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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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Chemical Engineering

2013

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Production Of Lignin-Based Phenolic Resins Using De-Polymerized Kraft Lignin And Process Optimization, Homaira Siddiqui Dec 2013

Production Of Lignin-Based Phenolic Resins Using De-Polymerized Kraft Lignin And Process Optimization, Homaira Siddiqui

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Commercialization of Lignin-based phenol formaldehyde resins (LPF) has been limited due to the increase in curing temperatures and decrease in adhesive strength of LPF compared to conventional phenolic resins. Lignin depolymerization can increase the reactivity of lignin; however, the effect of lignin molecular weight on curing performance of LPF resins has yet to be investigated. This research work examined the optimization of synthesis parameters including percent substitution of phenol with lignin, formaldehyde- to-phenol ratio (F/P), and Mw of lignin to reduce the curing temperature and increase the adhesive strength of LPF. DSC analysis indicated that lignin with Mw ~1200g ...


Physiological Fluid Specific Agglomeration Patterns Diminish Gold Nanorod Photothermal Characteristics, Kristen K. Comfort, Jared W. Speltz, Bradley M. Stacy, Larry R. Dosser, Saber M. Hussain Nov 2013

Physiological Fluid Specific Agglomeration Patterns Diminish Gold Nanorod Photothermal Characteristics, Kristen K. Comfort, Jared W. Speltz, Bradley M. Stacy, Larry R. Dosser, Saber M. Hussain

Chemical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Investigations into the use of gold nanorods (Au-NRs) for biological applications are growing exponentially due to their distinctive physicochemical properties, which make them advantageous over other nanomaterials. Au-NRs are particularly renowned for their plasmonic characteristics, which generate a robust photothermal response when stimulated with light at a wavelength matching their surface plasmon resonance. Numerous reports have explored this nanophotonic phenomenon for temperature driven therapies; however, to date there is a significant knowledge gap pertaining to the kinetic heating profile of Au-NRs within a controlled physiological setting. In the present study, the impact of environmental composition on Au-NR behavior and degree ...


Adhesive Elastomeric Proteins, Haefa Mansour, Julie Liu Oct 2013

Adhesive Elastomeric Proteins, Haefa Mansour, Julie Liu

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Sutures and staples commonly used to close surgical wounds tend to be much stiffer than the surrounding tissue, often resulting in external tissue damage. Surgical adhesives provide a promising alternative to these sutures and staples. Ideal surgical adhesives are biocompatible, able to set well and remain sticky in moist conditions, possess strong adhesive and cohesive properties, and exhibit mechanical properties that mimic those of the surrounding tissue. Unfortunately, the adhesives available today are unable to satisfactorily meet all of these criteria. We are utilizing protein engineering techniques to design, create, and test a new surgical adhesive that combines the adhesive ...


Characterization Of The Saturation Level Of Nucleosome Arrays And Plasmids By Mnase Digestion, Wenjie Liu, Nathan Nurse, Chongli Yuan Oct 2013

Characterization Of The Saturation Level Of Nucleosome Arrays And Plasmids By Mnase Digestion, Wenjie Liu, Nathan Nurse, Chongli Yuan

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Studying processes involving DNA such as DNA replication and transcription is best done in the context of chromatin because the structure of DNA influences the efficiency of such processes. Chromatin structure is derived from DNA wrapping around histone octamers with the histone octamer density termed saturation level. For in vitro studies on DNA replication and transcription, it is important to maintain a constant saturation level so that saturation level can be removed as a variable. Our goal is to characterize the saturation level of plasmids using the rate of MNase digestion. MNase digestions were first performed on reconstituted nucleosome arrays ...


