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Chemical Engineering

2011

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Aptamer Functionalized Microcantilever Sensors For Cocaine Detection, Kyungho Kang, Ashish Sachan, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Pranav Shrotriya Dec 2011

Aptamer Functionalized Microcantilever Sensors For Cocaine Detection, Kyungho Kang, Ashish Sachan, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Pranav Shrotriya

Mechanical Engineering Publications

A cocaine-specific aptamer was used as a receptor molecule in a microcantilever-based surface stress sensor for detection of cocaine molecules. An interferometric technique that relies on measuring differential displacement between two microcantilevers (a sensing/reference pair) was utilized to measure the cocaine/aptamer binding induced surface stress changes. Sensing experiments were performed for different concentrations of cocaine from 25 to 500 μM in order to determine the sensor response as a function of cocaine concentration. In the lower concentration range from 25 to 100 μM, surface stress values increased proportionally to coverage of aptamer/cocaine complexes from 11 to 26 ...


Direct Pore‐Level Observation Of Permeability Increase In Two‐Phase Flow By Shaking, Igor A. Beresnev, William Gaul, R. Dennis Vigil Oct 2011

Direct Pore‐Level Observation Of Permeability Increase In Two‐Phase Flow By Shaking, Igor A. Beresnev, William Gaul, R. Dennis Vigil

R. Dennis Vigil

Increases in permeability of natural reservoirs and aquifers by passing seismic waves have been well documented. If the physical causes of this phenomenon can be understood, technological applications would be possible for controlling the flow in hydrologic systems or enhancing production from oil reservoirs. The explanation of the dynamically increased mobility of underground fluids must lie at the pore level. The natural fluids can be viewed as two-phase systems, composed of water as the wetting phase and of dispersed non-wetting globules of gas or organic fluids, flowing through tortuous constricted channels. Capillary forces prevent free motion of the suspended non-wetting ...


Direct Pore‐Level Observation Of Permeability Increase In Two‐Phase Flow By Shaking, Igor A. Beresnev, William Gaul, R. Dennis Vigil Oct 2011

Direct Pore‐Level Observation Of Permeability Increase In Two‐Phase Flow By Shaking, Igor A. Beresnev, William Gaul, R. Dennis Vigil

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Increases in permeability of natural reservoirs and aquifers by passing seismic waves have been well documented. If the physical causes of this phenomenon can be understood, technological applications would be possible for controlling the flow in hydrologic systems or enhancing production from oil reservoirs. The explanation of the dynamically increased mobility of underground fluids must lie at the pore level. The natural fluids can be viewed as two-phase systems, composed of water as the wetting phase and of dispersed non-wetting globules of gas or organic fluids, flowing through tortuous constricted channels. Capillary forces prevent free motion of the suspended non-wetting ...


Role Of Ammonia In The Activiation Of Methanol Dehydrogenase/Cytochrome C(L) Enzyme, Ancy Kunjumon Oct 2011

Role Of Ammonia In The Activiation Of Methanol Dehydrogenase/Cytochrome C(L) Enzyme, Ancy Kunjumon

Doctoral Dissertations

Recent advancement in enzyme catalysis has opened ways to design efficient biocatalysts, bio-sensors and bio-fuel cells. An in-depth knowledge about the mechanism of the reaction taking place within the enzymes is of great importance to achieve these goals. In this dissertation, various computation methods are applied to investigate the mechanism behind enzyme catalysis in the presence of compounds called activators.

Methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) is a well-known bio-catalyst that can oxidize excess of methanol from the environment to formaldehyde. The enzyme works well within the bacterial environment, but under in vitro, it loses activity. Ammonia is used as an activator to ...


Thickness Of Residual Wetting Film In Liquid-Liquid Displacement, Igor A. Beresnev, William Gaul, R .Dennis Vigil Aug 2011

Thickness Of Residual Wetting Film In Liquid-Liquid Displacement, Igor A. Beresnev, William Gaul, R .Dennis Vigil

R. Dennis Vigil

Core-annular flow is common in nature, representing, for example, how streams of oil, surrounded by water, move in petroleum reservoirs. Oil, typically a nonwetting fluid, tends to occupy the middle (core) part of a channel, while water forms a surrounding wall-wetting film. What is the thickness of the wetting film? A classic theory has been in existence for nearly 50 years offering a solution, although in a controversial manner, for moving gas bubbles. On the other hand, an acceptable, experimentally verified theory for a body of one liquid flowing in another has not been available. Here we develop a hydrodynamic ...


