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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Polymeric Nanoparticles For Targeted Combination Treatment Of Temozolomide Resistant Glioblastoma Multiforme (Gbm), Praveena Velpurisiva, Brandon Piel, Jack Lepine, Prakash Rai May 2017

Polymeric Nanoparticles For Targeted Combination Treatment Of Temozolomide Resistant Glioblastoma Multiforme (Gbm), Praveena Velpurisiva, Brandon Piel, Jack Lepine, Prakash Rai

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive cancer that originates from astrocytes and spreads to spinal cord and other parts of the brain. Increase in replication of glial cells leads to advantageous mutations in the tumor. According to the cancer statistics from 2015 about 15,320 deaths were reported due to GBM. Five-year survival is less than 5% making GBM a dreadful form of cancer. Current treatment involves complex invasive surgery, followed by chemotherapy and radiation. The goal of this study is to develop a combination therapy to treat GBM using Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles encapsulated with two drugs namely ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Curcumin Polymer For Application In Radiation Induced Lung Damage, Mark C. Bailey Jan 2016

Synthesis And Characterization Of Curcumin Polymer For Application In Radiation Induced Lung Damage, Mark C. Bailey

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Radiotherapy is used as a primary treatment for many cancers, including lung cancer. Although radiotherapy has proven to be an effective cancer treatment, its use is heavily limited due to the peripheral toxicity to healthy tissue. In this work, the antioxidant, curcumin, was tested as a radioprotectant to reduce radiation damage to healthy cells. Curcumin has been limited in use due to its poor bioavailability. In order to avoid problems associated with free curcumin delivery, curcumin poly(beta-amino ester) (CPBAE) was synthesized.

The first study investigated the in vitro radioprotection effect of curcumin in HUVEC dosed with gamma radiation. Cells ...


Bioactive Poly(Beta-Amino Ester) Biomaterials For Treatment Of Infection And Oxidative Stress, Andrew L. Lakes Jan 2016

Bioactive Poly(Beta-Amino Ester) Biomaterials For Treatment Of Infection And Oxidative Stress, Andrew L. Lakes

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Polymers have deep roots as drug delivery tools, and are widely used in clinical to private settings. Currently, however, numerous traditional therapies exist which may be improved through use of polymeric biomaterials. Through our work with infectious and oxidative stress disease prevention and treatment, we aimed to develop application driven, enhanced therapies utilizing new classes of polymers synthesized in-house. Applying biodegradable poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) polymers, covalent-addition of bioactive substrates to these PBAEs avoided certain pitfalls of free-loaded and non-degradable drug delivery systems. Further, through variation of polymer ingredients and conditions, we were able to tune degradation rates, release profiles ...


Effect Of High-Energy Ball Milling On The Formation And Micro Structural Features Of Carbonated Chlorapatite Nanopowders Apr 2015

Effect Of High-Energy Ball Milling On The Formation And Micro Structural Features Of Carbonated Chlorapatite Nanopowders

Faculty of Engineering University of Malaya

Carbonated chlorapatite nanopowders (n-CCAp) were synthesized by mechanochemical process from calcite (CaCO3), phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5), and calcium chloride (CaCl2) as raw materials. Results demonstrated that the formation of n-CCAp was influenced strongly by the milling time. At the beginning of milling (up to 15 min), CaCO3 and CaCl2 were the dominant phases, while P2O5 disappeared entirely due to its very high deliquescent nature. With increasing the milling time to 600 min, the progressive mechanochemical reaction was completed which resulted in the formation of nanostructured carbonated chlorapatite. According to the X-ray diffraction data, crystallite size of the product decreased from 24 ...


Nanoparticles For Stem-Cell Engineering, Esmaiel Jabbari Mar 2015

Nanoparticles For Stem-Cell Engineering, Esmaiel Jabbari

Esmaiel Jabbari

No abstract provided.


