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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Quantitative Elucidation Of A Distinct Spatial Gradient-Sensing Mechanism In Fibroblasts, Ian C. Schneider, Jason M. Haugh Dec 2005

Quantitative Elucidation Of A Distinct Spatial Gradient-Sensing Mechanism In Fibroblasts, Ian C. Schneider, Jason M. Haugh

Ian C. Schneider

Migration of eukaryotic cells toward a chemoattractant often relies on their ability to distinguish receptor-mediated signaling at different subcellular locations, a phenomenon known as spatial sensing. A prominent example that is seen during wound healing is fibroblast migration in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) gradients. As in the well-characterized chemotactic cells Dictyostelium discoideum and neutrophils, signaling to the cytoskeleton via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway in fibroblasts is spatially polarized by a PDGF gradient; however, the sensitivity of this process and how it is regulated are unknown. Through a quantitative analysis of mathematical models and live cell total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy ...


Spatial Analysis Of 3′ Phosphoinositide Signaling In Living Fibroblasts, Iii: Influence Of Cell Morphology And Morphological Polarity, Ian C. Schneider, Elizabeth M. Parrish, Jason M. Haugh Aug 2005

Spatial Analysis Of 3′ Phosphoinositide Signaling In Living Fibroblasts, Iii: Influence Of Cell Morphology And Morphological Polarity, Ian C. Schneider, Elizabeth M. Parrish, Jason M. Haugh

Ian C. Schneider

Activation of phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase is a required signaling pathway in fibroblast migration directed by platelet-derived growth factor. The pattern of 3′ PI lipids in the plasma membrane, integrating local Pl 3-kinase activity as well as 3′ PI diffusion and turnover, influences the spatiotemporal regulation of the cytoskeleton. In fibroblasts stimulated uniformly with platelet-derived growth factor, visualized using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we consistently observed localized regions with significantly higher or lower 3′ PI levels than adjacent regions (hot and cold spots, respectively). A typical cell contained multiple hot spots, coinciding with apparent leading edge structures, and at most ...


Elastic Waves Push Organic Fluids From Reservoir Rock, Igor A. Beresnev, R. Dennis Vigil, Wenqing Li, Wayne D. Pennington, Roger M. Turpening, Pavel P. Iassonov, Robert P. Ewing Jul 2005

Elastic Waves Push Organic Fluids From Reservoir Rock, Igor A. Beresnev, R. Dennis Vigil, Wenqing Li, Wayne D. Pennington, Roger M. Turpening, Pavel P. Iassonov, Robert P. Ewing

R. Dennis Vigil

Elastic waves have been observed to increase productivity of oil wells, although the reason for the vibratory mobilization of the residual organic fluids has remained unclear. Residual oil is entrapped as ganglia in pore constrictions because of resisting capillary forces. An external pressure gradient exceeding an ‘‘unplugging’’ threshold is needed to carry the ganglia through. The vibrations help overcome this resistance by adding an oscillatory inertial forcing to the external gradient; when the vibratory forcing acts along the gradient and the threshold is exceeded, instant ‘‘unplugging’’ occurs. The mobilization effect is proportional to the amplitude and inversely proportional to the ...


Elastic Waves Push Organic Fluids From Reservoir Rock, Igor A. Beresnev, R. Dennis Vigil, Wenqing Li, Wayne D. Pennington, Roger M. Turpening, Pavel P. Iassonov, Robert P. Ewing Jul 2005

Elastic Waves Push Organic Fluids From Reservoir Rock, Igor A. Beresnev, R. Dennis Vigil, Wenqing Li, Wayne D. Pennington, Roger M. Turpening, Pavel P. Iassonov, Robert P. Ewing

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Elastic waves have been observed to increase productivity of oil wells, although the reason for the vibratory mobilization of the residual organic fluids has remained unclear. Residual oil is entrapped as ganglia in pore constrictions because of resisting capillary forces. An external pressure gradient exceeding an ‘‘unplugging’’ threshold is needed to carry the ganglia through. The vibrations help overcome this resistance by adding an oscillatory inertial forcing to the external gradient; when the vibratory forcing acts along the gradient and the threshold is exceeded, instant ‘‘unplugging’’ occurs. The mobilization effect is proportional to the amplitude and inversely proportional to the ...


Blood Flow Measurements With Magnetic Resonance Phase Velocity Mapping, George P. Chatzimavroudis Apr 2005

Blood Flow Measurements With Magnetic Resonance Phase Velocity Mapping, George P. Chatzimavroudis

Chemical & Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Magnetic resonance (MR) phase velocity mapping (PVM) is a non-invasive technique that can measure the flow velocity in any spatial direction in an imaging slice. This technique has wide application in the clinical field in quantifying blood flow, as well as in non-biomedical areas. This review describes the value and/or potential of MR PVM as a diagnostic/monitoring technique in heart valve regurgitation and in the total cavo-pulmonary connection. A single slice placed in the aortic root can accurately quantify the aortic regurgitant volume. A multi-slice control volume method has high potential for the quantification of the mitral regurgitant ...


