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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Confirmation Of Conjugation Processes During Tnt Metabolism By Axenic Plant Roots, R. Bhadra, D. G. Wayment, J. B. Hughes, Jacqueline V. Shanks Jan 1999

Confirmation Of Conjugation Processes During Tnt Metabolism By Axenic Plant Roots, R. Bhadra, D. G. Wayment, J. B. Hughes, Jacqueline V. Shanks

Jacqueline V. Shanks

This paper examines processes in plants for the formation of fate products of TNT beyond its aminated reduction products, 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene and 4-amino-2,6- dinitrotoluene. TNT metabolites were isolated and characterized in combination with temporal analyses of product profiles and 14C distribution, in microbe-free, axenic root cultures of Catharanthus roseus. Four unique TNTderived compounds were isolated. Using evidence from 1H NMR, mass spectroscopy, HPLC, acid hydrolysis, and enzymatic hydrolysis with â-glucuronidase and â-glucosidase, they were established as conjugates formed by reactions of the amine groups of 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene. From the mass spectral evidence, at least a six-carbon ...


Characterization Of Oxidation Products Of Tnt Metabolism In Aquatic Phytoremediation Systems Of Myriophyllum Aquaticum, R. Bhadra, R. J. Spanggord, D. G. Wayment, J. B. Hughes, Jacqueline V. Shanks Jan 1999

Characterization Of Oxidation Products Of Tnt Metabolism In Aquatic Phytoremediation Systems Of Myriophyllum Aquaticum, R. Bhadra, R. J. Spanggord, D. G. Wayment, J. B. Hughes, Jacqueline V. Shanks

Jacqueline V. Shanks

TNT transformation processes in sediment-free, “natural”, aquatic phytoremediation systems of Myriophyllum aquaticum were investigated with specific interest in oxidation products. Extraction procedures combining liquidliquid extractions and solid-phase extractions were developed for the isolation of the mostly acidic, oxidized TNT metabolites. Six compounds unique from the reduction products of TNT were isolated and characterized by UVvis, 1H, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, by mass spectroscopy, and by chemical synthesis where feasible. These compounds include 2-amino-4,6-dinitrobenzoic acid, 2,4-dinitro-6- hydroxy-benzyl alcohol, 2-N-acetoxyamino-4,6-dinitrobenzaldehyde, 2,4-dinitro-6-hydroxytoluene, and two binuclear metabolites unique from the customary azoxytetranitrotoluenes. The monoaryl compounds show clear evidence of oxidative ...


Transformation Of Tnt By Aquatic Plants And Plant Tissue Cultures, Joseph B. Hughes, Jacqueline V. Shanks, Mindy Vanderford, John Lauritzen, Rajiv Bhadra Jan 1997

Transformation Of Tnt By Aquatic Plants And Plant Tissue Cultures, Joseph B. Hughes, Jacqueline V. Shanks, Mindy Vanderford, John Lauritzen, Rajiv Bhadra

Jacqueline V. Shanks

The ability of plants to uptake and transform 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was investigated using the aquatic plant Myriophyllum spicatum, axenic Myriophyllum aquaticum, and Catharanthus roseus hairy root cultures. Studies demonstrate that Myriophyllum, with or without its periphyton, and C. roseus transform TNT. Low concentrations of aminated nitrotoluenes (2-amino-4,6- dinitrotoluene and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene) were observed in the extracellular medium and tissue extracts. Primary products of transformation were not identified, and mineralization was not observed. Mass balances demonstrate that a large percentage of the unknown TNT transformation products were associated with the plant. This fraction could be at least partially ...