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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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Medical Specialties

2016

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Articles 1 - 30 of 37

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Finite Element Simulation And Additive Manufacturing Of Stiffness-Matched Niti Fixation Hardware For Mandibular Reconstruction Surgery, Ahmadreza Jahadakbar, Narges Shayesteh Moghaddam, Amirhesam Amerinatanzi, David Dean, Haluk E. Karaca, Mohammad Elahinia Dec 2016

Finite Element Simulation And Additive Manufacturing Of Stiffness-Matched Niti Fixation Hardware For Mandibular Reconstruction Surgery, Ahmadreza Jahadakbar, Narges Shayesteh Moghaddam, Amirhesam Amerinatanzi, David Dean, Haluk E. Karaca, Mohammad Elahinia

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

Process parameters and post-processing heat treatment techniques have been developed to produce both shape memory and superelastic NiTi using Additive Manufacturing. By introducing engineered porosity, the stiffness of NiTi can be tuned to the level closely matching cortical bone. Using additively manufactured porous superelastic NiTi, we have proposed the use of patient-specific, stiffness-matched fixation hardware, for mandible skeletal reconstructive surgery. Currently, Ti-6Al-4V is the most commonly used material for skeletal fixation devices. Although this material offers more than sufficient strength for immobilization during the bone healing process, the high stiffness of Ti-6Al-4V implants can cause stress shielding. In this paper ...


The Role Of Scapular Morphology In Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty, Ashish Gupta Dec 2016

The Role Of Scapular Morphology In Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty, Ashish Gupta

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Baseplate fixation in a reverse shoulder arthroplasty depends on adequate bone stock. In cases of severe glenoid bone loss and revision shoulder arthroplasty, deficiency of the glenoid vault compels the surgeon to attain screw fixation in the three columns of the scapula. The relationship of these columns demonstrated that the coracoid is closer to the lateral scapular pillar in females than in males. Significant gender dimorphism exists between the orientations of the three columns. The gender dimorphism is further evaluated by anthropometric measurements of the scapular body and the glenoid. The clinical significance lies in the ability to reconstruct the ...


Sensitivity Analysis Of Geometry Changes In The Simulation Of Basilar Aneurysms, Paul Eserkaln Dec 2016

Sensitivity Analysis Of Geometry Changes In The Simulation Of Basilar Aneurysms, Paul Eserkaln

Theses and Dissertations

Computer simulation is a useful tool in the research and treatment of basilar aneurysms. Current technology allows researchers to create 3D models from cerebral vasculature in-vivo, allowing for the investigation of surgical options with minimal risk to the patient. The method used to construct these models overlooks smaller lateral arterial branches which are difficult to discern due to resolution limits of the imaging process. These lateral branches have minimal impact on the overall blood flow through the basilar artery, but they play a significant role in the health of the patient, so it is important to ensure sufficient blood will ...


Optical Coherence Photoacoustic Microscopy (Oc-Pam) For Multimodal Imaging, Xiaojing Liu Nov 2016

Optical Coherence Photoacoustic Microscopy (Oc-Pam) For Multimodal Imaging, Xiaojing Liu

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) are two noninvasive, high-resolution, three-dimensional, biomedical imaging modalities based on different contrast mechanisms. OCT detects the light backscattered from a biological sample either in the time or spectral domain using an interferometer to form an image. PAM is sensitive to optical absorption by detecting the light-induced acoustic waves to form an image. Due to their complementary contrast mechanisms, OCT and PAM are suitable for being combined to achieve multimodal imaging.

In this dissertation, an optical coherence photoacoustic microscopy (OC-PAM) system was developed for in vivo multimodal retinal imaging with a pulsed broadband ...


Raman Spectroscopy Detects Distant Invasive Brain Cancer Cells Centimeters Beyond Mri Capability In Humans, Michael Jermyn, Joannie Desroches, Jeanne Mercier, Karl St-Arnaud Nov 2016

Raman Spectroscopy Detects Distant Invasive Brain Cancer Cells Centimeters Beyond Mri Capability In Humans, Michael Jermyn, Joannie Desroches, Jeanne Mercier, Karl St-Arnaud

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Surgical treatment of brain cancer is limited by the inability of current imaging capabilities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect the entirety of this locally invasive cancer. This results in residual cancer cells remaining following surgery, leading to recurrence and death. We demonstrate that intraoperative Raman spectroscopy can detect invasive cancer cells centimeters beyond pathological T1-contrast-enhanced and T2-weighted MRI signals. This intraoperative optical guide can be used to detect invasive cancer cells and minimize post-surgical cancer burden. The detection of distant invasive cancer cells beyond MRI signal has the potential to increase the effectiveness of surgery and directly ...