Relationship Between The Extent Of Non-Viable Myocardium And Regional Left Ventricular Function In Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease, Arunark Kolipaka, George P. Chatzimavroudis, Richard D. White, Michael L. Lieber, Randolph M. Setser Jan 2005

Relationship Between The Extent Of Non-Viable Myocardium And Regional Left Ventricular Function In Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease, Arunark Kolipaka, George P. Chatzimavroudis, Richard D. White, Michael L. Lieber, Randolph M. Setser

Chemical & Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Purpose. To define the relationship between left ventricular (LV) regional contractile function and the extent of myocardial scar in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease and multi-vessel coronary artery disease. Methods. Twenty-three patients with chronic ischemic heart disease and 5 healthy volunteers underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In patients, the relative area ( Percent Scar) and transmural extent (Transmurality) of myocardial infarction were computed from short-axis delayed enhancement images. In each image, myocardial segments were categorized based on the extent of infarction they contained, with 6 categories each for Percent Scar and Transmurality: normal, from healthy volunteers; and 0%; 1–25 ...


Continuous-Time Block-Oriented Adaptive On-Line Modeling For Time Varying Systems, Derrick K. Rollins Sr., Stephanie Loveland Jan 2005

Continuous-Time Block-Oriented Adaptive On-Line Modeling For Time Varying Systems, Derrick K. Rollins Sr., Stephanie Loveland

Chemical and Biological Engineering Conference Presentations and Proceedings

The development and maintenance of accurate predictive models for dynamic systems are highly challenged by system complexity, limited information (i.e., data), changing cross and time correlation structures and changing model parameters. Thus, for a model or modeling method to achieve long term success in implementation into a real system, it must be phenomenologically sound and adaptive, as well as being capable of immediate update from recently obtained process data (i.e., plant data). A model is phenomenologically sound when its structure accurately captures physical input and output relationships, and the stochastic behavior of process and measurement noise. On-line adaptive ...


Nanoscale Morphology Of Polyanhydride Copolymers, Matthew J. Kipper, Sheng-Shu Hou, Soenke Seifert, Papannan Thiyagarajan, Klaus Schmidt-Rohr, Balaji Narasimhan Jan 2005

Nanoscale Morphology Of Polyanhydride Copolymers, Matthew J. Kipper, Sheng-Shu Hou, Soenke Seifert, Papannan Thiyagarajan, Klaus Schmidt-Rohr, Balaji Narasimhan

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The microphase separation in polyanhydride random copolymers composed of 1,6-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)hexane and sebacic acid is described. Though the copolymers are random, the monomers are sufficiently long and the segment-segment interaction parameter is sufficiently high to promote microphase separation when the copolymer is rich in one component. Solid-state NMR spin diffusion experiments and synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering are used to discern the length scales of the microphase separation. Both techniques reveal a nanostructure with domain sizes less than 25 Ã…. This nanostructure is compared to approximate calculations of chain dimensions based on a random coil model and discussed in ...


Surfactant Properties Of Low Molecular Weight Phospholipids, Punjaporn Weschayanwiwat, John F. Scamehorn, Peter J. Reilly Jan 2005

Surfactant Properties Of Low Molecular Weight Phospholipids, Punjaporn Weschayanwiwat, John F. Scamehorn, Peter J. Reilly

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Surface tensions, critical micelle concentrations (CMCs), contact angles on hydrophobic polyethylene, and foaming characteristics of phosphatidic acids, phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, and phosphatidylglycerols were measured to determine their suitability as substitutes for traditional surfactants. These phospholipids have fatty acid chains of 5 to 12 carbon atoms, a range over which they are soluble at room temperature. Their surface tensions decrease with increasing concentrations until their CMCs are reached, above which their plateau surface tensions are as low as 21 mN/m, indicating excellent surface activities. In general, plateau surface tensions decrease with increasing chain length within each phospholipid type. The classical relationship ...


Construction Of A Tethered Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Surface Gradient For Studies Of Cell Adhesion Kinetics, K. Mougin, A. S. Ham, M. B. Lawrence, E. J. Fernandez, Andrew C. Hillier Jan 2005

Construction Of A Tethered Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Surface Gradient For Studies Of Cell Adhesion Kinetics, K. Mougin, A. S. Ham, M. B. Lawrence, E. J. Fernandez, Andrew C. Hillier

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Surface gradients can be used to perform a wide range of functions and represent a novel experimental platform for combinatorial discovery and analysis. In this work, a gradient in the coverage of a surface-immobilized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) layer is constructed to interrogate cell adhesion on a solid surface. Variation of surface coverage is achieved by controlled transport of a reactive PEG precursor from a point source through a hydrated gel. Immobilization of PEG is achieved by covalent attachment of the PEG molecule via direct coupling chemistry to a cystamine self-assembled monolayer on gold. This represents a simple method for ...