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Articles 1 - 12 of 12

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Idiosyncratic Drug-Induced Liver Injury (Idili): Potential Mechanisms And Predictive Assays, Alexander D. Roth, Moo-Yeal Lee Jan 2017

Idiosyncratic Drug-Induced Liver Injury (Idili): Potential Mechanisms And Predictive Assays, Alexander D. Roth, Moo-Yeal Lee

Chemical & Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) is a significant source of drug recall and acute liver failure (ALF) in the United States. While current drug development processes emphasize general toxicity and drug metabolizing enzyme- (DME-) mediated toxicity, it has been challenging to develop comprehensive models for assessing complete idiosyncratic potential. In this review, we describe the enzymes and proteins that contain polymorphisms believed to contribute to IDILI, including ones that affect phase I and phase II metabolism, antioxidant enzymes, drug transporters, inflammation, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA). We then describe the various assays that have been developed to detect individual reactions ...


Methodological Considerations Of Electron Spin Resonance Spin Trapping Techniques For Measuring Reactive Oxygen Species Generated From Metal Oxide Nanomaterials, Min Sook Jeong, Kyeong-Nam Yu, Hyun Hoon Chung, Soo Jin Park, Ah Young Lee, Mi Ryoung Song, Myung-Haing Cho, Jun Sung Kim May 2016

Methodological Considerations Of Electron Spin Resonance Spin Trapping Techniques For Measuring Reactive Oxygen Species Generated From Metal Oxide Nanomaterials, Min Sook Jeong, Kyeong-Nam Yu, Hyun Hoon Chung, Soo Jin Park, Ah Young Lee, Mi Ryoung Song, Myung-Haing Cho, Jun Sung Kim

Chemical & Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Qualitative and quantitative analyses of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated on the surfaces of nanomaterials are important for understanding their toxicity and toxic mechanisms, which are in turn beneficial for manufacturing more biocompatible nanomaterials in many industrial fields. Electron spin resonance (ESR) is a useful tool for detecting ROS formation. However, using this technique without first considering the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials and proper conditions of the spin trapping agent (such as incubation time) may lead to misinterpretation of the resulting data. In this report, we suggest methodological considerations for ESR as pertains to magnetism, sample preparation and proper incubation ...


Lipids And Collagen Matrix Restrict The Hydraulic Permeability Within The Porous Compartment Of Adult Cortical Bone, Demin Wen, Caroline Androjna, Amit Vasanji, Joanne M. Belovich, Ronald J. Midura Mar 2010

Lipids And Collagen Matrix Restrict The Hydraulic Permeability Within The Porous Compartment Of Adult Cortical Bone, Demin Wen, Caroline Androjna, Amit Vasanji, Joanne M. Belovich, Ronald J. Midura

Chemical & Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

In vivo the hydraulic permeability of cortical bone influences the transport of nutrients, waste products and signaling molecules, thus influencing the metabolic functions of osteocytes and osteoblasts. In the current study two hypotheses were tested: the presence of (1) lipids and (2) collagen matrix in the porous compartment of cortical bone restricts its permeability. Our approach was to measure the radial permeability of adult canine cortical bone before and after extracting lipids with acetone-methanol, and before and after digesting collagen with bacterial collagenase. Our results showed that the permeability of adult canine cortical bone was below 4.0 × 10−17 ...


Anwendung Von Interferenz- Und Ir-Mikroskopie Zur Charakterisierung Und Untersuchung Des Stofftransportes In Nanoporösen Materialien, Lars Heinke, Christian Chmelik, Pavel Kortunov, Sergey Vasenkov, Douglas M. Ruthven, Dhananjai B. Shah, Jörg Kärger Aug 2007

Anwendung Von Interferenz- Und Ir-Mikroskopie Zur Charakterisierung Und Untersuchung Des Stofftransportes In Nanoporösen Materialien, Lars Heinke, Christian Chmelik, Pavel Kortunov, Sergey Vasenkov, Douglas M. Ruthven, Dhananjai B. Shah, Jörg Kärger

Chemical & Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Die Anwendung der Interferenz-Mikroskopie bedeutet einen entscheidenden Durchbruch in der Untersuchung des Stofftransports von Gastmolekülen in nanoporösen Wirtsmaterialien. Diese Technik ermöglicht die Beobachtung der zeitaufgelösten intrakristallinen Konzentrationsprofile, die durch eine Änderung des umgebenden Gasdruckes entstehen. Dieser Ansatz wurde zur Untersuchung von Adsorptions- und Desorptionsprozessen in verschiedenen Zeolithsystemen verwendet. Die Vorteile dieser Technik, vor allem wenn sie mit Infrarotabsorptionsmessungen kombiniert wird, werden an Hand der experimentellen Resultate des Methanol-in-Ferrierit-Systems illustriert.