A Fourier Description Of Covariance, And Separation Of Simultaneously Encoded Slices With In-Plane Acceleration In Fmri, Mary C. Kociuba Oct 2016

A Fourier Description Of Covariance, And Separation Of Simultaneously Encoded Slices With In-Plane Acceleration In Fmri, Mary C. Kociuba

Dissertations (2009 -)

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies aim to identify localized neural regions associated with a cognitive task performed by the subject. An indirect measure of the brain activity is the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations observed within the complex-valued spatial frequencies measured over time. The standard practice in fMRI is to discard the phase information after image reconstruction, even with evidence of biological task-related change in the phase time-series. In the first aim of this dissertation, a complex-valued time-series covariance is derived as a linear combination of second order temporal Fourier frequency coefficients. As opposed to magnitude-only analysis ...


Long-Term Biocompatibility, Imaging Appearance And Tissue Effects Associated With Delivery Of A Novel Radiopaque Embolization Bead For Image-Guided Therapy, Karun Sharma, Zainab Bascal, Hugh Kilpatrick, Koorosh Ashrafi, Sean L. Willis, Matthew R. Dreher, Andrew L. Lewis Oct 2016

Long-Term Biocompatibility, Imaging Appearance And Tissue Effects Associated With Delivery Of A Novel Radiopaque Embolization Bead For Image-Guided Therapy, Karun Sharma, Zainab Bascal, Hugh Kilpatrick, Koorosh Ashrafi, Sean L. Willis, Matthew R. Dreher, Andrew L. Lewis

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

The objective of this study was to undertake a comprehensive long-term biocompatibility and imaging assessment of a new intrinsically radiopaque bead (LC Bead LUMI™) for use in transarterial embolization. The sterilized device and its extracts were subjected to the raft of ISO10993 biocompatibility tests that demonstrated safety with respect to cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, blood contact, irritation, sensitization, systemic toxicity and tissue reaction. Intra-arterial administration was performed in a swine model of hepatic arterial embolization in which 0.22–1 mL of sedimented bead volume was administered to the targeted lobe(s) of the liver. The beads could be visualized during the ...


Patient-Specific Mri-Based Right Ventricle Models Using Different Zero-Load Diastole And Systole Geometries For Better Cardiac Stress And Strain Calculations And Pulmonary Valve Replacement Surgical Outcome Predictions, Dalin Tang, Pedro J. Del Nido, Chun Yang, Heng Zuo, Xueying Huang, Rahul H. Rathod, Vasu Gooty, Alexander Tang, Zheyang Wu, Kristen L. Billiar, Tal Geva Sep 2016

Patient-Specific Mri-Based Right Ventricle Models Using Different Zero-Load Diastole And Systole Geometries For Better Cardiac Stress And Strain Calculations And Pulmonary Valve Replacement Surgical Outcome Predictions, Dalin Tang, Pedro J. Del Nido, Chun Yang, Heng Zuo, Xueying Huang, Rahul H. Rathod, Vasu Gooty, Alexander Tang, Zheyang Wu, Kristen L. Billiar, Tal Geva

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Accurate calculation of ventricular stress and strain is critical for cardiovascular investigations. Sarcomere shortening in active contraction leads to change of ventricular zero-stress configurations during the cardiac cycle. A new model using different zero-load diastole and systole geometries was introduced to provide more accurate cardiac stress/strain calculations with potential to predict post pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) surgical outcome.

METHODS: Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) data were obtained from 16 patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot prior to and 6 months after pulmonary valve replacement (8 male, 8 female, mean age 34.5 years). Patients were divided into Group 1 ...


