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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Hollow Fiber Membranes For Artificial Lung Applications, Lauren Reed Dec 2016

Hollow Fiber Membranes For Artificial Lung Applications, Lauren Reed

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Artificial lungs are in use, but difficult issues remain in the field of membrane development related to fouling issues. Currently there are external artificial lungs circulating blood outside the body, taking out the carbon dioxide, and inserting oxygenated blood back into the body. An example of this type of machine is the ExtraCorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) machine currently used in hospitals. The ECMO takes over the functions for both the lungs and the heart but is only available for short term use by patients with respiratory failure due to infections [1]. The fibers in the machine develop fouling due to ...


Biomarker Detection At Risk Forecasting Level Using Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence Combined With Surface Acoustic Wave, Jun Liu Nov 2016

Biomarker Detection At Risk Forecasting Level Using Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence Combined With Surface Acoustic Wave, Jun Liu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this paper, metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) technique is used to lower the detection limit of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) which is able to be utilized in forecasting the risk of having certain kinds of cancers, especially colon and rectal cancer. By incubating silver nanocubes (Ag NCs) on the surface of the chips, the detection limit goes down to below 1ng/mL of CEA. Also, when combining MEF with surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, the incubation time between antigen and antibody will decrease significantly with the fluorescence signal keeping similar or higher level.


Controlled Delivery Of Angiogenic And Arteriogenic Growth Factors From Biodegradable Poly(Ester Amide) Electrospun Fibers For Therapeutic Angiogenesis, Somiraa S. Said Aug 2016

Controlled Delivery Of Angiogenic And Arteriogenic Growth Factors From Biodegradable Poly(Ester Amide) Electrospun Fibers For Therapeutic Angiogenesis, Somiraa S. Said

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Therapeutic angiogenesis relies on the delivery of exogenous growth factors to stimulate neovessel formation. However, systemic administration of angiogenic factors results in rapid clearance from the site of interest due to their short biological half-life. In this work, we are reporting controlled delivery of a ‘cocktail’ of growth factors, an angiogenic factor −fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), and an arteriogenic factor −fibroblast growth factor-9 (FGF9), from biodegradable poly(ester amide) (PEA) electrospun fibers towards targeting neovascular formation and maturation. FGF2 and FGF9 were dual loaded into PEA fibers using a mixed blend and emulsion electrospinning technique. Matrigel tube formation and Boyden ...


Fermentative Processes Requiring Low Solubility Feed Gases: An Investigation Into Gas-Dependent Microorganisms, Eric W. Doerr Jul 2016

Fermentative Processes Requiring Low Solubility Feed Gases: An Investigation Into Gas-Dependent Microorganisms, Eric W. Doerr

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Two bioprocesses were separately investigated based on their common interest of using gaseous substrates that have low solubility. The first process involved the development of a mixed culture using two organisms capable of utilizing glycerol and carbon monoxide separately to increase biobutanol production, while the second process involved an investigation of different production media used in aerobic xanthan production of Xanthomonas campestris with pressurization effects. It was determined that Clostridium pasteurianum should be used with an organism like Clostridium carboxidivorans or Eubacterium limosum in order for butyrate uptake at 3 g/L to occur with a minimum 0.1 g ...


Nano-Photonic Waveguides For Chemical And Biomedical Sensing, Surya Venkatasekhar Cheemalapati May 2016

Nano-Photonic Waveguides For Chemical And Biomedical Sensing, Surya Venkatasekhar Cheemalapati

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, advances in the fields of Photonics, and Plasmonics, and specifically, single cell analysis and waveguide sensing will be addressed. The first part of the dissertation is on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) optimization and experimental demonstration of a nano-scale instrument that allows sensing at the cellular and subcellular levels. A new design of plasmonic coupler into a nanoscale waveguide is proposed and optimized using FDTD simulations. Following this, a subcellular nanoendoscope that can locally excite fluorescence in labelled cell organelles and collect the emitted fluorescent light for detailed spectrum analysis is fabricated and tested. The nanoendoscope has ...


