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Articles 1 - 8 of 8

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Fast Measurements Of Flow Through Mitral Regurgitant Orifices With Magnetic Resonance Phase Velocity Mapping, Haosen Zhang, Sandra S. Halliburton, Richard D. White, George P. Chatzimavroudis Dec 2004

Fast Measurements Of Flow Through Mitral Regurgitant Orifices With Magnetic Resonance Phase Velocity Mapping, Haosen Zhang, Sandra S. Halliburton, Richard D. White, George P. Chatzimavroudis

Chemical & Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Magnetic-resonance (MR) phase velocity mapping (PVM) shows promise in measuring the mitral regurgitant volume. However, in its conventional nonsegmented form, MR-PVM is slow and impractical for clinical use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of rapid, segmented k-spaceMR-PVM in quantifying the mitral regurgitant flow through a control volume (CV) method. Two segmented MR-PVM schemes, one with seven (seg-7) and one with nine (seg-9) lines per segment, were evaluated in acrylic regurgitant mitral valve models under steady and pulsatile flow. A nonsegmented (nonseg) MR-PVM acquisition was also performed for reference. The segmented acquisitions were considerably faster ...


Biomimetic Synthesis Within Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules: Characterization Of Enzyme Catalyzed Polyphenols And Polypeptides, Rohit C. Ghan Oct 2004

Biomimetic Synthesis Within Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules: Characterization Of Enzyme Catalyzed Polyphenols And Polypeptides, Rohit C. Ghan

Doctoral Dissertations

An enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of novel polymers within layer-by-layer (LbL) constructed polyelectrolyte microcapsules has been developed. This approach is based on the selective permeability of polyelectrolyte-capsule walls to monomer molecules. Conversely biocatalysts and forming polymeric chains cannot exit the micro-capsule interior because of their characteristic high molecular weight. Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) was encapsulated into four bilayer PSS (poly-styrenesulfonate)/PAH (poly-allylamine hydrochloride) capsules with an average diameter of 5 μm using pH-driven pore opening. The polymerization of 4-(2-Aminoethyl) phenol hydrochloride (tyramine) catalyzed by HRP produces easily detectable fluorescent polymeric products after the addition of hydrogen peroxide to the system. It is ...


Arg343 In Human Surfactant Protein D Governs Discrimination Between Glucose And N-Acetylglucosamine Ligands, Martin J. Allen, Alain Laederach, Peter J. Reilly, Robert J. Mason, Dennis R. Voelker Aug 2004

Arg343 In Human Surfactant Protein D Governs Discrimination Between Glucose And N-Acetylglucosamine Ligands, Martin J. Allen, Alain Laederach, Peter J. Reilly, Robert J. Mason, Dennis R. Voelker

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Surfactant protein D (SP-D), one of the members of the collectin family of C-type lectins, is an important component of pulmonary innate immunity. SP-D binds carbohydrates in a calcium-dependent manner, but the mechanisms governing its ligand recognition specificity are not well understood. SP-D binds glucose (Glc) stronger than N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). Structural superimposition of hSP-D with mannose- binding protein C (MBP-C) complexed with GlcNAc reveals steric clashes between the ligand and the side chain of Arg343 in hSP-D. To test whether Arg343contributes to Glc > GlcNAc recognition specificity, we constructed a computational model of Arg343→Val (R343V ...


Rational Pathway Engineering Of Type I Fatty Acid Synthase Allows The Biosynthesis Of Triacetic Acid Lactone From D-Glucose In Vivo, Wenjuan Zha, Zengyi Shao, John W. Frost, Huimin Zhao Jan 2004

Rational Pathway Engineering Of Type I Fatty Acid Synthase Allows The Biosynthesis Of Triacetic Acid Lactone From D-Glucose In Vivo, Wenjuan Zha, Zengyi Shao, John W. Frost, Huimin Zhao

Zengyi Shao

Metabolic pathway engineering is a powerful tool to synthesize structurally diverse and complex chemicals via genetic manipulation of multistep catalytic systems involved in cell metabolism. Here, we report the rational design of a fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, Brevibacterium ammoniagenes fatty acid synthase B (FAS-B), that allows the microbial synthesis of triacetic acid lactone (TAL) from an inexpensive feedstock, D-glucose. TAL can be chemically converted to phloroglucinol, which is a core structure for the synthesis of various high value bioactive compounds and energetic compounds such as 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Synthesis of phloroglucinol from d-glucose using this combined biological ...