Inhalable Nanocomposites And Anticancer Agents For Cancer Therapy, Nathanael A. Stocke Jan 2015

Inhalable Nanocomposites And Anticancer Agents For Cancer Therapy, Nathanael A. Stocke

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Cancer is designated as the leading cause of mortality worldwide and lung cancer is responsible for nearly 30% of all cancer related deaths. Over the last few decades mortality rates have only marginally increased and rates of recurrence remain high. These factors, among others, suggest the need for more innovative treatment modalities in lung cancer therapy. Targeted pulmonary delivery is well established for treating pulmonary diseases such as asthma and provides a promising platform for lung cancer therapy. Increasing local deposition of anticancer agents (ACAs) and reducing systemic exposure of these toxic moieties could lead to better therapeutic outcomes and ...


Poly(Ester Amide) And Poly(Ethyl Glyoxylate) Nanoparticles For Controlled Drug Release, Amira Mohamed Moustafa Dec 2014

Poly(Ester Amide) And Poly(Ethyl Glyoxylate) Nanoparticles For Controlled Drug Release, Amira Mohamed Moustafa

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The objective of this research was to develop polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) having improved drug release properties for drug delivery. Poly(ester amide)s (PEAs) are promising biodegradable polymers. PEA NPs were prepared via emulsification-evaporation and salting-out methods and optimized through by varying different processing parameters. Polymer-model drug conjugates based on PEAs containing L-aspartic acid and rhodamine B were synthesized and used for NP preparation. Release behavior was studied and compared to a control system with physically encapsulated rhodamine B. It was shown that the release of rhodamine B from the covalent system did not show the burst effect and exhibited ...


Developent Of A Phospholipid Encapsulation Process For Quantum Dots To Be Used In Biologic Applications, Logan Grimes Jun 2014

Developent Of A Phospholipid Encapsulation Process For Quantum Dots To Be Used In Biologic Applications, Logan Grimes

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The American Cancer Society predicts that 1,665,540 people will be diagnosed with cancer, and 585,720 people will die from cancer in 2014. One of the most common types of cancer in the United States is skin cancer. Melanoma alone is predicted to account for 10,000 of the cancer related deaths in 2014. As a highly mobile and aggressive form of cancer, melanoma is difficult to fight once it has metastasized through the body. Early detection in such varieties of cancer is critical in improving survival rates in afflicted patients. Present methods of detection rely on visual ...


Surface Functionalization And Bioconjugation Of Nanoparticles For Biomedical Applications, Longyan Chen Jan 2014

Surface Functionalization And Bioconjugation Of Nanoparticles For Biomedical Applications, Longyan Chen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Colloidal inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) have been attracting considerable interest in biomedicine, from drug and gene delivery to imaging, sensing and diagnostics. It is essential to modify the surface of nanoparticles to have enhanced biocompatibility and functionality for the in vitro and in vivo applications, especially in delivering locally and recognizing biomolecules. Herein, the goal of this research work is to develop advanced NPs with well-tailored surface functionalities and/or bio-functionality for the applications in cell tracking and analytes detection.

In the first project, quantum dots incorporating with gelatin nanoparticles (QDs-GNPs) have been developed for bioimaging applications. Two different approaches have ...


Applications Of Antioxidant And Anti-Inflammatory Polymers To Inhibit Injury And Disease, David B. Cochran Jan 2013

Applications Of Antioxidant And Anti-Inflammatory Polymers To Inhibit Injury And Disease, David B. Cochran

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

There is an undeniable link between oxidative stress, inflammation, and disease. Currently, approaches using antioxidant therapies have been largely unsuccessful due to poor delivery and bioavailability. Responding to these limitations, we have developed classes of polymer and delivery systems that can overcome the challenges of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapy. In our initial studies, nanoparticles of poly(trolox), a polymeric form of trolox, were surface-modified with antibodies. This modification allows for specific targeting to endothelial cells, affording controllable and localized protection against oxidative stress. We have shown these targeted nanoparticles bind, internalize, and provide protection against oxidative stress generation and cytotoxicity ...