In Silico Driven Metabolic Engineering Towards Enhancing Biofuel And Biochemical Production, Richard Adam Thompson May 2016

In Silico Driven Metabolic Engineering Towards Enhancing Biofuel And Biochemical Production, Richard Adam Thompson

Doctoral Dissertations

The development of a secure and sustainable energy economy is likely to require the production of fuels and commodity chemicals in a renewable manner. There has been renewed interest in biological commodity chemical production recently, in particular focusing on non-edible feedstocks. The fields of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have arisen in the past 20 years to address the challenge of chemical production from biological feedstocks. Metabolic modeling is a powerful tool for studying the metabolism of an organism and predicting the effects of metabolic engineering strategies. Various techniques have been developed for modeling cellular metabolism, with the underlying principle ...


Development Of An Inflammatory Joint Fluid Corrosion Assessment Method For Metallic Biomaterials, Kathleen Pieri May 2016

Development Of An Inflammatory Joint Fluid Corrosion Assessment Method For Metallic Biomaterials, Kathleen Pieri

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

There is currently no systematic way to analyze the corrosion response of orthopedic alloys in contact with human joint fluid. The goal of this project was to design and test a small device that can successfully run electrochemical tests on retrieved inflamed joint fluids. Methods of fluid testing analysis were also explored. The a small electrochemical cell was created using polypropylene for the body and an electrode cartridge that could be disposed of after each test. In total the device could hold 4 mL of liquid. Testes were preformed using titanium, stainless steel, and CoCrMo alloys as the working electrodes ...


Local Delivery Of Ctla-4 Blockade Inhibits Growth Of Pancreatic Tumors, Jack Baltz May 2016

Local Delivery Of Ctla-4 Blockade Inhibits Growth Of Pancreatic Tumors, Jack Baltz

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Immune checkpoint blockade has demonstrated great potential in activating antitumor immunity. Ipilimumab is a monoclonal antibody which targets cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4. CTLA-4 belongs to the CD28 class of receptors and is found on the surface of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. CTLA-4 acts to suppress the immune system when bound to CD80 and CD86 receptors on antigen presenting cells. Ipilimumab, or anti-CTLA-4, has shown to be effective in significantly extending the survival of patients with metastatic melanoma. However, systemic delivery of Ipilimumab also induces significant side effects such as: colitis, dermatitis, uveitis, and hypophysitis. In order to minimize toxicity, we ...


Micellular Electrokinetic Chromatography For Studying Amyloid Beta Oligomer Membrane Affinity, Andrew Bryson May 2016

Micellular Electrokinetic Chromatography For Studying Amyloid Beta Oligomer Membrane Affinity, Andrew Bryson

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Amyloid Beta (Aβ) was the major focus of this study. It is a peptide that is present in the brain with a high tendency to self-aggregate. When this protein aggregates, it forms oligomers and protofibrils which in turn are deposited as senile plaques in the brain. The reason for the concern with these plaques is their association with the neurological disorder Alzheimer’s disease. It has been found that the most dangerous oligomers are formed in a portion of the plasma membrane known as lipid rafts. The purpose of this study was to understand how micelles affect the aggregation properties ...


Low Cost, Carbon-Based Micro- And Nano-Structured Electrodes For High Performance Supercapacitors, Kryssia Pamela Díaz Orellana May 2016

Low Cost, Carbon-Based Micro- And Nano-Structured Electrodes For High Performance Supercapacitors, Kryssia Pamela Díaz Orellana

All Dissertations

Advances in the development of sustainable, low-cost, and reliable energy storage technologies have become a high priority as the demand for high power, and high energy storage devices has risen with emerging technologies in electronics, transportation, and renewable energy systems. Supercapacitors, due to their relatively high energy density and power density, provide an attractive alternative to bridge the gap between conventional batteries and capacitors. Materials ranging from high surface area, inert carbons to Faradaic metal oxides and conducting polymers have been used to achieve a range of performance properties in supercapacitors. However, the development of new technologies faces many challenges ...


Mechanical Properties Of Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Based Blends And Composites, Nazanin Afghan Apr 2016

Mechanical Properties Of Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Based Blends And Composites, Nazanin Afghan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

One of the most important product specifications in design of materials for different applications is to closely match desired mechanical properties of the target. The soft tissue could be very elastic such as blood vessels and skin, whereas others are soft and non-elastic such as fat tissue. Soft human tissue has a diverse structural component that give them the different feel, texture, shape, and mechanical properties.

Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as hydrophobic polymer has outstanding features such as very good physico-mechanical properties, nontoxicity and biocompatibility, and high swelling properties which makes them favorable for biomaterial and biomedical applications. By physically ...


Enzymatically Degradable Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Hydrogels For Diverse Tissue Engineering Applications And For The Study Of The Foreign Body Response, Luke Daniel Amer Jan 2016

Enzymatically Degradable Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Hydrogels For Diverse Tissue Engineering Applications And For The Study Of The Foreign Body Response, Luke Daniel Amer

Chemical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The field of tissue engineering aims to create replacements for diseased or damaged tissues which restore function and integrate with the host. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels are promising materials for the delivery of cells for tissue engineering applications, however, as with all synthetic materials, they elicit a foreign body response (FBR) upon implantation. Generally, the FBR begins with an initial inflammatory response and ends with the encapsulation of the implant in an avascular fibrous capsule. The harsh environment present during the FBR may harm encapsulated cells and impair integration into the host, ultimately reducing the efficacy of tissue engineering ...


Biopolymer Electrospun Nanofiber Mats To Inactivate And Remove Bacteria, Katrina Ann Rieger Jan 2016

Biopolymer Electrospun Nanofiber Mats To Inactivate And Remove Bacteria, Katrina Ann Rieger

Doctoral Dissertations

The persistence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens remains a primary concern for immunocompromised and critically-ill hospital patients. Hospital associated infections can be deadly and reduce the successes of medical advancements, such as, cancer therapies and medical implants. Thus, it is imperative to develop materials that can (i) deliver new antibiotics with accuracy, as well as (ii) uptake pathogenic microbes. In this work, we will demonstrate that electrospun nanofiber mats offer a promising platform for both of these objectives because of their high surface-to-volume ratio, interconnected high porosity, gas permeability, and ability to contour to virtually any surface. To provide ...


Structure And Dynamics Of Charged Colloidal Disks In Colloid-Polymer Mixtures, Suhasini Kishore Jan 2016

Structure And Dynamics Of Charged Colloidal Disks In Colloid-Polymer Mixtures, Suhasini Kishore

Doctoral Dissertations

Complex fluid mixtures of colloids and polymers are extensively used in several conventional and emerging technological applications. Particles self-assemble under different conditions to form colloidal glasses and gels and it often leads to the development of unusual viscoelastic features. In the case of aspherical particles, shape anisotropy and physical aging effects add to the existing complexities so the implementation of a strategic formulation method to improve performance and stability remains a critical challenge.

This thesis presents a comprehensive analysis of particle interactions in mixtures of charged disk-shaped colloids and weakly-adsorbing polymers like poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). Here, we discuss the ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Antioxidant Conjugated Poly(Βeta-Amino Ester) Micro/Nanogels For The Suppression Of Oxidative Stress, Prachi Gupta Jan 2016

Synthesis And Characterization Of Antioxidant Conjugated Poly(Βeta-Amino Ester) Micro/Nanogels For The Suppression Of Oxidative Stress, Prachi Gupta

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Oxidative stress is a pathophysiological condition defined by an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can result in the growth arrest of cells followed by cell disintegration or necrosis. A number of small molecule antioxidants (e.g. curcumin, quercetin and resveratrol) are capable of directly scavenging ROS, thereby short-circuiting the self-propagating oxidative stress state. However, poor solubility and rapid 1st pass metabolism results in overall low bioavailability and acts as a barrier for its use as a drug to suppress oxidative stress efficiently.

To overcome this limitation, these small molecule antioxidants were covalently conjugated into poly(β-amino ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Curcumin Polymer For Application In Radiation Induced Lung Damage, Mark C. Bailey Jan 2016

Synthesis And Characterization Of Curcumin Polymer For Application In Radiation Induced Lung Damage, Mark C. Bailey

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Radiotherapy is used as a primary treatment for many cancers, including lung cancer. Although radiotherapy has proven to be an effective cancer treatment, its use is heavily limited due to the peripheral toxicity to healthy tissue. In this work, the antioxidant, curcumin, was tested as a radioprotectant to reduce radiation damage to healthy cells. Curcumin has been limited in use due to its poor bioavailability. In order to avoid problems associated with free curcumin delivery, curcumin poly(beta-amino ester) (CPBAE) was synthesized.