An Interactive Videogame Designed To Improve Respiratory Navigator Efficiency In Children Undergoing Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Sean M. Hamlet, Christopher M. Haggerty, Jonathan D. Suever, Gregory J. Wehner, Jonathan D. Grabau, Kristin N. Andres, Moriel H. Vandsburger, David K. Powell, Vincent L. Sorrell, Brandon K. Fornwalt Sep 2016

An Interactive Videogame Designed To Improve Respiratory Navigator Efficiency In Children Undergoing Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Sean M. Hamlet, Christopher M. Haggerty, Jonathan D. Suever, Gregory J. Wehner, Jonathan D. Grabau, Kristin N. Andres, Moriel H. Vandsburger, David K. Powell, Vincent L. Sorrell, Brandon K. Fornwalt

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

Background: Advanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) acquisitions often require long scan durations that necessitate respiratory navigator gating. The tradeoff of navigator gating is reduced scan efficiency, particularly when the patient’s breathing patterns are inconsistent, as is commonly seen in children. We hypothesized that engaging pediatric participants with a navigator-controlled videogame to help control breathing patterns would improve navigator efficiency and maintain image quality.

Methods: We developed custom software that processed the Siemens respiratory navigator image in real-time during CMR and represented diaphragm position using a cartoon avatar, which was projected to the participant in the scanner as visual feedback ...


Imaging Right Ventricular Function To Predict Outcome In Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Alessandro Bellofiore, Melanie Brewis, Rebecca Vanderpool, Naomi Chesler, Martin Johnson, Robert Naeije, Andrew Peacock Sep 2016

Imaging Right Ventricular Function To Predict Outcome In Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Alessandro Bellofiore, Melanie Brewis, Rebecca Vanderpool, Naomi Chesler, Martin Johnson, Robert Naeije, Andrew Peacock

Faculty Publications

Right ventricular (RV) function is a major determinant of outcome in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, uncertainty persists about the optimal method of evaluation.MethodsWe measured RV end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes (ESV and EDV) using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and RV pressures during right heart catheterization in 140 incident PAH patients and 22 controls. A maximum RV pressure (Pmax) was calculated from the nonlinear extrapolations of early and late systolic portions of the RV pressure curve. The gold standard measure of RV function adaptation to afterload, or RV–arterial coupling (Ees/Ea) was estimated by the stroke volume (SV)/ESV ...


Microdose Fluorescence Imaging Of Aby-029 On An Operating Microscope Adapted By Custom Illumination And Imaging Modules, Jonathan T. Elliott, Alisha V. Dsouza, Kayla Marra, Brian W. Pogue, David Roberts, Keith Paulsen Sep 2016

Microdose Fluorescence Imaging Of Aby-029 On An Operating Microscope Adapted By Custom Illumination And Imaging Modules, Jonathan T. Elliott, Alisha V. Dsouza, Kayla Marra, Brian W. Pogue, David Roberts, Keith Paulsen

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Fluorescence guided surgery has the potential to positively impact surgical oncology; current operating microscopes and stand-alone imaging systems are too insensitive or too cumbersome to maximally take advantage of new tumor-specific agents developed through the microdose pathway. To this end, a custom-built illumination and imaging module enabling picomolar-sensitive near-infrared fluorescence imaging on a commercial operating microscope is described. The limits of detection and system specifications are characterized, and in vivo efficacy of the system in detecting ABY-029 is evaluated in a rat orthotopic glioma model following microdose injections, showing the suitability of the device for microdose phase 0 clinical trials.


Application Of Bioinstrumentation In Developing A Pressure Suit For Suborbital Flight, Pedro Llanos, Erik Seedhouse Sep 2016

Application Of Bioinstrumentation In Developing A Pressure Suit For Suborbital Flight, Pedro Llanos, Erik Seedhouse

Publications

This presentation features Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University's U-2 pressure suit. Built to be light and cost-effective, this suit is comfortable, comes in multiple sizes, operates in pressures up to 5 PSID, has an active airflow-based cooling system, and features bio-instrumentation to measure heart rate, breathing rate, skin temperature and other vitals.