Thickness Of Residual Wetting Film In Liquid-Liquid Displacement, Igor A. Beresnev, William Gaul, R. Dennis Vigil Aug 2011

Thickness Of Residual Wetting Film In Liquid-Liquid Displacement, Igor A. Beresnev, William Gaul, R. Dennis Vigil

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Core-annular flow is common in nature, representing, for example, how streams of oil, surrounded by water, move in petroleum reservoirs. Oil, typically a nonwetting fluid, tends to occupy the middle (core) part of a channel, while water forms a surrounding wall-wetting film. What is the thickness of the wetting film? A classic theory has been in existence for nearly 50 years offering a solution, although in a controversial manner, for moving gas bubbles. On the other hand, an acceptable, experimentally verified theory for a body of one liquid flowing in another has not been available. Here we develop a hydrodynamic ...


Glucose Biosensor Using Electrospun Mn2o3-Ag Nanofibers, Shan Huang Aug 2011

Glucose Biosensor Using Electrospun Mn2o3-Ag Nanofibers, Shan Huang

Master's Theses

The highly porous Mn2O3-Ag nanofibers were fabricated by a facile two-step procedure (electrospinning and calcination) and then employed as the immobilization matrix for glucose oxidase (GOD) to construct an amperometric glucose biosensor. A notable enhancement of direct electron transfer between GOD and the electrode is observed at the Mn2O3-Ag-GOD modified electrode with a fast electron transfer rate constant. The biosensor also shows fast response to glucose, high sensitivity (40.60 μA×mM-1×cm-2), low detection limit (1.73 µM at S/N=3), low Km,app value and excellent ...


Phylogenetic And Experimental Characterization Of An Acyl-Acp Thioesterase Family Reveals Significant Diversity In Enzymatic Specificity And Activity, Fuyuan Jing, David C. Cantu, Jarmila Tvaruzkova, Jay P. Chipman, Basil J. Nikolau, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Peter J. Reilly Aug 2011

Phylogenetic And Experimental Characterization Of An Acyl-Acp Thioesterase Family Reveals Significant Diversity In Enzymatic Specificity And Activity, Fuyuan Jing, David C. Cantu, Jarmila Tvaruzkova, Jay P. Chipman, Basil J. Nikolau, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Peter J. Reilly

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Background: Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases (acyl-ACP TEs) catalyze the hydrolysis of the thioester bond that links the acyl chain to the sulfhydryl group of the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of ACP. This reaction terminates acyl chain elongation of fatty acid biosynthesis, and in plant seeds it is the biochemical determinant of the fatty acid compositions of storage lipids.

Results: To explore acyl-ACP TE diversity and to identify novel acyl ACP-TEs, 31 acyl-ACP TEs from wide-ranging phylogenetic sources were characterized to ascertain their in vivo activities and substrate specificities. These acylACP TEs were chosen by two different approaches: 1) 24 TEs were ...


Forced Instability Of Core-Annular Flow In Capillary Constrictions, Igor A. Beresnev, William Gaul, R. Dennis Vigil Jul 2011

Forced Instability Of Core-Annular Flow In Capillary Constrictions, Igor A. Beresnev, William Gaul, R. Dennis Vigil

R. Dennis Vigil

Instability of fluid cylinders and jets, a highly nonlinear hydrodynamic phenomenon, has fascinated researchers for nearly 150 years. A subset of the phenomenon is the core-annular flow, in which a non-wetting core fluid and a surrounding wall-wetting annulus flow through a solid channel. The model, for example, represents the flow of oil in petroleum reservoirs. The flow may be forced to break up when passing through a channel’s constriction. Although it has long been observed that the breakup occurs near the neck of the constriction, the exact conditions for the occurrence of the forced breakup and its dynamic theory ...


Forced Instability Of Core-Annular Flow In Capillary Constrictions, Igor A. Beresnev, William Gaul, R. Dennis Vigil Jul 2011

Forced Instability Of Core-Annular Flow In Capillary Constrictions, Igor A. Beresnev, William Gaul, R. Dennis Vigil

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Instability of fluid cylinders and jets, a highly nonlinear hydrodynamic phenomenon, has fascinated researchers for nearly 150 years. A subset of the phenomenon is the core-annular flow, in which a non-wetting core fluid and a surrounding wall-wetting annulus flow through a solid channel. The model, for example, represents the flow of oil in petroleum reservoirs. The flow may be forced to break up when passing through a channel’s constriction. Although it has long been observed that the breakup occurs near the neck of the constriction, the exact conditions for the occurrence of the forced breakup and its dynamic theory ...


