic Focus Localization, Joshua Aaron Adkinson Oct 2016

Generalized Partial Directed Coherence And Centrality Measures In Brain Networks For Epileptogenic Focus Localization, Joshua Aaron Adkinson

Doctoral Dissertations

Accurate epileptogenic focus localization is required prior to surgical resection of brain tissue for treatment of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy, a clinical need that is partially fulfilled to date through a subjective, and at times inconclusive, evaluation of the recorded electroencephalogram (EEG). Using brain connectivity analysis, patterns of causal interactions between brain regions were derived from multichannel EEG of 127 seizures in nine patients with focal, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The statistically significant directed interactions in the reconstructed brain networks were estimated from three second intracranial multi-electrode EEG segments using the Generalized Partial Directed Coherence (GPDC) and validated ...


Anxiolytic Effects Of Propranolol And Diphenoxylate On Mice And Automated Stretch-Attend Posture Analysis, Kevin Scott Holly Oct 2016

Anxiolytic Effects Of Propranolol And Diphenoxylate On Mice And Automated Stretch-Attend Posture Analysis, Kevin Scott Holly

Doctoral Dissertations

The prevention of social anxiety, performance anxiety, and social phobia via the combination of two generic drugs, diphenoxylate HC1 (opioid) plus atropine sulfate (anticholinergic) and propranolol HCl (beta blocker) was evaluated in mice through behavioral studies. A patent published on a September 8, 2011 by Benjamin D. Holly, US 2011/0218215 Al, prompted the research. The drug combination of diphenoxylate and atropine plus propranolol could be an immediate treatment for patients suffering from acute phobic and social anxiety disorders. Demonstrating the anxiolytic effects of the treatment on mice would validate a mouse model for neuroscientist to be used to detect ...


Mutlifunctional Platforms For Gene And Drug Delivery For Cancer Therapy, Jeffery J. Ambrose Jr. Apr 2016

Mutlifunctional Platforms For Gene And Drug Delivery For Cancer Therapy, Jeffery J. Ambrose Jr.

Doctoral Dissertations

The National Cancer Institute and the American Cancer Society estimate that 1.6 million new cancer incidences and over half a million cancer related deaths occur annually [1][2]. Cancer the second most common cause of death in the United States [1], [2]. Although the causes of cancer can vary depending on cell type, all or almost all instances of cancer arise from a mutation or from an abnormal activation of the cellular genes that control cell growth and mitosis [3].

Treatment of a given cancer type depends on the subtype, stage and progression of the cancer. Varieties of cancer ...


Modeling And Control Of Nanoparticle Bloodstream Concentration For Cancer Therapies, Scarlett S. Bracey Oct 2013

Modeling And Control Of Nanoparticle Bloodstream Concentration For Cancer Therapies, Scarlett S. Bracey

Doctoral Dissertations

Currently, the most commonly used treatments for cancerous tumors (chemotherapy, radiation, etc.) have almost no method of monitoring the administration of the treatment for adverse effects in real time. Without any real time feedback or control, treatment becomes a "guess and check" method with no way of predicting the effects of the drugs based on the actual bioavailability to the patient's body. One particular drug may be effective for one patient, yet provide no benefit to another. Doctors and scientists do not routinely attempt to quantifiably explain this discrepancy. In this work, mathematical modeling and analysis techniques are joined ...


New Microarray Image Segmentation Using Segmentation Based Contours Method, Yuan Cheng Jan 2013

New Microarray Image Segmentation Using Segmentation Based Contours Method, Yuan Cheng

Doctoral Dissertations

The goal of the research developed in this dissertation is to develop a more accurate segmentation method for Affymetrix microarray images. The Affymetrix microarray biotechnologies have become increasingly important in the biomedical research field. Affymetrix microarray images are widely used in disease diagnostics and disease control. They are capable of monitoring the expression levels of thousands of genes simultaneously. Hence, scientists can get a deep understanding on genomic regulation, interaction and expression by using such tools.

We also introduce a novel Affymetrix microarray image simulation model and how the Affymetrix microarray image is simulated by using this model. This simulation ...


Nonlinear Granger Causality And Its Application In Decoding Of Human Reaching Intentions, Mengting Liu Jan 2013

Nonlinear Granger Causality And Its Application In Decoding Of Human Reaching Intentions, Mengting Liu

Doctoral Dissertations

Multi-electrode recording is a key technology that allows the brain mechanisms of decision making, cognition, and their breakdown in diseases to be studied from a network perspective. As the hypotheses concerning the role of neural interactions in cognitive paradigms become increasingly more elaborate, the ability to evaluate the direction of neural interactions in neural networks holds the key to distinguishing their functional significance.