Diffuse Optical Measurements Of Head And Neck Tumor Hemodynamics For Early Prediction Of Chemoradiation Therapy Outcomes, Lixin Dong, Mahesh Kudrimoti, Daniel Irwin, Li Chen, Sameera Kumar, Yu Shang, Chong Huang, Ellis L. Johnson, Scott D. Stevens, Brent J. Shelton, Guoqiang Yu Aug 2016

Diffuse Optical Measurements Of Head And Neck Tumor Hemodynamics For Early Prediction Of Chemoradiation Therapy Outcomes, Lixin Dong, Mahesh Kudrimoti, Daniel Irwin, Li Chen, Sameera Kumar, Yu Shang, Chong Huang, Ellis L. Johnson, Scott D. Stevens, Brent J. Shelton, Guoqiang Yu

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

This study used a hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument to monitor tumor hemodynamic responses to chemoradiation therapy for early prediction of treatment outcomes in patients with head and neck cancer. Forty-seven patients were measured once per week to evaluate the hemodynamic status of clinically involved cervical lymph nodes as surrogates for the primary tumor response. Patients were classified into two groups: complete response (CR) (n = 29) and incomplete response (IR) (n = 18). Tumor hemodynamic responses were found to be associated with clinical outcomes (CR/IR), wherein the associations differed depending on human papillomavirus (HPV-16) status. In HPV-16 positive patients, significantly ...


Nanobubbles Provide Theranostic Relief To Cancer Hypoxia, Christopher M. Long, Pushpak N. Bhandari, Joseph Irudayaraj Aug 2016

Nanobubbles Provide Theranostic Relief To Cancer Hypoxia, Christopher M. Long, Pushpak N. Bhandari, Joseph Irudayaraj

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Hypoxia is a common motif among tumors, contributing to metastasis, angiogenesis, cellular epigenetic abnormality, and resistance to cancer therapy. Hypoxia also plays a pivotal role in oncological studies, where it can be used as a principal target for new anti-cancer therapeutic methods. Oxygen nanobubbles were designed in an effort to target the hypoxic tumor regions, thus interrupting the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) regulatory pathway and inhibiting tumor progression. At less than 100nm, oxygen nanobubbles act as a vehicle for site-specific oxygen delivery, while also serving as an ultrasound contrast agent for advanced imaging purposes. Through in vitro and in vivo studies ...


Characterization Of Left-Ventricular Thrombus Formation Using High Frequency Ultrasound, Kelsey A. Bullens, Arvin H. Soepriatna, Pavlos P. Vlachos, Craig J. Goergen Aug 2016

Characterization Of Left-Ventricular Thrombus Formation Using High Frequency Ultrasound, Kelsey A. Bullens, Arvin H. Soepriatna, Pavlos P. Vlachos, Craig J. Goergen

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Heart failure is a leading cause of death in the United States, and cardiac thrombus, a common morbidity associated with heart failure, significantly increases a patient’s risk of embolic events. The objective of this project is to characterize left-ventricular (LV) thrombus development using high frequency ultrasound imaging in a murine model. C57BL/6J wild-type mice (n=6) were injected intraperitoneally with iron dextran five times a week for six weeks to increase oxidative stress in the heart. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) was subcutaneously injected daily during the second week to initiate stem cell migration and stimulate endothelial cell activation ...


Three-Dimensional Printing And Nanotechnology For Enhanced Implantable Materials, Karthik Kumar Tappa Jul 2016

Three-Dimensional Printing And Nanotechnology For Enhanced Implantable Materials, Karthik Kumar Tappa

Doctoral Dissertations

Orthopedic and oro-maxillofacial implants have revolutionized treatment of bone diseases and fractures. Currently available metallic implants have been in clinical use for more than 40 years and have proved medically efficacious. However, several drawbacks remain, such as excessive stiffness, accumulation of metal ions in surrounding tissue, growth restriction, required removal/revision surgery, inability to carry drugs, and susceptibility to infection. The need for additional revision surgery increases financial costs and prolongs recovery time for patients. These metallic implants are bulk manufactured and often do not meet patient's requirements. A surgeon must machine (cut, weld, trim or drill holes) them ...