Detection Of Specific Biological Antigens Using Ac Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Darrel Angelo Mazzari Jul 2011

Detection Of Specific Biological Antigens Using Ac Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Darrel Angelo Mazzari

Dissertations (2009 -)

When certain antigens are present in our environment, a rapid, on-site, accurate, selective, and repeatable detection method can be invaluable in preventing illness or saving lives. Rapid detection of these antigens is important to avert spreading infections.

Currently, capturing a sample and sending it to a laboratory can take weeks to get results, which can be much too long. Conventional sensing methodologies include various electrical measurements as capacitive, potentiometric, piezoelectric, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Of particular power and interest is Alternating Current (AC) Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) which provides for the characterization of the electrical ...


A Quadrature-Based Kinetic Model For Dilute Non-Isothermal Granular Flows, Alberto Passalacqua, Janine E. Galvin, Prakash Vedula, Christine M. Hrenya, Rodney O. Fox Jul 2011

A Quadrature-Based Kinetic Model For Dilute Non-Isothermal Granular Flows, Alberto Passalacqua, Janine E. Galvin, Prakash Vedula, Christine M. Hrenya, Rodney O. Fox

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

A moment method with closures based on Gaussian quadrature formulas is proposed to solve the Boltzmann kinetic equation with a hard-sphere collision kernel for mono-dispersed particles. Different orders of accuracy in terms of the moments of the velocity distribution function are considered, accounting for moments up to seventh order. Quadrature-based closures for four different models for inelastic collisionthe Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook, ES-BGK, the Maxwell model for hard-sphere collisions, and the full Boltzmann hard-sphere collision integral-are derived and compared. The approach is validated studying a dilute non-isothermal granular flow of inelastic particles between two stationary Maxwellian walls. Results obtained from the kinetic models ...


Determining A Method For Rendering Low Cost Cdse(Zns) Core(Shell) Quantum Dots Aqueous Soluble Via Amphiphilic Polymer Wrapping, Patrick Mcbride Jun 2011

Determining A Method For Rendering Low Cost Cdse(Zns) Core(Shell) Quantum Dots Aqueous Soluble Via Amphiphilic Polymer Wrapping, Patrick Mcbride

Materials Engineering

Herein is described the procedure of two amphiphilic polymer wrapping techniques that may be employed for obtaining aqueous soluble quantum dots (QDs) for use in biological fluorescent imaging applications. The advent of QDs has led to new nanoscale fluorescent materials that exhibit unparalleled quantum yields (QYs), high resistance to photobleaching, tunable emissions, and
absorption over a large optical range. However, the QD synthesis employed here at Cal Poly to obtain bright, photostable CdSe(ZnS) core(shell) QDs involves the use of organic solvents and surfactants, leading to hydrophobic QDs. Since all of biology relies on aqueous solubility, this hydrophobicity creates ...


The Effectiveness Of Multi-Stage Dehumidification– Humidification For Improving The Cooling Ability Of Evaporative Air Conditioning, Philadelphia University May 2011

The Effectiveness Of Multi-Stage Dehumidification– Humidification For Improving The Cooling Ability Of Evaporative Air Conditioning, Philadelphia University

Philadelphia University, Jordan

No abstract provided.


Nsf Engineering Research Center For Biorenewable Chemicals, Third Year Renewal Proposal, Volume Ii, Nsf Engineering Research Center For Biorenewable Chemicals Apr 2011

Nsf Engineering Research Center For Biorenewable Chemicals, Third Year Renewal Proposal, Volume Ii, Nsf Engineering Research Center For Biorenewable Chemicals

Center for Biorenewable Chemicals Annual Reports

In the U.S., the production of industrial chemicals is a $400 billion-plus enterprise that impacts all aspects of society from personal care products to building materials. Unfortunately, this vital industry is not self-sustaining; its long-term future is predicated on transitioning from current nonrenewable, petroleum feedstocks to renewable biobased feedstocks. The development of conversion technologies needed to facilitate this transition is the focus of the NSF Engineering Research Center for Biorenewable Chemicals (CBiRC).


