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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Process Analytics From Passive Acoustic Emissions Monitoring During Fluidized Bed Pellet Coating In Pharmaceutical Manufacturing, Allan Carter Jun 2018

Process Analytics From Passive Acoustic Emissions Monitoring During Fluidized Bed Pellet Coating In Pharmaceutical Manufacturing, Allan Carter

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Piezoelectric microphones were attached to a top spray fluidized bed to provide valuable process signatures. Relationships were developed between sound waves and conditions within the fluidized bed to relay critical quality and performance information. Deep learning analytics were used to extract valuable information from experimental data. Advancements in passive acoustic emissions monitoring will play a key role in optimizing pharmaceutical manufacturing pathways to ensure drug quality and performance.


Covalently Crosslinked Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Biomaterials For Bone Tissue Engineering Applications, Dibakar Mondal Feb 2018

Covalently Crosslinked Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Biomaterials For Bone Tissue Engineering Applications, Dibakar Mondal

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Scaffolds are key components for bone tissue engineering and regeneration. They guide new bone formation by mimicking bone extracellular matrix for cell recruitment and proliferation. Ideally, scaffolds for bone tissue engineering need to be osteoconductive, osteoinductive, porous, degradable and mechanically competent. As a single material can not provide all these requirements, composites of several biomaterials are viable solutions to combine various properties. However, conventional composites fail to fulfil these requirements due to their distinct phases at the microscopic level. Organic/inorganic (O/I) class II hybrid biomaterials, where the organic and inorganic phases are chemically crosslinked on a molecular scale ...


Fabrication And Modification Of Titania Nanotube Arrays For Harvesting Solar Energy And Drug Delivery Applications, Ahmed El Ruby Abdel Rahman Mohamed Dec 2017

Fabrication And Modification Of Titania Nanotube Arrays For Harvesting Solar Energy And Drug Delivery Applications, Ahmed El Ruby Abdel Rahman Mohamed

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The fast diminishing of fossil fuels in the near future, as well as the global warming caused by increasing greenhouse gases have motivated the urgent quest to develop advanced materials as cost-effective photoanodes for solar light harvesting and many other photocatalytic applications. Recently, titania nanotube arrays (TNTAs) fabricated by anodization process has attracted great interest due to their excellent properties such as: high surface area, vertically oriented, highly organized, one-dimensional, nanotubular structure, photoactivity, chemical stability and biocompatibility. This unique combination of excellent properties makes TNTAs an excellent photoanode for solar light harvesting. However, the relatively wide band gap energy of ...


Nanostructured Biosensor For Tear Glucose Detection Based On Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (Bret) Mechanism., Denghuang Zhan Aug 2017

Nanostructured Biosensor For Tear Glucose Detection Based On Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (Bret) Mechanism., Denghuang Zhan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET), a sensitive, non-destructive and self-illuminated method, has been now commonly used to test protein interactions. Here, we describe a BRET sensor for non-invasively detecting glucose molecules. The sensor is made by the bioconjugation of quantum dots and recombinant protein. The recombinant protein contains the bacterial glucose binding protein (GBP) and a bioluminescent protein, Renilla luciferase (Rluc), used as the donor with the emission peak at 470 nm, which is able to excite the acceptor of BRET sensor made of cadmium tellurium quantum dots ( CdTe QDs) with the emission peak at 570 nm. The distance between ...


Genetic Engineering Studies Of Escherichia Coli And Microalgae For Expression Of Hydrolytic Enzymes And Development Of High Throughput Screening Technique, Shreyas S. Yedahalli Jul 2017

Genetic Engineering Studies Of Escherichia Coli And Microalgae For Expression Of Hydrolytic Enzymes And Development Of High Throughput Screening Technique, Shreyas S. Yedahalli

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The field of biochemical engineering has made substantial progress through major advances in genetic and metabolic engineering with applications in various sectors such as energy, food science, pharmaceuticals, etc. The hosts used for this work are constantly broadening. A host particularly important for energy applications are microalgae. The potential to enhance microalgae genetically for energy applications is not well explored and was therefore investigated in this thesis. Non-photosynthetic micro-organisms and photosynthetic microalgae offer a potential approach to enhance sustainable biochemical production. In this study expression vectors for Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) were constructed for the ...