High-Throughput Synthesis Of Carbohydrates And Functionalization Of Polyanhydride Nanoparticles, Brenda Rocio Carrillo-Conde, Rajarshi Roychoudhury, Ana Vianey Chavez-Santoscoy, Balaji Narasimhan, Nicola L.B. Pohl Jul 2012

High-Throughput Synthesis Of Carbohydrates And Functionalization Of Polyanhydride Nanoparticles, Brenda Rocio Carrillo-Conde, Rajarshi Roychoudhury, Ana Vianey Chavez-Santoscoy, Balaji Narasimhan, Nicola L.B. Pohl

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Transdisciplinary approaches involving areas such as material design, nanotechnology, chemistry, and immunology have to be utilized to rationally design efficacious vaccines carriers. Nanoparticle-based platforms can prolong the persistence of vaccine antigens, which could improve vaccine immunogenicity 1. Several biodegradable polymers have been studied as vaccine delivery vehicles 1; in particular, polyanhydride particles have demonstrated the ability to provide sustained release of stable protein antigens and to activate antigen presenting cells and modulate immune responses 2-12. The molecular design of these vaccine carriers needs to integrate the rational selection of polymer properties as well as the incorporation of appropriate targeting agents ...


Analyzing Cellular Internalization Of Nanoparticles And Bacteria By Multi-Spectral Imaging Flow Cytometry., Yashdeep Phanse, Amanda Ellen Ramer-Tait, Sherree L. Friend, Brenda Rocio Carrillo-Conde, Paul A. Lueth, Carrie Jo Oster, Gregory J. Phillips, Balaji Narasimhan, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Bryan H. Bellaire Jun 2012

Analyzing Cellular Internalization Of Nanoparticles And Bacteria By Multi-Spectral Imaging Flow Cytometry., Yashdeep Phanse, Amanda Ellen Ramer-Tait, Sherree L. Friend, Brenda Rocio Carrillo-Conde, Paul A. Lueth, Carrie Jo Oster, Gregory J. Phillips, Balaji Narasimhan, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Bryan H. Bellaire

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Nanoparticulate systems have emerged as valuable tools in vaccine delivery through their ability to efficiently deliver cargo, including proteins, to antigen presenting cells. Internalization of nanoparticles (NP) by antigen presenting cells is a critical step in generating an effective immune response to the encapsulated antigen. To determine how changes in nanoparticle formulation impact function, we sought to develop a high throughput, quantitative experimental protocol that was compatible with detecting internalized nanoparticles as well as bacteria. To date, two independent techniques, microscopy and flow cytometry, have been the methods used to study the phagocytosis of nanoparticles. The high throughput nature of ...


Harvesting Murine Alveolar Macrophages And Evaluating Cellular Activation Induced By Polyanhydride Nanoparticles., Ana Vianey Chavez-Santoscoy, Lucas Mark Huntimer, Amanda Ellen Ramer-Tait, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Balaji Narasimhan Jun 2012

Harvesting Murine Alveolar Macrophages And Evaluating Cellular Activation Induced By Polyanhydride Nanoparticles., Ana Vianey Chavez-Santoscoy, Lucas Mark Huntimer, Amanda Ellen Ramer-Tait, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Balaji Narasimhan

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Biodegradable nanoparticles have emerged as a versatile platform for the design and implementation of new intranasal vaccines against respiratory infectious diseases. Specifically, polyanhydride nanoparticles composed of the aliphatic sebacic acid (SA), the aromatic 1,6-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)hexane (CPH), or the amphiphilic 1,8-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)-3,6-dioxaoctane (CPTEG) display unique bulk and surface erosion kinetics and can be exploited to slowly release functional biomolecules (e.g., protein antigens, immunoglobulins, etc.) in vivo. These nanoparticles also possess intrinsic adjuvant activity, making them an excellent choice for a vaccine delivery platform. In order to elucidate the mechanisms governing the activation of innate immunity ...