Kinetic Characterization Of A Glycoside Hydrolase Family 44 Xyloglucanase/Endoglucanase From Ruminococcus Flavefaciens Fd-1, Christopher D. Warner, Rica M. Go, Carolina García-Salinas, Clark Ford, Peter J. Reilly Jan 2011

Kinetic Characterization Of A Glycoside Hydrolase Family 44 Xyloglucanase/Endoglucanase From Ruminococcus Flavefaciens Fd-1, Christopher D. Warner, Rica M. Go, Carolina García-Salinas, Clark Ford, Peter J. Reilly

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Two forms of Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1 endoglucanase B, a member of glycoside hydrolase family 44, one with only a catalytic domain and the other with a catalytic domain and a carbohydrate binding domain (CBM), were produced. Both forms hydrolyzed cellotetraose, cellopentaose, cellohexaose, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), birchwood and larchwood xylan, xyloglucan, lichenan, and Avicel but not cellobiose, cellotriose, mannan, or pullulan. Addition of the CBM increased catalytic efficiencies on both CMC and birchwood xylan but not on xyloglucan, and it decreased rates of cellopentaose and cellohexaose hydrolysis. Catalytic efficiencies were much higher on xyloglucan than on other polysaccharides. Hydrolysis rates increased with ...


Electrochemical Investigation Of Chromium Nanocarbide Coated Ti-6al-4v And Co-Cr-Mo Alloy Substrates, Viswanathan Swaminathan, Haitong Zeng, Daniel Lawrynowicz, Zongtao Zhang, Jeremy L. Gilbert Jan 2011

Electrochemical Investigation Of Chromium Nanocarbide Coated Ti-6al-4v And Co-Cr-Mo Alloy Substrates, Viswanathan Swaminathan, Haitong Zeng, Daniel Lawrynowicz, Zongtao Zhang, Jeremy L. Gilbert

Biomedical and Chemical Engineering

This study investigated the electrochemical behavior of chromium nano-carbide cermet coating applied on Ti–6Al–4V and Co–Cr–Mo alloys for potential application as wear and corrosion resistant bearing surfaces. The cermet coating consisted of a highly heterogeneous combination of carbides embedded in a metal matrix. The main factors studied were the effect of substrate (Ti–6Al–4V vs. Co–Cr–Mo), solution conditions (physiological vs. 1 M H2O2 of pH 2), time of immersion (1 vs. 24 h) and post coating treatments (passivation and gamma sterilization). The coatings were produced with high velocity oxygen fuel ...


Reinforced Chitosan-Based Heart Valve Scaffold And Utility Of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells For Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering, Mohammad Z. Albanna Jan 2011

Reinforced Chitosan-Based Heart Valve Scaffold And Utility Of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells For Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering, Mohammad Z. Albanna

Wayne State University Dissertations

Recent research has demonstrated a strong correlation between the differentiation profile of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and scaffold stiffness. Chitosan is being widely studied for tissue engineering applications due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, its use in load-bearing applications is limited due to moderate to low mechanical properties. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of a fiber reinforcement method for enhancing the mechanical properties of chitosan scaffolds. Chitosan fibers were fabricated using a solution extrusion and neutralization method and incorporated into porous chitosan scaffolds. The effects of different fiber/scaffold mass ratios, fiber mechanical properties and fiber lengths ...


Phototunable Click-Based Hydrogels For 3d Cell Culture: Dynamic Biochemical And Biomechanical Tailorability Of The Cell Niche, Cole Alexander Deforest Jan 2011

Phototunable Click-Based Hydrogels For 3d Cell Culture: Dynamic Biochemical And Biomechanical Tailorability Of The Cell Niche, Cole Alexander Deforest

Chemical & Biological Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

To better understand how cells receive and respond to signals presented by their external surroundings, polymer-based hydrogels have emerged as highly tailorable constructs for assaying cell function in well-defined microenvironments where the effects of user-dictated functionalities can be individually probed. This thesis research aimed to develop synthetic strategies to create and modify 3D cell culture platforms that permit researchers to explore in real time how cell-material interactions influence important biological function. Specifically, cytocompatible hydrogels were formed via a novel strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction between a tetrafunctional poly(ethylene glycol) and a difunctional enzymatically-degradable peptide sequence, which enabled cell-mediated active remodeling ...