Controlled Delivery Of Angiogenic And Arteriogenic Growth Factors From Biodegradable Poly(Ester Amide) Electrospun Fibers For Therapeutic Angiogenesis, Somiraa S. Said Aug 2016

Controlled Delivery Of Angiogenic And Arteriogenic Growth Factors From Biodegradable Poly(Ester Amide) Electrospun Fibers For Therapeutic Angiogenesis, Somiraa S. Said

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Therapeutic angiogenesis relies on the delivery of exogenous growth factors to stimulate neovessel formation. However, systemic administration of angiogenic factors results in rapid clearance from the site of interest due to their short biological half-life. In this work, we are reporting controlled delivery of a ‘cocktail’ of growth factors, an angiogenic factor −fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), and an arteriogenic factor −fibroblast growth factor-9 (FGF9), from biodegradable poly(ester amide) (PEA) electrospun fibers towards targeting neovascular formation and maturation. FGF2 and FGF9 were dual loaded into PEA fibers using a mixed blend and emulsion electrospinning technique. Matrigel tube formation and Boyden ...


Fermentative Processes Requiring Low Solubility Feed Gases: An Investigation Into Gas-Dependent Microorganisms, Eric W. Doerr Jul 2016

Fermentative Processes Requiring Low Solubility Feed Gases: An Investigation Into Gas-Dependent Microorganisms, Eric W. Doerr

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Two bioprocesses were separately investigated based on their common interest of using gaseous substrates that have low solubility. The first process involved the development of a mixed culture using two organisms capable of utilizing glycerol and carbon monoxide separately to increase biobutanol production, while the second process involved an investigation of different production media used in aerobic xanthan production of Xanthomonas campestris with pressurization effects. It was determined that Clostridium pasteurianum should be used with an organism like Clostridium carboxidivorans or Eubacterium limosum in order for butyrate uptake at 3 g/L to occur with a minimum 0.1 g ...


Mechanical Properties Of Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Based Blends And Composites, Nazanin Afghan Apr 2016

Mechanical Properties Of Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Based Blends And Composites, Nazanin Afghan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

One of the most important product specifications in design of materials for different applications is to closely match desired mechanical properties of the target. The soft tissue could be very elastic such as blood vessels and skin, whereas others are soft and non-elastic such as fat tissue. Soft human tissue has a diverse structural component that give them the different feel, texture, shape, and mechanical properties.

Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as hydrophobic polymer has outstanding features such as very good physico-mechanical properties, nontoxicity and biocompatibility, and high swelling properties which makes them favorable for biomaterial and biomedical applications. By physically ...


Poly(Ester Amide) And Poly(Ethyl Glyoxylate) Nanoparticles For Controlled Drug Release, Amira Mohamed Moustafa Dec 2014

Poly(Ester Amide) And Poly(Ethyl Glyoxylate) Nanoparticles For Controlled Drug Release, Amira Mohamed Moustafa

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The objective of this research was to develop polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) having improved drug release properties for drug delivery. Poly(ester amide)s (PEAs) are promising biodegradable polymers. PEA NPs were prepared via emulsification-evaporation and salting-out methods and optimized through by varying different processing parameters. Polymer-model drug conjugates based on PEAs containing L-aspartic acid and rhodamine B were synthesized and used for NP preparation. Release behavior was studied and compared to a control system with physically encapsulated rhodamine B. It was shown that the release of rhodamine B from the covalent system did not show the burst effect and exhibited ...


Laser-Assisted Surface Modification Of Hybrid Hydrogels To Prevent Bacterial Contamination And Protein Fouling, Guobang Huang Aug 2014

Laser-Assisted Surface Modification Of Hybrid Hydrogels To Prevent Bacterial Contamination And Protein Fouling, Guobang Huang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Silicone hydrogels have been extensively studied in the fields of contact lenses, tissue engineering, and drug delivery due to their good biocompatibility, high oxygen permeability, and proper light transmission. However, their applications in biomedical devices are limited by protein adsorption and bacterial contamination because of the hydrophobic surface of silicone, which will cause more irreversible protein adsorption. Several physical methods can be applied to create a hydrophilic surface on hydrogels, such as spin coating, physical vapor deposition, dip coating, drop casting, etc. Compared to the conventional methods, the matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) is suitable to produce biopolymer/polymer ...


Plasmonic Optical Sensors: Performance Analysis And Engineering Towards Biosensing, Peipei Jia Jun 2014

Plasmonic Optical Sensors: Performance Analysis And Engineering Towards Biosensing, Peipei Jia

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing for quantitative analysis of chemical reactions and biological interactions has become one of the most promising applications of plasmonics. This thesis focuses on performance analysis for plasmonic sensors and implementation of plamonic optical sensors with novel nanofabrication techniques.