Procedure To Quantify Biofilm Activity In Carriers Used In Wastewater Treatment Systems, James Bolton, Archana Tummala, Chirag Kapadia, Manoj Dandamudi, Joanne M. Belovich Nov 2006

Procedure To Quantify Biofilm Activity In Carriers Used In Wastewater Treatment Systems, James Bolton, Archana Tummala, Chirag Kapadia, Manoj Dandamudi, Joanne M. Belovich

Chemical & Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

A procedure is presented for evaluating and comparing the biological activity of biofilms attached to various biofilm carriers by measurement of the glucose consumption rate. This technique allows for the economical design and selection of small particulate biofilm carriers that will maximize substrate removal when used in industrial-scale fluidized bioreactors. Methods for ensuring reproducible results are described. To support the glucose consumption rate findings, biofilm dry weights were obtained at the conclusion of activity rate experiments, and scanning electron micrographs were taken to evaluate the presence of biofilm and to view surface characteristics. Fourteen different biofilm carriers were evaluated ranging ...


Blood Flow Measurements With Magnetic Resonance Phase Velocity Mapping, George P. Chatzimavroudis Apr 2005

Blood Flow Measurements With Magnetic Resonance Phase Velocity Mapping, George P. Chatzimavroudis

Chemical & Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Magnetic resonance (MR) phase velocity mapping (PVM) is a non-invasive technique that can measure the flow velocity in any spatial direction in an imaging slice. This technique has wide application in the clinical field in quantifying blood flow, as well as in non-biomedical areas. This review describes the value and/or potential of MR PVM as a diagnostic/monitoring technique in heart valve regurgitation and in the total cavo-pulmonary connection. A single slice placed in the aortic root can accurately quantify the aortic regurgitant volume. A multi-slice control volume method has high potential for the quantification of the mitral regurgitant ...


Relationship Between The Extent Of Non-Viable Myocardium And Regional Left Ventricular Function In Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease, Arunark Kolipaka, George P. Chatzimavroudis, Richard D. White, Michael L. Lieber, Randolph M. Setser Jan 2005

Relationship Between The Extent Of Non-Viable Myocardium And Regional Left Ventricular Function In Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease, Arunark Kolipaka, George P. Chatzimavroudis, Richard D. White, Michael L. Lieber, Randolph M. Setser

Chemical & Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Purpose. To define the relationship between left ventricular (LV) regional contractile function and the extent of myocardial scar in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease and multi-vessel coronary artery disease. Methods. Twenty-three patients with chronic ischemic heart disease and 5 healthy volunteers underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In patients, the relative area ( Percent Scar) and transmural extent (Transmurality) of myocardial infarction were computed from short-axis delayed enhancement images. In each image, myocardial segments were categorized based on the extent of infarction they contained, with 6 categories each for Percent Scar and Transmurality: normal, from healthy volunteers; and 0%; 1–25 ...


Fast Measurements Of Flow Through Mitral Regurgitant Orifices With Magnetic Resonance Phase Velocity Mapping, Haosen Zhang, Sandra S. Halliburton, Richard D. White, George P. Chatzimavroudis Dec 2004

Fast Measurements Of Flow Through Mitral Regurgitant Orifices With Magnetic Resonance Phase Velocity Mapping, Haosen Zhang, Sandra S. Halliburton, Richard D. White, George P. Chatzimavroudis

Chemical & Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Magnetic-resonance (MR) phase velocity mapping (PVM) shows promise in measuring the mitral regurgitant volume. However, in its conventional nonsegmented form, MR-PVM is slow and impractical for clinical use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of rapid, segmented k-spaceMR-PVM in quantifying the mitral regurgitant flow through a control volume (CV) method. Two segmented MR-PVM schemes, one with seven (seg-7) and one with nine (seg-9) lines per segment, were evaluated in acrylic regurgitant mitral valve models under steady and pulsatile flow. A nonsegmented (nonseg) MR-PVM acquisition was also performed for reference. The segmented acquisitions were considerably faster ...