Investigation Of Microbubble/Droplet Formation In Cross-Flow And Co-Flow Micro Devices, Tom J. John Jan 2011

Investigation Of Microbubble/Droplet Formation In Cross-Flow And Co-Flow Micro Devices, Tom J. John

Doctoral Dissertations

The primary goal of the work presented in this dissertation is to generate microbubbles of a diameter of less than 15μm inside micro channels. In order to achieve this detailed understanding, the facts and limitations behind the generation of microbubbles inside a micro channel are determined from existing literature. The major limitations of the current bubble/droplet generators are found to be the bubble confinement effect, the merging of bubbles, the difficulty in determining bubble diameter and the need for smaller channels to generate smaller bubbles. A device eliminating these drawbacks is conceptualized, and its feasibility is studied using COMSOL ...


Steam Reforming Of Bio-Oil Fractions: Effect Of Composition And Stability, Pedro J, Ortiz-Toral, Justinus A. Satrio, Robert C. Brown, Brent H. Shanks Jan 2011

Steam Reforming Of Bio-Oil Fractions: Effect Of Composition And Stability, Pedro J, Ortiz-Toral, Justinus A. Satrio, Robert C. Brown, Brent H. Shanks

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The efficacy of steam reforming of the aqueous species in bio-oils produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass is examined. A fractionating condenser system was used to collect a set of fractions of fast pyrolysis liquids with different chemical characteristics. The water-soluble components from the different fractions were steam-reformed using a nickel-based commercial catalyst in a fixed-bed reactor system. When reforming at 500 °C, an overall positive effect in hydrogen yields was observed for the fractions with higher concentrations of lower molecular-weight oxygenates, such as acetic acid and acetol, while the heavier compounds, such as the carbohydrates, showed an ...


An Algorithm For Optimally Fitting A Wiener Model, Lucas P. Beverlin, Derrick K. Rollins Sr., Nisarg Vyas, David Andre Jan 2011

An Algorithm For Optimally Fitting A Wiener Model, Lucas P. Beverlin, Derrick K. Rollins Sr., Nisarg Vyas, David Andre

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The purpose of this work is to present a new methodology for fitting Wiener networks to datasets with a large number of variables. Wiener networks have the ability to model a wide range of data types, and their structures can yield parameters with phenomenological meaning. There are several challenges to fitting such a model: model stiffness, the nonlinear nature of a Wiener network, possible overfitting, and the large number of parameters inherent with large input sets. This work describes a methodology to overcome these challenges by using several iterative algorithms under supervised learning and fitting subsets of the parameters at ...


The Feasibility Of Using Bifidobacteria Bifidum (Atcc 700541) For The Production Of Prebiotic Oligosaccharides, Candice Marie Luehrs Jan 2011

The Feasibility Of Using Bifidobacteria Bifidum (Atcc 700541) For The Production Of Prebiotic Oligosaccharides, Candice Marie Luehrs

Masters Theses

"Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are prebiotics that are being used to influence intestinal microbiota towards health promoting, beneficial bacteria like bifidobacteria. Natural sources of GOS are not found in suitable levels to achieve the desired health effects so economically viable commercial production methods are important. Enzymatic conversion of lactose to GOS through transgalactosylation is a preferred method since the starting material is inexpensive and readily available. Enzymes used in batch production are purified from fungal or bacterial sources or remain in whole cells cultured for GOS production. Purified or unbound enzymes are single use whereas enzymes retained within whole cells can potentially ...


High Throughput Design Of Functionalized Nanoparticles For Targeted Vaccine Delivery, Ana Vianey Chavez-Santoscoy Jan 2011

High Throughput Design Of Functionalized Nanoparticles For Targeted Vaccine Delivery, Ana Vianey Chavez-Santoscoy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on the design of functionalized nanoparticles, a novel approach to targeted antigen delivery by decorating the surface of polyanhydride nanoparticles with specific carbohydrates to provide "pathogen-like" properties.

Polyanhydride nanoparticles are promising vaccine platforms that have the potential to be used as controlled drug delivery devices as well as potent and effective immune adjuvants for the design of single dose vaccines. CLRs offer unique advantages for tailoring immune responses. Engagement of CLRs regulates antigen presenting cell activation and promotes delivery of antigens to specific intracellular compartments inside antigen presenting cells for efficient processing and presentation.

CLRs recognize conserved ...