A universal performance analysis model is established for general two-dimensional plasmonic sensors. This model is based on the fundamental facts of surface plasmon theory. The sensitivity only depends on excitation light wavelength as well as dielectric properties of metal and dielectrics. The expression involves no structure-specified parameters, which validates this formula in broad cases of periodic, quasiperiodic ...


Humidity Effect On The Structure Of Electrospun Core-Shell Pcl-Peg Fibers For Tissue Regeneration Applications, Adam P. Golin Apr 2014

Humidity Effect On The Structure Of Electrospun Core-Shell Pcl-Peg Fibers For Tissue Regeneration Applications, Adam P. Golin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

With the aim of creating a biodegradable scaffold for tympanic membrane (TM) tissue regeneration, core-shell nanofibers composed of a poly(caprolactone) shell and a poly(ethylene glycol) core were created using a coaxial electrospinning technique. In order to create fibers with an optimal core-shell morphology, the effect of relative humidity (RH) on the core-shell nanofibers was systematically studied, with a FITC-BSA complex encapsulated in the core to act as a model protein. The core-shell nanofibers were electrospun at relative humidity values of 20, 25, 30, and 40% RH within a glove box outfitted for humidity control. The core-shell morphology of ...


Drug Delivery To The Respiratory Tract Using Dry Powder Inhalers, Doaa M.R. Mossaad Apr 2014

Drug Delivery To The Respiratory Tract Using Dry Powder Inhalers, Doaa M.R. Mossaad

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Aerosols are an effective method to deliver therapeutic agents to the respiratory tract. Among aerosol generation systems, dry powder inhales have been attractive area of research for both local and systemic delivery of drugs. The challenge of any inhalation delivery system is to generate particles with an adequate range of particle sizes. In order to advance powder aerosol technologies, researchers have recognized the importance of investigating determinants affecting powder dispersion. The effect of particles’ surface characteristics, inhalation airflow rate, inhalation device, and development of an effective drug-carrier system are some of the fundamental areas that have been under investigation.

The ...


Surface Functionalization And Bioconjugation Of Nanoparticles For Biomedical Applications, Longyan Chen Jan 2014

Surface Functionalization And Bioconjugation Of Nanoparticles For Biomedical Applications, Longyan Chen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Colloidal inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) have been attracting considerable interest in biomedicine, from drug and gene delivery to imaging, sensing and diagnostics. It is essential to modify the surface of nanoparticles to have enhanced biocompatibility and functionality for the in vitro and in vivo applications, especially in delivering locally and recognizing biomolecules. Herein, the goal of this research work is to develop advanced NPs with well-tailored surface functionalities and/or bio-functionality for the applications in cell tracking and analytes detection.

In the first project, quantum dots incorporating with gelatin nanoparticles (QDs-GNPs) have been developed for bioimaging applications. Two different approaches have ...


Production Of Lignin-Based Phenolic Resins Using De-Polymerized Kraft Lignin And Process Optimization, Homaira Siddiqui Dec 2013

Production Of Lignin-Based Phenolic Resins Using De-Polymerized Kraft Lignin And Process Optimization, Homaira Siddiqui

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Commercialization of Lignin-based phenol formaldehyde resins (LPF) has been limited due to the increase in curing temperatures and decrease in adhesive strength of LPF compared to conventional phenolic resins. Lignin depolymerization can increase the reactivity of lignin; however, the effect of lignin molecular weight on curing performance of LPF resins has yet to be investigated. This research work examined the optimization of synthesis parameters including percent substitution of phenol with lignin, formaldehyde- to-phenol ratio (F/P), and Mw of lignin to reduce the curing temperature and increase the adhesive strength of LPF. DSC analysis indicated that lignin with Mw ~1200g ...


Effect Of Plant Hormones On The Production Of Biomass And Lipid In Microalgae, Malihe Mehdizadeh Allaf Aug 2013

Effect Of Plant Hormones On The Production Of Biomass And Lipid In Microalgae, Malihe Mehdizadeh Allaf

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Limited fossil fuel reserves, increasing demand for energy in all parts of the world are some driving forces to look for new sources of transportation fuels. Among different options available, microalgae are currently attracting wide interests as an alternative and renewable fuel source.