Accurate Quantification Of Steady And Pulsatile Flow With Segmented K-Space Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry, Haosen Zhang, Sandra S. Halliburton, James R. Moore, Orlando P. Simonetti, Paulo R. Schvartzman, Richard D. White, George P. Chatzimavroudis Sep 2002

Accurate Quantification Of Steady And Pulsatile Flow With Segmented K-Space Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry, Haosen Zhang, Sandra S. Halliburton, James R. Moore, Orlando P. Simonetti, Paulo R. Schvartzman, Richard D. White, George P. Chatzimavroudis

Chemical & Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Conventional non-segmented magnetic resonance phase velocity mapping (MRPVM) is an accurate but relatively slow velocimetric technique. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the much faster segmented k-space MRPVM in quantifying flow. The axial velocity was measured in four straight tubes (inner diameter: 5.6–26.2 mm), using a segmented MRPVM sequence with seven lines of k-space per segment. The flow rate and flow volume were accurately quantified (errorssteady (r2=0.99) and pulsatile flow (r2=0.98), respectively. The measured velocity profiles and flow rates from the segmented ...


Ultrafast Flow Quantification With Segmented K-Space Magnetic Resonance Phase Velocity Mapping, Haosen Zhang, Sandra S. Halliburton, James R. Moore, Orlando P. Simonetti, Paulo R. Schvartzman, Richard D. White, George P. Chatzimavroudis Jan 2002

Ultrafast Flow Quantification With Segmented K-Space Magnetic Resonance Phase Velocity Mapping, Haosen Zhang, Sandra S. Halliburton, James R. Moore, Orlando P. Simonetti, Paulo R. Schvartzman, Richard D. White, George P. Chatzimavroudis

Chemical & Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Magnetic resonance (MR) phase-velocity mapping (PVM) is routinely being used clinically to measure blood flow velocity. Conventional nonsegmented PVM is accurate but relatively slow (3–5 min per measurement). Ultrafast k-space segmented PVM offers much shorter acquisitions (on the order of seconds instead of minutes). The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of segmented PVM in quantifying flow from through-plane velocity measurements. Experiments were performed using four straight tubes (inner diameter of 5.6–26.2 mm), under a variety of steady (1.7–200 ml/s) and pulsatile (6–90 ml/cycle) flow conditions ...


Evaluation Of The Precision Of Magnetic Resonance Phase Velocity Mapping For Blood Flow Measurements, George P. Chatzimavroudis, John N. Oshinski, Robert H. Franch, Peter G. Walker, Ajit P. Yoganathan, Roderic I. Pettigrew Jan 2001

Evaluation Of The Precision Of Magnetic Resonance Phase Velocity Mapping For Blood Flow Measurements, George P. Chatzimavroudis, John N. Oshinski, Robert H. Franch, Peter G. Walker, Ajit P. Yoganathan, Roderic I. Pettigrew

Chemical & Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Evaluating the in vivo accuracy of magnetic resonance phase velocity mapping (PVM) is not straightforward because of the absence of a validated clinical flow quantification technique. The aim of this study was to evaluate PVM by investigating its precision, both in vitro and in vivo, in a 1.5 Tesla scanner. In the former case, steady and pulsatile flow experiments were conducted using an aortic model under a variety of flow conditions (steady: 0.1–5.5 L/min; pulsatile: 10–75 mL/cycle). In the latter case, PVM measurements were taken in the ascending aorta of ten subjects, seven ...


Lntracrystalline Diffusion Of Benzene In Silicalite : Effect Of Structural Heterogeneity, Dhananjai B. Shah, Chang-Jie Guo, David T. Hayhurst Jan 1995

Lntracrystalline Diffusion Of Benzene In Silicalite : Effect Of Structural Heterogeneity, Dhananjai B. Shah, Chang-Jie Guo, David T. Hayhurst

Chemical & Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

The sorption kinetics of benzene in silicalite have been measured gravimetrically using large silicalite crystals of sizes 350 µm × 105 µm × 105 µm and 270 µm × 70 µm × 70 µm in the temperature range 283–343 K. Experiments were performed under conditions that ensured isothermal operation with intracrystalline diffusion control. An analytical expression for the Darken's correction factor (δ In P/δ In a) was derived based on the Hill–de-Boer equation and was used to determine the variation of corrected diffusivity with concentration. The transport diffusivity varied significantly with the adsorbed-phase concentration but the corrected diffusivity was found ...