Granger Causality (GC) is used to detect the directional influence of signals between multiple locations. To extract the nonlinear directional flow, GC was completed through a nonlinear predictive approach using radial basis functions (RBF). Furthermore, to obtain ...


A Novel Microfluidic Enrichment Technique For Carbonylated Proteins, Bryant C. Hollins Oct 2012

A Novel Microfluidic Enrichment Technique For Carbonylated Proteins, Bryant C. Hollins

Doctoral Dissertations

Proteins are the building blocks of cells in living organisms, and are composed of amino acids. The expression of proteins is regulated by the processes of transcription and translation. Proteins undergo post-translational modifications in order to dictate their role physiologically within a cell.

Not all post-translational modifications are beneficial for the protein or the cell. One type of post-translational modification, called carbonylation, irreversibly places a carbonyl group onto an amino acid residue, most commonly proline, lysine, arginine, and threonine. This modification can have severe consequences physiologically, including loss of solubility, loss of function, and protein aggregation.

Carbonylated proteins have commonly ...


Poly(Ethylenedioxythiophene) Based Electronic Devices For Sensor Applications, Jie Liu Jul 2008

Poly(Ethylenedioxythiophene) Based Electronic Devices For Sensor Applications, Jie Liu

Doctoral Dissertations

Organic electronic devices, based on Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-Poly (styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT-PSS) as the active layer for sensor applications, have been studied. Two sets of sensors have been developed. In one case, sensors consisting of PEDOT-PSS resistors have been realized and demonstrated for soil moisture monitoring. The resistor model for the soil moisture sensor enables the sensor device to be fabricated at low cost and easily tested with a simple structure. Unlike the large dimension device used in Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR), the sensors are small and are capable of capturing microscale behavior of moisture in soil which is ...


A Numerical Method For Obtaining An Optimal Temperature Distribution In A 3d Triple-Layered Cylindrical Skin Structure, Le Zhang Apr 2005

A Numerical Method For Obtaining An Optimal Temperature Distribution In A 3d Triple-Layered Cylindrical Skin Structure, Le Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

In recent years, it has been interesting to research hyperthermia combined with radiation and cytotoxic drugs to enhance the killing of tumors. The crucial problem is that when heating the tumor tissues, one needs to keep the surrounding normal tissue below a temperature that will produce harm. Thus, it is important to obtain the temperature field of the entire treatment region. The objective of this dissertation is to develop a numerical model for obtaining an optimal temperature distribution in a 3D triple-layered cylindrical skin structure. To this end, we pre-specify the temperatures to be obtained at the center and perimeter ...


A High -Order Finite Difference Method For Solving Bioheat Transfer Equations In Three-Dimensional Triple -Layered Skin Structure, Haofeng Yu Jul 2004

A High -Order Finite Difference Method For Solving Bioheat Transfer Equations In Three-Dimensional Triple -Layered Skin Structure, Haofeng Yu

Doctoral Dissertations

Investigations on instantaneous skin burns are useful for an accurate assessment of burn-evaluation and for establishing thermal protections for various purposes. Meanwhile, hyperthermia with radiation is important in the treatment of cancer, and it is essential for developers and users of hyperthermia systems to predict, and interpret correctly the biomass thermal and vascular response to heating. In this dissertation, we employ the well-known Pennes' bioheat transfer equation to predict the degree of skin burn and the temperature distribution in hyperthermia cancer treatment.

A fourth-order compact finite difference scheme is developed to solve Pennes' bioheat transfer equation in a three-dimensional single ...


Bottom-Up Design Of Artificial Neural Network For Single-Lead Electrocardiogram Beat And Rhythm Classification, Srikanth Thiagarajan Jan 2000

Bottom-Up Design Of Artificial Neural Network For Single-Lead Electrocardiogram Beat And Rhythm Classification, Srikanth Thiagarajan

Doctoral Dissertations

Performance improvement in computerized Electrocardiogram (ECG) classification is vital to improve reliability in this life-saving technology. The non-linearly overlapping nature of the ECG classification task prevents the statistical and the syntactic procedures from reaching the maximum performance. A new approach, a neural network-based classification scheme, has been implemented in clinical ECG problems with much success. The focus, however, has been on narrow clinical problem domains and the implementations lacked engineering precision. An optimal utilization of frequency information was missing. This dissertation attempts to improve the accuracy of neural network-based single-lead (lead-II) ECG beat and rhythm classification. A bottom-up approach defined ...