Understanding Biocatalyst Inhibition By Carboxylic Acids, Laura R. Jarboe, Liam Royce, Ping Liu Sep 2013

Understanding Biocatalyst Inhibition By Carboxylic Acids, Laura R. Jarboe, Liam Royce, Ping Liu

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Carboxylic acids are an attractive biorenewable chemical in terms of their flexibility and usage as precursors for a variety of industrial chemicals. It has been demonstrated that such carboxylic acids can be fermentatively produced using engineered microbes, such as Escherichia coli andSaccharomyces cerevisiae. However, like many other attractive biorenewable fuels and chemicals, carboxylic acids become inhibitory to these microbes at concentrations below the desired yield and titer. In fact, their potency as microbial inhibitors is highlighted by the fact that many of these carboxylic acids are routinely used as food preservatives. This review highlights the current knowledge regarding the ...


Discriminatory Bio-Adhesion Over Nano-Patterned Polymer Brushes, Saugata Gon Sep 2013

Discriminatory Bio-Adhesion Over Nano-Patterned Polymer Brushes, Saugata Gon

Open Access Dissertations

Surfaces functionalized with bio-molecular targeting agents are conventionally used for highly-specific protein and cell adhesion. This thesis explores an alternative approach: Small non-biological adhesive elements are placed on a surface randomly, with the rest of the surface rendered repulsive towards biomolecules and cells. While the adhesive elements themselves, for instance in solution, typically exhibit no selectivity for various compounds within an analyte suspension, selective adhesion of targeted objects or molecules results from their placement on the repulsive surface. The mechanism of selectivity relies on recognition of length scales of the surface distribution of adhesive elements relative to species in the ...


Effect Of Plant Hormones On The Production Of Biomass And Lipid In Microalgae, Malihe Mehdizadeh Allaf Aug 2013

Effect Of Plant Hormones On The Production Of Biomass And Lipid In Microalgae, Malihe Mehdizadeh Allaf

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Limited fossil fuel reserves, increasing demand for energy in all parts of the world are some driving forces to look for new sources of transportation fuels. Among different options available, microalgae are currently attracting wide interests as an alternative and renewable fuel source.

Microalgae are single cell photosynthetic organisms that are known for rapid growth and high energy content and as a part of photosynthesis; they produce oil that can be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Some algae strains could contain lipid up to 80% of the dry biomass. The amount of lipid production is in direct relation ...


Electrospinning Of Core-Shell Collagen Nanofibers, Ying Li Aug 2013

Electrospinning Of Core-Shell Collagen Nanofibers, Ying Li

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In tissue engineering, the scaffold plays a critical role in guiding and supporting cells to function and grow optimally. The electrospun nanofibrous scaffold can serve as a near ideal substrate for tissue engineering because it has high surface area and the three-dimensional interconnected porous network can enhance cell attachment and proliferation. Core-shell nanofibrous scaffolds produced with coaxial electrospinning allow bioactive molecule encapsulation to improve cell adhesion, mediate and promote the proper signaling among the cells for their functioning and growth. In the current study, core-shell collagen nanofibers were fabricated via coaxial electrospinning with horizontal and vertical configurations. Core-shell nanofibers with ...


Butyl Rubber-Aliphatic Polyester Graft Copolymers For Biomedical Applications: Synthesis And Analysis Of Chemical, Physical And Biological Properties, Bethany A. Turowec Jun 2013

Butyl Rubber-Aliphatic Polyester Graft Copolymers For Biomedical Applications: Synthesis And Analysis Of Chemical, Physical And Biological Properties, Bethany A. Turowec

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Biomaterials can be used in a wide variety of medical applications owing to their breadth of characteristics that can be imparted by varying their chemical structures. Butyl rubber (IIR), which is a copolymer of isobutylene (IB) and small percentages of isoprene (IP), is particularly attractive as a biomaterial because of its elastomeric mechanical properties, biocompatibility, impermeability and high damping characteristics. IIR is typically vulcanized through chemical-based crosslinking mechanisms. However, these methods are not acceptable for biological applications. This thesis focuses on the synthesis of IIR-polyester graft copolymers by grafting biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters including poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(d ...