Portable, Parallel 9-Wavelength Near-Infrared Spectral Tomography (Nirst) System For Efficient Characterization Of Breast Cancer Within The Clinical Oncology Infusion Suite, Yan Zhao, Brian W. Pogue, Steffen J. Haider, Jiang Gui, Roberta Diflorio-Alexander, Keith Paulsen, Shudong Jiang Jun 2016

Portable, Parallel 9-Wavelength Near-Infrared Spectral Tomography (Nirst) System For Efficient Characterization Of Breast Cancer Within The Clinical Oncology Infusion Suite, Yan Zhao, Brian W. Pogue, Steffen J. Haider, Jiang Gui, Roberta Diflorio-Alexander, Keith Paulsen, Shudong Jiang

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

A portable near-infrared spectral tomography (NIRST) system was developed with simultaneous frequency domain (FD) and continuous-wave (CW) optical measurements for efficient characterization of breast cancer in a clinical oncology setting. Simultaneous FD and CW recordings were implemented to speed up acquisition to 3 minutes for all 9 wavelengths, spanning a range from 661nm to 1064nm. An adjustable interface was designed to fit various breast sizes and shapes. Spatial images of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, water, lipid, and scattering components were reconstructed using a 2D FEM approach. The system was tested on a group of 10 normal subjects, who were examined bilaterally ...


Using Mathematical Modeling To Unmask The Concealed Nature Of Long Qt-3 Syndrome, Steven Poelzing, Amara Greer-Short, Seth H. Weinberg May 2016

Using Mathematical Modeling To Unmask The Concealed Nature Of Long Qt-3 Syndrome, Steven Poelzing, Amara Greer-Short, Seth H. Weinberg

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Implantable Microenvironments To Capture Stable-To- Aggressive Tumor Transition, Ryan Carpenter, Jungwoo Lee May 2016

Implantable Microenvironments To Capture Stable-To- Aggressive Tumor Transition, Ryan Carpenter, Jungwoo Lee

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Clinical stability occurs when cancers reach a state where the disease neither advances nor regresses. Tumors can remain in this state for multiple years before progressing to more aggressive phenotypes. The mechanisms for maintaining a stable state and the factors that contribute to tumor activation are poorly understood. We hypothesized that an implantable biomaterial scaffold would be able to isolate a population of stable tumor cells that could then be used to study the transition to an aggressive phenotype. In this work we developed a tunable and highly controlled, porous acrylamide scaffold and subcutaneously implanted them in immunodeficient (NSG) mice ...


Lipoaspirate And Adipose Stem Cells As Potential Therapeutics For Chronic Scars, Dylan Perry, Jorge Lujan-Hernandez, Michael S. Chin, So-Yun Min, Ava Chappell, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Raghu Appasani, Patrick Teebagy, Silvia Corvera, Janice F. Lalikos May 2016

Lipoaspirate And Adipose Stem Cells As Potential Therapeutics For Chronic Scars, Dylan Perry, Jorge Lujan-Hernandez, Michael S. Chin, So-Yun Min, Ava Chappell, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Raghu Appasani, Patrick Teebagy, Silvia Corvera, Janice F. Lalikos

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Introduction: Burn injuries can lead to hypertrophic or keloid scars, causing pain and long lasting mobility issues. Current therapies are often unsatisfactory, costly, or morbid. Prior studies suggest adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) and lipoaspirate can improve scar outcomes of acute thermal wounds. Clinical reports suggest lipoaspirate and ADSCs can improve chronic burn scar remodeling. However, this has not been extensively studied in animal models. We sought to determine if adipose tissue can improve chronic scar remodeling and to compare the effects of ADSCs and processed lipoaspirate.

Methods: 50 CD1 nu/nu athymic mice received a standardized deep partial-thickness thermal ...


Hiv Vaccines: Progress, Limitations And A Crispr/Cas9 Vaccine, Omar A. Garcia Martinez May 2016

Hiv Vaccines: Progress, Limitations And A Crispr/Cas9 Vaccine, Omar A. Garcia Martinez

Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

ABSTRACT: The HIV-1 pandemic continues to thrive due to ineffective HIV-1 vaccines. Historically, the world’s most infectious diseases, such as polio and smallpox, have been eradicated or have come close to eradication due to the advent of effective vaccines. Highly active antiretroviral therapy is able to delay the onset of AIDS but can neither rid the body of HIV-1 proviral DNA nor prevent further transmission. A prophylactic vaccine that prevents the various mechanisms HIV-1 has to evade and attack our immune system is needed to end the HIV-1 pandemic. Recent advances in engineered nuclease systems, like the CRISPR/Cas9 ...


