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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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Articles 1 - 7 of 7

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Developing Strategies To Toughen Bio-Inspired Adhesives, Narelli P. Narciso, Samuel Lee Huntington, Jonathan J. Wilker Aug 2018

Developing Strategies To Toughen Bio-Inspired Adhesives, Narelli P. Narciso, Samuel Lee Huntington, Jonathan J. Wilker

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Mussels and other marine creatures adhere very well in underwater environments, having the ability to withstand the force of the sea. These animals have inspired synthetic biomimetic adhesives for wet systems, presenting potential for biomedical applications. However, most current commercial adhesives tend to be brittle, not resisting repetitive movements. This study assesses toughening strategies to improve the mussel-inspired adhesives’ ductility while maintaining its strength. The strategies included altering the polymer’s chemical structure by changing the percentage of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in the molecule and by adding fillers, such as calcium carbonate, silica and nacre - a calcium carbonate compound found ...


Development Of A Novel Enzymatic Pre-Treatment For Lignocellulosic Biomass, Melissa Robins, Jenna Rickus Aug 2015

Development Of A Novel Enzymatic Pre-Treatment For Lignocellulosic Biomass, Melissa Robins, Jenna Rickus

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Biofuels, fuels derived directly from living matter, present a renewable and environmentally friendly alternative to petroleum based fuels. Bioethanol produced from low input energy crops or agricultural waste is a promising fuel source because it does not interfere with the human food supply chain and the ethanol produced can be blended with gasoline. These potential sources of bioethanol are not yet commercially viable due to a polymer called lignin present in the plant’s cell wall which impedes the conversion of cellulose to glucose and the eventual fermentation of glucose to ethanol. Developing new methods for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic ...


A Novel Synthetic Yeast For Enzymatic Biodigester Pretreatment, Tianyu Tan, Mark S. Aronson, Arren Liu, Jill H. Osterhus, Melissa Robins, Suraj Mohan, Erich Leazer, Bowman Clark, Alexa Petrucciani, Katherine Lowery, James Welch, Casey Martin, Helena Lysandrou, Michael E. Scharf, Jenna Rickus Aug 2015

A Novel Synthetic Yeast For Enzymatic Biodigester Pretreatment, Tianyu Tan, Mark S. Aronson, Arren Liu, Jill H. Osterhus, Melissa Robins, Suraj Mohan, Erich Leazer, Bowman Clark, Alexa Petrucciani, Katherine Lowery, James Welch, Casey Martin, Helena Lysandrou, Michael E. Scharf, Jenna Rickus

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Lignin, a complex organic polymer, is a major roadblock to the efficiency of biofuel conversion as it both physically blocks carbohydrate substrates and poisons biomass degrading enzymes, even if broken down to monomer units. A pretreatment process is often applied to separate the lignin from biomass prior to biofuel conversion. However, contemporary methods of pretreatment require large amounts of energy, which may be economically uncompelling or unfeasible. Taking inspiration from several genes that have been isolated from termites and fungi which translate to enzymes that degrade lignin, we want to establish a novel “enzymatic pretreatment” system where microbes secrete these ...


Adsorption Mechanisms Of Palladium On The Tobacco Mosaic Virus Surface, Gloriia D. Novikova, Oluwamayowa Adigun, Erin Retzlaff-Roberts, Michael T. Harris Aug 2015

Adsorption Mechanisms Of Palladium On The Tobacco Mosaic Virus Surface, Gloriia D. Novikova, Oluwamayowa Adigun, Erin Retzlaff-Roberts, Michael T. Harris

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Organic-inorganic materials synthesis using biological templates has recently drawn immense attention of researchers. Biotemplating has shown to be an efficient and economic means of nanomaterials production. Naturally stable, readily available and genetically malleable, Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) is one of the most extensively studied and characterized biotemplates. Particularly, templated synthesis using TMV has produced high quality nanorods and nanowires that have been applied to batteries, memory devices and catalysis. The fundamental mechanisms, governing the adsorption of palladium on the TMV Wild Type and genetically modified versions (TMV1Cys and TMV2Cys), are not fully understood; this knowledge, however, is essential for future ...


Characterization Of Swelling Ratio And Water Content Of Hydrogels For Cartilage Engineering Applications, Emily E. Gill, Renay S.-C. Su, Julie C. Liu Aug 2014

Characterization Of Swelling Ratio And Water Content Of Hydrogels For Cartilage Engineering Applications, Emily E. Gill, Renay S.-C. Su, Julie C. Liu

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Due to the high prevalence of arthritis and cartilage-related injuries, tissue engineers are studying ways to grow cartilage tissue replacements. Resilin, an elastomeric protein found in insect cuticles, is known for its extraordinary resilience and elasticity. In previous studies, recombinant resilin-based hydrogels, or cross-linked protein networks, exhibited potential for use in cartilage tissue scaffolds. Our lab successfully developed resilin-based proteins with a sequence based on the mosquito gene and showed that resilin-based hydrogels possess mechanical properties of the same order of magnitude as native articular cartilage. In addition, these mechanical properties can be controlled by changing the protein concentration. To ...


Adhesive Elastomeric Proteins, Haefa Mansour, Julie Liu Oct 2013

Adhesive Elastomeric Proteins, Haefa Mansour, Julie Liu

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Sutures and staples commonly used to close surgical wounds tend to be much stiffer than the surrounding tissue, often resulting in external tissue damage. Surgical adhesives provide a promising alternative to these sutures and staples. Ideal surgical adhesives are biocompatible, able to set well and remain sticky in moist conditions, possess strong adhesive and cohesive properties, and exhibit mechanical properties that mimic those of the surrounding tissue. Unfortunately, the adhesives available today are unable to satisfactorily meet all of these criteria. We are utilizing protein engineering techniques to design, create, and test a new surgical adhesive that combines the adhesive ...


Characterization Of The Saturation Level Of Nucleosome Arrays And Plasmids By Mnase Digestion, Wenjie Liu, Nathan Nurse, Chongli Yuan Oct 2013

Characterization Of The Saturation Level Of Nucleosome Arrays And Plasmids By Mnase Digestion, Wenjie Liu, Nathan Nurse, Chongli Yuan

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Studying processes involving DNA such as DNA replication and transcription is best done in the context of chromatin because the structure of DNA influences the efficiency of such processes. Chromatin structure is derived from DNA wrapping around histone octamers with the histone octamer density termed saturation level. For in vitro studies on DNA replication and transcription, it is important to maintain a constant saturation level so that saturation level can be removed as a variable. Our goal is to characterize the saturation level of plasmids using the rate of MNase digestion. MNase digestions were first performed on reconstituted nucleosome arrays ...