Materials Education And Research In Art And Design: A New Role For Libraries (Program Booklet), Mark Pompelia Jun 2013

Materials Education And Research In Art And Design: A New Role For Libraries (Program Booklet), Mark Pompelia

Materials Education and Research in Art and Design: A New Role for Libraries

No abstract provided.


Materials Education And Research In Art And Design: A New Role For Libraries (Website), Mark Pompelia Jun 2013

Materials Education And Research In Art And Design: A New Role For Libraries (Website), Mark Pompelia

Materials Education and Research in Art and Design: A New Role for Libraries

No abstract provided.


Materials Education And Research In Art And Design: A New Role For Libraries (Survey Stats), Mark Pompelia Jun 2013

Materials Education And Research In Art And Design: A New Role For Libraries (Survey Stats), Mark Pompelia

Materials Education and Research in Art and Design: A New Role for Libraries

No abstract provided.


Materials Education And Research In Art And Design: A New Role For Libraries (Program Sheet), Mark Pompelia Jun 2013

Materials Education And Research In Art And Design: A New Role For Libraries (Program Sheet), Mark Pompelia

Materials Education and Research in Art and Design: A New Role for Libraries

No abstract provided.


Materials Collection Creation And Administration: A New Role For Libraries (White Paper), Mark Pompelia Jun 2013

Materials Collection Creation And Administration: A New Role For Libraries (White Paper), Mark Pompelia

Materials Education and Research in Art and Design: A New Role for Libraries

The Problem/Opportunity: To define, identify, and guide design-based materials collections in academic settings and foster community among those with existing collections and/or those considering creating and supporting one.

Contents and topics:

  1. What is a materials collection?
  2. Why have a materials collection?
  3. Acquisition strategies
  4. Organizational approaches
  5. Programming possibilities
  6. Symposium summary
  7. Resources


Influence Of Carbon To Nitrogen Ratios On Soybean Somatic Embryo (Cv. Jack) Growth And Composition, Quyen Xuan Truong, Kaelynn Adele Koch, Jong Moon Yoon, John D. Everard, Jacqueline V. Shanks Jun 2013

Influence Of Carbon To Nitrogen Ratios On Soybean Somatic Embryo (Cv. Jack) Growth And Composition, Quyen Xuan Truong, Kaelynn Adele Koch, Jong Moon Yoon, John D. Everard, Jacqueline V. Shanks

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed are valued for their protein and oil content. Soybean somatic embryos cultured in Soybean Histodifferentiation and Maturation (SHaM) medium were examined for their suitability as a model system for developing an understanding of assimilate partitioning and metabolic control points for protein and oil biosynthesis in soybean seed. This report describes the growth dynamics and compositional changes of SHaM embryos in response to change in the carbon to nitrogen ratio of the medium. It was postulated that at media compositions that were sufficient to support maximal growth rates, changes in the C:N ratio are ...


Sol-Gel Derived Biodegradable And Bioactive Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Biomaterials For Bone Tissue Engineering, Bedilu A. Allo Apr 2013

Sol-Gel Derived Biodegradable And Bioactive Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Biomaterials For Bone Tissue Engineering, Bedilu A. Allo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Treatments of bone injuries and defects have been largely centered on replacing the lost bone with tissues of allogeneic or xenogeneic sources as well as synthetic bone substitutes, which in all lead to limited degree of structural and functional recovery. As a result, tissue engineering has emerged as a viable technology to regenerate the structures and therefore recover the functions of bone tissue rather than replacement alone. Hence, the current strategies of bone tissue engineering and regeneration rely on bioactive scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) as templates onto which cells attach, multiply, migrate and function.

In this ...