Functional Materials From Hierarchically Ordered Polymer Nanocomposites, Brandon Josef Franck Jan 2011

Functional Materials From Hierarchically Ordered Polymer Nanocomposites, Brandon Josef Franck

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

We report work done studying the segregation of polymer coated gold nanoparticles within block copolymer (BCP) composites. Poly(styrene-b-isoprene) (PI-b-PS) of Mn 172 kDa was loaded with various particle fractions of gold nanoparticle with various surface chemistries. Segregation of the particles within the BCP composite was examined via electron microscopy. "Single component" nanocomposites with BCP ligands of PI-b-PS and poly(isoprene-b-dimethylsiloxane) "grafted to" gold nanoparticles were introduced and a study of ordering was done via electron microscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering.


Multiscale Modeling For Complex Macromolecular Systems: Methodologies And Applications, Seung Ha Kim Jan 2011

Multiscale Modeling For Complex Macromolecular Systems: Methodologies And Applications, Seung Ha Kim

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this dissertation is to understand the binding mechanism between flexible macromolecules and guest species in solution using multiscale molecular modeling strategies, including: ab initio electronic structure theory, all-atom classical molecular dynamics simulations, coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, and statistical eld theory. A brief summary of the subsequent chapters in this thesis is provided. Chapters 2 - 7 and Appendix A are self-contained units complete with literature review and bibliography.


Self-Assembled Pentablock Copolymers For Selective And Sustained Gene Delivery, Bingqi Zhang Jan 2011

Self-Assembled Pentablock Copolymers For Selective And Sustained Gene Delivery, Bingqi Zhang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The poly(diethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDEAEM) - Pluronic F127 - PDEAEM pentablock copolymer (PB) gene delivery vector system has been found to possess an inherent selectivity in transfecting cancer cells over non-cancer cells in vitro, without attaching any targeting ligands. In order to understand the mechanism of this selective transfection, three possible intracellular barriers to transfection were investigated in both cancer and non-cancer cells. We concluded that escape from the endocytic pathway served as the primary intracellular barrier for PB-mediated transfection. Most likely, PB vectors were entrapped and rendered non-functional in acidic lysosomes of non-cancer cells, but survived in less acidic lysosomes of ...


Surface Functionalization Of Quantum Dots For Biotechnological Applications, Yanjie Zhang Jan 2011

Surface Functionalization Of Quantum Dots For Biotechnological Applications, Yanjie Zhang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Quantum dots (QDs) are considered as fantastic substitutes for organic dyes or genetically coded proteins because of their outstanding optical properties including broad absorption spectra, size tunable emission spectra, large extinction coefficient and superior resistance to chemical and physical degradation. They are now widely used in many biological applications. However, QDs are generally synthesized using organometallic approach and only soluble in organic solvents. To transfer QDs into aqueous solution, we replaced their native ligands with a new group of water-soluble molecules based on simple yet flexible dithiocarbamate chemistry. This cap exchange method offers QDs not only solubility but also stability ...


Engineering Amphiphillic Polyanhydride Particle Platform For Targeted Drug And Vaccine Delivery, Brenda Rocio Carrillo-Conde Jan 2011

Engineering Amphiphillic Polyanhydride Particle Platform For Targeted Drug And Vaccine Delivery, Brenda Rocio Carrillo-Conde

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this work, a transdisciplinary approach that combines concepts from biomaterials, nanotechnology, carbohydrate and protein chemistry, molecular biology, immunology and computational analysis has been applied to rationally design and engineer novel vaccine platforms that encompass passive and active targeting strategies.

First, the intrinsic properties of the polyanhydride systems utilized in these studies were tailored to achieve the stability of proteins with the potential to be used as antigens and/or therapeutic agents. Amphiphillic polyanhydride chemistries showed the most optimal properties to preserve structural integrity and functionality of different proteins. The surface chemistry of polyanhydride particles was also identified as an ...


Purification Of Flavan-3-Ol Biosynthesis For Co-Localization Onto Nanocarriers And A Multi-Enzyme Assay, Emily Kaitlin Davenport Jan 2011

Purification Of Flavan-3-Ol Biosynthesis For Co-Localization Onto Nanocarriers And A Multi-Enzyme Assay, Emily Kaitlin Davenport

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Flavonoids are polyphenolic secondary metabolites that serve a variety of purposes, from assisting pollination in plants to providing anti-cancerous activity in humans. It is the wide range of functions that give these molecules the highly revered status they have today. Range in function can be linked with the range in structure, and with over 10,000 different flavonoids known, they make up one of the largest groups of natural products. One common sub-class of flavonoids is the flavan-3-ols, which are known for their health benefits and tendency to condense to form proanthocyanidins, or condensed tannins. Both of these classes of ...