Amphiphilic Polyanhydride Nanoparticles Stabilize Bacillus Anthracis Protective Antigen, L. K. Petersen, Yashdeep Phanse, Amanda Ellen Ramer-Tait, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Balaji Narasimhan Jan 2012

Amphiphilic Polyanhydride Nanoparticles Stabilize Bacillus Anthracis Protective Antigen, L. K. Petersen, Yashdeep Phanse, Amanda Ellen Ramer-Tait, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Balaji Narasimhan

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Advancements toward an improved vaccine against Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, have focused on formulations composed of the protective antigen (PA) adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. However, due to the labile nature of PA, antigen stability is a primary concern for vaccine development. Thus, there is a need for a delivery system capable of preserving the immunogenicity of PA through all the steps of vaccine fabrication, storage, and administration. In this work, we demonstrate that biodegradable amphiphilic polyanhydride nanoparticles, which have previously been shown to provide controlled antigen delivery, antigen stability, immune modulation, and protection in a single dose ...


Combinatorial Design And Development Of Biomaterials For Use As Drug Delivery Devices And Immune Adjuvants, Latrisha Kay Petersen Jan 2011

Combinatorial Design And Development Of Biomaterials For Use As Drug Delivery Devices And Immune Adjuvants, Latrisha Kay Petersen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There are several challenges associated with current strategies for drug and vaccine delivery. These include the need for multiple-dose administrations, which can hinder patience compliance, the requirements for specific storage conditions due to the fragile structure of protein-based molecules, and the need for additional excipients to enhance protein stability or adjuvant the immune response. This work has focused on the development of a high throughput, combinatorial approach to optimize degradable polymeric biomaterials, specifically polyanhydrides, to overcome these challenges associated with drug and vaccine delivery. We have developed high throughput techniques to rapidly fabricate polymer film and nanoparticle libraries to carry ...


Mannose-Functionalized "Pathogen-Like" Polyanhydride Nanoparticles Target C-Type Lectin Receptors On Dendritic Cells, Brenda Rocio Carrillo-Conde, Eun-Ho Song, Ana Vianey Chavez-Santoscoy, Yashdeep Phanse, Amanda Ellen Ramer-Tait, Nicola L.B. Pohl, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Bryan H. Bellaire, Balaji Narasimhan Jan 2011

Mannose-Functionalized "Pathogen-Like" Polyanhydride Nanoparticles Target C-Type Lectin Receptors On Dendritic Cells, Brenda Rocio Carrillo-Conde, Eun-Ho Song, Ana Vianey Chavez-Santoscoy, Yashdeep Phanse, Amanda Ellen Ramer-Tait, Nicola L.B. Pohl, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Bryan H. Bellaire, Balaji Narasimhan

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Targeting pathogen recognition receptors on dendritic cells (DCs) offers the advantage of triggering specific signaling pathways to induce a tailored and robust immune response. In this work, we describe a novel approach to targeted antigen delivery by decorating the surface of polyanhydride nanoparticles with specific carbohydrates to provide "pathogen-like" properties that ensure nanoparticles engage C-type lectin receptors on DCs. The surface of polyanhydride nanoparticles was functionalized by covalent linkage of dimannose and lactose residues using an amine-carboxylic acid coupling reaction. Coculture of functionalized nanoparticles with bone marrow-derived DCs significantly increased cell surface expression of MHC II, the T cell costimulatory ...


Selective Deposition Of Metal Nanoparticles Inside Or Outside Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes, Jean-Philippe Tessonnier, Ovidiu Ersen, Gisela Weinberg, Cuong Pham-Huu, Dang Sheng Su, Robert Schlogl Jan 2009

Selective Deposition Of Metal Nanoparticles Inside Or Outside Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes, Jean-Philippe Tessonnier, Ovidiu Ersen, Gisela Weinberg, Cuong Pham-Huu, Dang Sheng Su, Robert Schlogl

Jean-Philippe Tessonnier

A general method is described for the deposition of metal nanoparticles selectively either inside or outside of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The method is based on the difference in the interface energies of organic and aqueous solutions with the CNT surface. Because of their lipophilic character, the organic solvent better wets the surface of the nanotubes compared to water and penetrates into the inner volume. The precise control of the volume of each phase allows filling the CNT with the organic phase and covering its outer surface with the aqueous one. Hence, metal nanoparticles can be put with high selectivity either ...