Cardiac Remodeling And Dysfunction In Childhood Obesity: A Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Study, Linyuan Jing, Cassi M. Binkley, Jonathan D. Suever, Nivedita Umasankar, Christopher M. Haggerty, Jennifer Rich, Christopher D. Nevius, Gregory J. Wehner, Sean M. Hamlet, David K. Powell, Aurelia Radulescu, H. Lester Kirchner, Frederick H. Epstein, Brandon K. Fornwalt May 2016

Cardiac Remodeling And Dysfunction In Childhood Obesity: A Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Study, Linyuan Jing, Cassi M. Binkley, Jonathan D. Suever, Nivedita Umasankar, Christopher M. Haggerty, Jennifer Rich, Christopher D. Nevius, Gregory J. Wehner, Sean M. Hamlet, David K. Powell, Aurelia Radulescu, H. Lester Kirchner, Frederick H. Epstein, Brandon K. Fornwalt

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Background: Obesity affects nearly one in five children and is associated with increased risk of premature death. Obesity-related heart disease contributes to premature death. We aimed to use cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to comprehensively characterize the changes in cardiac geometry and function in obese children.

Methods and results: Forty-one obese/overweight (age 12 ± 3 years, 56 % female) and 29 healthy weight children (age 14 ± 3 years, 41 % female) underwent CMR, including both standard cine imaging and displacement encoded imaging, for a complete assessment of left ventricular (LV) structure and function. After adjusting for age, LV mass index was 23 % greater ...


Hepcidin Plays A Key Role In 6-Ohda Induced Iron Overload And Apoptotic Cell Death In A Cell Culture Model Of Parkinson’S Disease, Qi Xu, Anumantha G. Kanthasamy, Huajun Jin, Manju B. Reddy May 2016

Hepcidin Plays A Key Role In 6-Ohda Induced Iron Overload And Apoptotic Cell Death In A Cell Culture Model Of Parkinson’S Disease, Qi Xu, Anumantha G. Kanthasamy, Huajun Jin, Manju B. Reddy

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Background. Elevated brain iron levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the precise mechanism underlying abnormal iron accumulation in PD is not clear. Hepcidin, a hormone primarily produced by hepatocytes, acts as a key regulator in both systemic and cellular iron homeostasis. Objective. We investigated the role of hepcidin in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced apoptosis in a cell culture model of PD. Methods. We downregulated hepcidin using siRNA interference in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cells and made a comparison with control siRNA transfected cells to investigate the role of hepcidin in 6-OHDA induced neurodegeneration. Results. Hepcidin ...


Diffusion Modeling And Device Development For Peritoneal Membrane Oxygenation, Liana Hatoum May 2016

Diffusion Modeling And Device Development For Peritoneal Membrane Oxygenation, Liana Hatoum

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a pulmonary disease that causes hypoxemia and respiratory failure. The mortality rate for ARDS ranges between 27% and 45%. Current treatments including mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are often associated with high risk complications including barotrauma, infection, thrombosis, and hemorrhage. Alternative pulmonary support techniques are needed to improve the survival rate of patients suffering from ARDS. Previous studies introducing pure O2 gas, perfluorocarbons and red blood cells into the intraperitoneal (IP) cavity have reported no effect or only a mild increase in oxygenation. Here we report peritoneal membrane oxygenation (PMO) using ...


Micellular Electrokinetic Chromatography For Studying Amyloid Beta Oligomer Membrane Affinity, Andrew Bryson May 2016

Micellular Electrokinetic Chromatography For Studying Amyloid Beta Oligomer Membrane Affinity, Andrew Bryson

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Amyloid Beta (Aβ) was the major focus of this study. It is a peptide that is present in the brain with a high tendency to self-aggregate. When this protein aggregates, it forms oligomers and protofibrils which in turn are deposited as senile plaques in the brain. The reason for the concern with these plaques is their association with the neurological disorder Alzheimer’s disease. It has been found that the most dangerous oligomers are formed in a portion of the plasma membrane known as lipid rafts. The purpose of this study was to understand how micelles affect the aggregation properties ...


Pulmonary Primary Blast Injuries, Moe Uddin Apr 2016

Pulmonary Primary Blast Injuries, Moe Uddin

Honors Scholar Theses

Primary underwater explosions are particularly dangerous because of the water properties relative to air, and the resulting pathologies presents difficulty in determining their etiologies. The whole body is affected by the blast wave and the survivor is considered a trauma patient. The exact mechanism of injury is not well understood. In the literature, there are inconsistencies between the explosive and the resulting outcome of the experimental animals. Primary lung blast injuries is the leading cause of mortality in underwater explosions and this explores the different pathologies, symptoms, and treatments that are currently available.