Nsf Engineering Research Center For Biorenewable Chemicals, Fifth Annual Report, Volume Ii, Nsf Engineering Research Center For Biorenewable Chemicals Apr 2013

Nsf Engineering Research Center For Biorenewable Chemicals, Fifth Annual Report, Volume Ii, Nsf Engineering Research Center For Biorenewable Chemicals

Center for Biorenewable Chemicals Annual Reports

In the U.S., the production of industrial chemicals is a $400 billion-plus enterprise that impacts all aspects of society from personal care products to building materials. Unfortunately, this vital industry is not self-sustaining; its long-term future is predicated on transitioning from current nonrenewable, petroleum feedstocks to renewable biobased feedstocks. The development of conversion technologies needed to facilitate this transition is the focus of the NSF Engineering Research Center for Biorenewable Chemicals (CBiRC).


Nsf Engineering Research Center For Biorenewable Chemicals, Fifth Annual Report, Volume I, Nsf Engineering Research Center For Biorenewable Chemicals Apr 2013

Nsf Engineering Research Center For Biorenewable Chemicals, Fifth Annual Report, Volume I, Nsf Engineering Research Center For Biorenewable Chemicals

Center for Biorenewable Chemicals Annual Reports

In the U.S., the production of industrial chemicals is a $400 billion-plus enterprise that impacts all aspects of society from personal care products to building materials. Unfortunately, this vital industry is not self-sustaining; its long-term future is predicated on transitioning from current nonrenewable, petroleum feedstocks to renewable biobased feedstocks. The development of conversion technologies needed to facilitate this transition is the focus of the NSF Engineering Research Center for Biorenewable Chemicals (CBiRC).


Picture Of A Chelate In Exchange: The Crystal Structure Of Nahodotma, A 'Semi'-Hydrated Chelate, Katherine M. Payne, Edward J. Valente, Silvio Aime, Mauro Botta, Mark Woods Feb 2013

Picture Of A Chelate In Exchange: The Crystal Structure Of Nahodotma, A 'Semi'-Hydrated Chelate, Katherine M. Payne, Edward J. Valente, Silvio Aime, Mauro Botta, Mark Woods

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

Crystallography generally only provides static structural information. This can render it an ineffective technique for probing dynamic solution state processes. A crystal of HoDOTMA affords unique structures that effectively represent that of a lanthanide tetra-acetate chelate mid-way through the water exchange process.


Developing Electrochemical Biosensors For Point-Of-Care Diagnostics Of Cardiovascular Biomarkers, Yang Cheng Jan 2013

Developing Electrochemical Biosensors For Point-Of-Care Diagnostics Of Cardiovascular Biomarkers, Yang Cheng

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Troponin is known as a type of reliable biomarker for the detection of cardiac disorders. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI), as a subunit of troponin, is highly sensitive to cardiac injury; therefore, the cTnI level is used as an index to diagnose myocardial damage, particularly acute myocardial infarction. It can be also used in cardiospecific diagnosis, risk stratification therapeutic treatment and post risk management. In this research, an amperometric immunosensor was developed based on planar electrode and sandwich ELISA format. The electrical response corresponding to biological information was obtained via four main procedures, including electrode modification, immunoreaction, signal amplifications and amperometric ...


Substrate Binding By The Catalytic Domain And Carbohydrate Binding Module Of Ruminococcus Flavefaciens Fd-1 Xyloglucanase/ Endoglucanase, Christopher D. Warner, Gulden Camci-Unal, Nicola L.B. Pohl, Clark Ford, Peter J. Reilly Jan 2013

Substrate Binding By The Catalytic Domain And Carbohydrate Binding Module Of Ruminococcus Flavefaciens Fd-1 Xyloglucanase/ Endoglucanase, Christopher D. Warner, Gulden Camci-Unal, Nicola L.B. Pohl, Clark Ford, Peter J. Reilly

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Binding and thermodynamic properties of a carbohydrate binding module (CBM) and a glycoside hydrolase family 44 xyloglucanase/endoglucanase catalytic domain (CD) fromRuminococcus flavefaciens, both when separate and when linked to each other, have been quantified when binding various β-1,4-linked glucans and xylans. The three constructs bind cellotetraose, cellopentaose, and cellohexaose with association constants that increase with chain length. The CBM does not bind xylotetraose, xylopentaose, or xylohexaose. The CD appears to bind carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and xylan only weakly, while the CBM and the CD/CBM bind them much more strongly than they bind the cellooligosaccharides. CMC is bound ...