Spatial Analysis Of 3′ Phosphoinositide Signaling In Living Fibroblasts: Ii. Parameter Estimates For Individual Cells From Experiments, Ian C. Schneider, Jason M. Haugh Jan 2004

Spatial Analysis Of 3′ Phosphoinositide Signaling In Living Fibroblasts: Ii. Parameter Estimates For Individual Cells From Experiments, Ian C. Schneider, Jason M. Haugh

Ian C. Schneider

Fibroblast migration is directed by gradients of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) during wound healing. As in other chemotactic systems, it has been shown recently that localized stimulation of intracellular phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase activity and production of 3′ PI lipids in the plasma membrane are important events in the signaling of spatially biased motility processes. In turn, 3′ PI localization depends on the effective diffusion coefficient, D, and turnover rate constant, k, of these lipids. Here we present a systematic and direct comparison of mathematical model calculations and experimental measurements to estimate the values of the effective 3′ PI diffusion coefficient ...


Construction Of Cell-Resistant Surfaces By Immobilization Of Poly(Ethylene Glycol) On Gold, K. Mougin, M. B. Lawrence, E. J. Fernandez, Andrew C. Hillier Jan 2004

Construction Of Cell-Resistant Surfaces By Immobilization Of Poly(Ethylene Glycol) On Gold, K. Mougin, M. B. Lawrence, E. J. Fernandez, Andrew C. Hillier

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Considerable effort has been expended in efforts to create surfaces that resist the adsorption of proteins and cells for biomedical applications. The majority of such work has focused on surfaces constructed from bulk polymers or thin polymer films. However, the fabrication of surfaces via self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) has attracted considerable interest because of the robustness, versatility, and wide-ranging applicability of these materials. SAMs are particularly appealing for biological systems where well-defined surface chemistries can be created to facilitate coupling, biorecognition, or cell adhesion along with a host of other applications in biochemistry and biotechnology.


Engineering Bioerodible Polymers With Tailored Micro/Nanostructure For Vaccine Delivery , Matthew J. Kipper Jan 2004

Engineering Bioerodible Polymers With Tailored Micro/Nanostructure For Vaccine Delivery , Matthew J. Kipper

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This work describes the investigation of bioerodible polyanhydrides as controlled drug delivery vehicles. The polymers studied are based on the 1,6-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)hexane (CPH) and sebacic acid (SA) monomers. These two materials erode at vastly different rates and can be combined in random copolymers or blends to achieve tailored erosion kinetics. The hydrophobic nature of these materials offers the potential to stabilize proteins, and their mutual incompatibility and semicrystallinity provide an interesting phase behavior, which can be exploited to aid in tailoring the release kinetics. Theoretical and experimental description of the microstructure of polyanhydride copolymers reveals the details of ...


Biomolecule-Directed Assembly Of Nanoscale Building Blocks Studied Via Lattice Monte Carlo Simulation, Ting Chen, Monica H. Lamm, Sharon C. Glotzer Dec 2003

Biomolecule-Directed Assembly Of Nanoscale Building Blocks Studied Via Lattice Monte Carlo Simulation, Ting Chen, Monica H. Lamm, Sharon C. Glotzer

Monica H. Lamm

We perform lattice Monte Carlo simulations to study the self-assembly of functionalized inorganic nanoscale building blocks using recognitive biomolecule linkers. We develop a minimal coarse-grained lattice model for the nanoscale building block (NBB) and the recognitive linkers. Using this model, we explore the influence of the size ratio of linker length to NBB diameter on the assembly process and the structural properties of the resulting aggregates, including the spatial distribution of NBBs and aggregate topology. We find the constant-kernel Smoluchowski theory of diffusion-limited cluster–cluster aggregation describes the aggregation kinetics for certain size ratios.