The Connectivity Domain: Analyzing Resting State Fmri Data Using Feature-Based Data-Driven And Model-Based Methods, Armin Iraji, Vince D. Calhoun, Natalie M. Wiseman, Esmaeil Davoodi-Bojd, Mohammad R. N. Avanaki, Zhifeng Kou Apr 2016

The Connectivity Domain: Analyzing Resting State Fmri Data Using Feature-Based Data-Driven And Model-Based Methods, Armin Iraji, Vince D. Calhoun, Natalie M. Wiseman, Esmaeil Davoodi-Bojd, Mohammad R. N. Avanaki, Zhifeng Kou

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research Publications

Spontaneous fluctuations of resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI) have been widely used to understand the macro-connectome of the human brain. However, these fluctuations are not synchronized among subjects, which leads to limitations and makes utilization of first-level model-based methods challenging. Considering this limitation of rsfMRI data in the time domain, we propose to transfer the spatiotemporal information of the rsfMRI data to another domain, the connectivity domain, in which each value represents the same effect across subjects. Using a set of seed networks and a connectivity index to calculate the functional connectivity for each seed network, we transform data into ...


Influence Of The 3d Microenvironment On Glioblastoma Migration And Drug Response, Ruth Marisol Herrera Perez Apr 2016

Influence Of The 3d Microenvironment On Glioblastoma Migration And Drug Response, Ruth Marisol Herrera Perez

Open Access Dissertations

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly invasive brain cancer characterized by poor prognosis. Despite significant efforts by the basic and clinical research community our understanding of GBM progression and recurrence has been incremental. Improvements in therapeutic response have been dismal, and GBM continues to be the deadliest tumor of the central nervous system, with patient average survival rate of 12 months. Synergistic relationships that the tumor cells establish with the brain microenvironment have been proven fundamental for successful tumor progression and maintenance. Yet, many in vitro GBM studies are performed in formats that fail to recapitulate the most essential component of ...


Exploring Oculomotor Trends In Collegiate Athletes, Brett Whorley, Julie A. Honaker Apr 2016

Exploring Oculomotor Trends In Collegiate Athletes, Brett Whorley, Julie A. Honaker

UCARE Research Products

Collaborative efforts to improve athlete safety without significantly hindering the rules of the games aim to develop a novel system to better measure and diagnose concussions. Provided that common signs of concussions include blurred vision, distant gaze, and dizziness, the Dizziness and Balance Disorders Lab at UNL believes that the simple oculomotor exam studied in this project may be applied to this procedure. Within the broader goal to better understand the causes, signs, symptoms, and prognosis of concussions, researchers desired to further investigate the results of this oculomotor test. The aim was to identify and interpret correlations between collegiate athlete ...


Mri Signal Intensity Differentiation Of Brainstem Encephalitis Induced By Enterovirus 71: A Classification Approach For Acute And Convalescence Stages, Hongwu Zeng, Wenxian Huang, Feiqiu Wen, Yonker Wang, Yungen Gan, Weibin Zeng, Ranran Chen, Yanxia He, Zaiyi Liu, Changhong Liang, Kelvin K. L. Wong Feb 2016

Mri Signal Intensity Differentiation Of Brainstem Encephalitis Induced By Enterovirus 71: A Classification Approach For Acute And Convalescence Stages, Hongwu Zeng, Wenxian Huang, Feiqiu Wen, Yonker Wang, Yungen Gan, Weibin Zeng, Ranran Chen, Yanxia He, Zaiyi Liu, Changhong Liang, Kelvin K. L. Wong

Radiology Faculty Publications

Background: The objective of this study is to assess standardized histograms of signal intensities of T1 signal and T2 signal on sagittal view without enhancement during (1) acute stage, and (2) convalescence stage of pediatric patients with Enterovirus 71 related brainstem encephalitis (BE), and with respect to (3) healthy normal.

Methods: Our subjects were hospitalized between March 2010 and October 2012, and underwent pre- and post-contrast MRI studies. The research question to be answered is whether the comparison of the MRI image intensity histograms and relevant statistical quantification can add new knowledge to the diagnosis of BE patients. So, both ...