Controlled Formation Of Beta-Cell Aggregates And Their Characterization, Abigail Banaszek Bernard Jan 2013

Controlled Formation Of Beta-Cell Aggregates And Their Characterization, Abigail Banaszek Bernard

Chemical & Biological Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Islets of Langerhans are multi-cellular aggregates within the pancreas containing β-cells that sense changes in blood glucose levels and respond by secreting insulin. Transplantation of these functional cell clusters represents a promising avenue for the treatment of severe cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus but much remains unknown about key aspects of cell-cell and cell-matrix communication that influence cell survival post-transplantation. Cell-cell contact between islet cells is crucial for cell survival and maintenance of glucose-dependent insulin release but large islets exhibit necrosis of central cells under transplant conditions. To facilitate cell-cell contact but limit aggregate size, several methods have been ...


Hydrogels For Cartilage Tissue Engineering In Mechanically Relevant Environments, Justine Jenna Roberts Jan 2013

Hydrogels For Cartilage Tissue Engineering In Mechanically Relevant Environments, Justine Jenna Roberts

Chemical & Biological Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Tissue engineering offers the potential to replace cartilage that is damaged due to age, injury, or disease with a native equivalent produced by a chondrocyte (cartilage cell)-laden scaffold. Although joints are highly dynamic environments, scaffolds designed for articular cartilage tissue engineering are often developed in static environments. This raises questions as to whether they will translate to the highly dynamic mechanical environment found in vivo. In healthy joints, cartilage experiences maximum strains of 30% and frequencies from 0.1-2 Hz. This environment leads to the induction of fluid flow and dynamic cellular deformation, both of which can be sensed ...


Integrin Binding Peptide-Functionalized Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Hydrogels For Understanding The Role Of Matricellular Effects On Vic Phenotype And Tissue Deposition, Sarah Trexler Gould Jan 2013

Integrin Binding Peptide-Functionalized Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Hydrogels For Understanding The Role Of Matricellular Effects On Vic Phenotype And Tissue Deposition, Sarah Trexler Gould

Chemical & Biological Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Aortic valve stenosis (AS) results in almost 100,000 valve replacement surgeries per year in the United States. These replacements are generally made of synthetic materials that require anticoagulants or decellularized allo/xenografts that tend to quickly calcify in younger patients. Valve replacements containing cells able to grow and repair damaged valve tissue could positively impact patient morbidity. However, matricellular cues associated with healthy tissue deposition by the resident aortic valvular interstitial cells (VICs) are still not well understood. This thesis aims to study the effects and underlying mechanisms of matrix elasticity and biochemical cues (e.g., bound integrins or ...


Applications Of Antioxidant And Anti-Inflammatory Polymers To Inhibit Injury And Disease, David B. Cochran Jan 2013

Applications Of Antioxidant And Anti-Inflammatory Polymers To Inhibit Injury And Disease, David B. Cochran

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

There is an undeniable link between oxidative stress, inflammation, and disease. Currently, approaches using antioxidant therapies have been largely unsuccessful due to poor delivery and bioavailability. Responding to these limitations, we have developed classes of polymer and delivery systems that can overcome the challenges of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapy. In our initial studies, nanoparticles of poly(trolox), a polymeric form of trolox, were surface-modified with antibodies. This modification allows for specific targeting to endothelial cells, affording controllable and localized protection against oxidative stress. We have shown these targeted nanoparticles bind, internalize, and provide protection against oxidative stress generation and cytotoxicity ...