The first study investigated the in vitro radioprotection effect of curcumin in HUVEC dosed with gamma radiation. Cells ...


An Injectable Stem Cell Delivery System For Treatment Of Musculoskeletal Defects, Shirae Leslie Jan 2016

An Injectable Stem Cell Delivery System For Treatment Of Musculoskeletal Defects, Shirae Leslie

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research was to develop a system of injectable hydrogels to deliver stem cells to musculoskeletal defects, thereby allowing cells to remain at the treatment site and secrete soluble factors that will facilitate tissue regeneration. First, production parameters for encapsulating cells in microbeads were determined. This involved investigating the effects of osmolytes on alginate microbead properties, and the effects of alginate microbead cell density, alginate microbead density, and effects of osteogenic media on microencapsulated cells. Although cells remained viable in the microbeads, alginate does not readily degrade in vivo for six months. Therefore, a method to incorporate ...


Surface-Initiated Polymerizations For The Rapid Sorting Of Rare Cancer Cells, Jacob L. Lilly Jan 2016

Surface-Initiated Polymerizations For The Rapid Sorting Of Rare Cancer Cells, Jacob L. Lilly

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Cancer metastasis directly accounts for an estimated 90% of all cancer related deaths and is correlated with the presence of malignant cells in systemic circulation. This observed relationship has prompted efforts to develop a fluid biopsy, with the goal of detecting these rare cells in patient peripheral blood as surrogate markers for metastatic disease as a partial replacement or supplement to tissue biopsies. Numerous platforms have been designed, yet these have generally failed to support a reliable fluid biopsy due to poor performance parameters such as low throughput, low purity of enriched antigen positive cells, and insufficiently low detection thresholds ...


Diffusion-Mediated Deposition Of Proteins, Ruiqian Zhan Jan 2016

Diffusion-Mediated Deposition Of Proteins, Ruiqian Zhan

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

Gradients of proteins play a prominent role in many biological processes, from development of multicellular organisms to chemical signaling in the immune system. Deposition of surface gradients is a way to permanently modifying a surface’s properties, resulting in the creation of novel materials which have widespread applications in biologically relevant fields, such as directed cell growth, production of biocompatible implantable materials, and creation of functional biosensors. These types of surfaces can also be used as an ex vivo tool to help understand many biological processes by mimicking the environment in gradient-related phenomena in a controllable way. However, despite the ...


Bioengineered Platforms To Study Carcinoma Cell Response To Drug Treatment, Thuy V. Nguyen Jan 2016

Bioengineered Platforms To Study Carcinoma Cell Response To Drug Treatment, Thuy V. Nguyen

Doctoral Dissertations

The tumor extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in facilitating tumor growth and mediating tumor cells' resistance to drugs. However, during drug development, potential chemotherapeutics are screened in plastic plates, which lack relevant ECM physicochemical cues. In order to improve drug development process, this dissertation includes the development of relevant 2D and 3D biomaterial systems that can be used to study carcinoma cell response to drug treatment.

A novel poly(ethylene glycol)-phosphorylcholine (PEG-PC) high-throughput biomaterial platform was developed to study how the ECM mechanochemical properties affect cancer cells' response to drug. The PEG-PC biomaterial is optically transparent, has ...


Bioactive Poly(Beta-Amino Ester) Biomaterials For Treatment Of Infection And Oxidative Stress, Andrew L. Lakes Jan 2016

Bioactive Poly(Beta-Amino Ester) Biomaterials For Treatment Of Infection And Oxidative Stress, Andrew L. Lakes

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Polymers have deep roots as drug delivery tools, and are widely used in clinical to private settings. Currently, however, numerous traditional therapies exist which may be improved through use of polymeric biomaterials. Through our work with infectious and oxidative stress disease prevention and treatment, we aimed to develop application driven, enhanced therapies utilizing new classes of polymers synthesized in-house. Applying biodegradable poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) polymers, covalent-addition of bioactive substrates to these PBAEs avoided certain pitfalls of free-loaded and non-degradable drug delivery systems. Further, through variation of polymer ingredients and conditions, we were able to tune degradation rates, release profiles ...