Microalgae are single cell photosynthetic organisms that are known for rapid growth and high energy content and as a part of photosynthesis; they produce oil that can be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Some algae strains could contain lipid up to 80% of the dry biomass. The amount of lipid production is in direct relation ...


Electrospinning Of Core-Shell Collagen Nanofibers, Ying Li Aug 2013

Electrospinning Of Core-Shell Collagen Nanofibers, Ying Li

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In tissue engineering, the scaffold plays a critical role in guiding and supporting cells to function and grow optimally. The electrospun nanofibrous scaffold can serve as a near ideal substrate for tissue engineering because it has high surface area and the three-dimensional interconnected porous network can enhance cell attachment and proliferation. Core-shell nanofibrous scaffolds produced with coaxial electrospinning allow bioactive molecule encapsulation to improve cell adhesion, mediate and promote the proper signaling among the cells for their functioning and growth. In the current study, core-shell collagen nanofibers were fabricated via coaxial electrospinning with horizontal and vertical configurations. Core-shell nanofibers with ...


Butyl Rubber-Aliphatic Polyester Graft Copolymers For Biomedical Applications: Synthesis And Analysis Of Chemical, Physical And Biological Properties, Bethany A. Turowec Jun 2013

Butyl Rubber-Aliphatic Polyester Graft Copolymers For Biomedical Applications: Synthesis And Analysis Of Chemical, Physical And Biological Properties, Bethany A. Turowec

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Biomaterials can be used in a wide variety of medical applications owing to their breadth of characteristics that can be imparted by varying their chemical structures. Butyl rubber (IIR), which is a copolymer of isobutylene (IB) and small percentages of isoprene (IP), is particularly attractive as a biomaterial because of its elastomeric mechanical properties, biocompatibility, impermeability and high damping characteristics. IIR is typically vulcanized through chemical-based crosslinking mechanisms. However, these methods are not acceptable for biological applications. This thesis focuses on the synthesis of IIR-polyester graft copolymers by grafting biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters including poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(d ...


Sol-Gel Derived Biodegradable And Bioactive Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Biomaterials For Bone Tissue Engineering, Bedilu A. Allo Apr 2013

Sol-Gel Derived Biodegradable And Bioactive Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Biomaterials For Bone Tissue Engineering, Bedilu A. Allo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Treatments of bone injuries and defects have been largely centered on replacing the lost bone with tissues of allogeneic or xenogeneic sources as well as synthetic bone substitutes, which in all lead to limited degree of structural and functional recovery. As a result, tissue engineering has emerged as a viable technology to regenerate the structures and therefore recover the functions of bone tissue rather than replacement alone. Hence, the current strategies of bone tissue engineering and regeneration rely on bioactive scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) as templates onto which cells attach, multiply, migrate and function.

In this ...


Developing Electrochemical Biosensors For Point-Of-Care Diagnostics Of Cardiovascular Biomarkers, Yang Cheng Jan 2013

Developing Electrochemical Biosensors For Point-Of-Care Diagnostics Of Cardiovascular Biomarkers, Yang Cheng

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Troponin is known as a type of reliable biomarker for the detection of cardiac disorders. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI), as a subunit of troponin, is highly sensitive to cardiac injury; therefore, the cTnI level is used as an index to diagnose myocardial damage, particularly acute myocardial infarction. It can be also used in cardiospecific diagnosis, risk stratification therapeutic treatment and post risk management. In this research, an amperometric immunosensor was developed based on planar electrode and sandwich ELISA format. The electrical response corresponding to biological information was obtained via four main procedures, including electrode modification, immunoreaction, signal amplifications and amperometric ...


Calcium Phosphate-Based Resorbable Biomaterials For Bone Regeneration, Daniel O. Costa Oct 2012

Calcium Phosphate-Based Resorbable Biomaterials For Bone Regeneration, Daniel O. Costa

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bone defects are a prevalent problem in orthopedics and dentistry. Calcium phosphate-based coatings and nanocomposites offer unique solutions towards producing scaffolds with suitable physical, mechanical and biological properties for bone regeneration.

We developed a novel method to synthesize hydroxyapatite (HA) particles with high aspect ratio using sol-gel chemistry and hydrothermal treatment. We obtained tunable pure-phase carbonated-HA in the form of micro/nanorods and nanowires (diameters 25-800 nm). To mimic the structure of bone, HA nanowires were homogenously mixed within poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to produce nanocomposites with improved mechanical properties as determined by uniaxial tensile testing.

Surface chemistry and topography of ...