Microfluidic Devices Applied On Enriching Post –Translational Modified Proteins For Proteomics, Hui Xia Jan 2013

Microfluidic Devices Applied On Enriching Post –Translational Modified Proteins For Proteomics, Hui Xia

Doctoral Dissertations

In this work, microfluidic devices were developed for enriching post-translational modified proteins. Post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins play essential roles in cellular physiology and disease. The identification of protein substrates and detection of modification site helps understand PTM-mediated regulation in essential biological pathways and functions in various diseases. However, PTM proteins are typically present only at trace levels, making them difficult to identify in mass spectrometry based proteomics. This work study is about the design, fabrication and testing of the microfluidic device for the enrichment of abundant amount of PTMs. Carbonylated protein is used as a representative PTM to illustrate ...


Integrated Self-Assembly Of The Mms6 Magnetosome Protein To Form An Iron-Responsive Structure, Shuren Feng, Lijun Wang, Pierre Palo, Xunpei Liu, Surya K. Mallapragada, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton Jan 2013

Integrated Self-Assembly Of The Mms6 Magnetosome Protein To Form An Iron-Responsive Structure, Shuren Feng, Lijun Wang, Pierre Palo, Xunpei Liu, Surya K. Mallapragada, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

A common feature of biomineralization proteins is their self-assembly to produce a surface consistent in size with the inorganic crystals that they produce. Mms6, a small protein of 60 amino acids from Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 that promotes the in vitro growth of superparamagnetic magnetite nanocrystals, assembles in aqueous solution to form spherical micelles that could be visualized by TEM and AFM. The results reported here are consistent with the view that the N and C-terminal domains interact with each other within one polypeptide chain and across protein units in the assembly. From studies to determine the amino acid residues ...


Structured Materials For Catalytic And Sensing Applications, Selma Hokenek Jan 2013

Structured Materials For Catalytic And Sensing Applications, Selma Hokenek

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The optical and chemical properties of the materials used in catalytic and sensing applications directly determine the characteristics of the resultant catalyst or sensor. It is well known that a catalyst needs to have high activity, selectivity, and stability to be viable in an industrial setting. The hydrogenation activity of palladium catalysts is known to be excellent, but the industrial applications are limited by the cost of obtaining catalyst in amounts large enough to make their use economical. As a result, alloying palladium with a cheaper, more widely available metal while maintaining the high catalytic activity seen in monometallic catalysts ...


How Atomic Level Interactions Drive Membrane Fusion: Insights From Molecular Dynamics Simulations, Navendu Bhatnagar Jan 2013

How Atomic Level Interactions Drive Membrane Fusion: Insights From Molecular Dynamics Simulations, Navendu Bhatnagar

Wayne State University Dissertations

This project is focused on identifying the role of key players in the membrane fusion process at the atomic level with the use of molecular dynamics simulations. Membrane fusion of apposed bilayers is one of the most fundamental and frequently occurring biological phenomena in living organisms. It is an essential step in several cellular processes such as neuronal exocytosis, sperm fusion with oocytes and intracellular fusion of organelles to name a few. Membrane fusion is a frequent process in a living organism but is still not fully understood at the atomic level in terms of the role of various factors ...


Combinatorial Evaluation Of In Vivo Distribution Of Polyanhydride Particle-Based Platforms For Vaccine Delivery, Latrisha K. Petersen, Lucas Mark Huntimer, Katharine Walz, Amanda Ellen Ramer-Tait, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Balaji Narasimhan Jan 2013

Combinatorial Evaluation Of In Vivo Distribution Of Polyanhydride Particle-Based Platforms For Vaccine Delivery, Latrisha K. Petersen, Lucas Mark Huntimer, Katharine Walz, Amanda Ellen Ramer-Tait, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Balaji Narasimhan

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Several challenges are associated with current vaccine strategies, including repeated immunizations, poor patient compliance, and limited approved routes for delivery, which may hinder induction of protective immunity. Thus, there is a need for new vaccine adjuvants capable of multi-route administration and prolonged antigen release at the site of administration by providing a depot within tissue. In this work, we designed a combinatorial platform to investigate the in vivo distribution, depot effect, and localized persistence of polyanhydride nanoparticles as a function of nanoparticle chemistry and administration route. Our observations indicated that the route of administration differentially affected tissue residence times. All ...