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Articles 1 - 21 of 21

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Coatings On Mammalian Cells: Interfacing Cells With Their Environment, Kara A. Davis, Pei-Jung Wu, Calvin F. Cahall, Cong Li, Anuhya Gottipati, Brad J. Berron Jan 2019

Coatings On Mammalian Cells: Interfacing Cells With Their Environment, Kara A. Davis, Pei-Jung Wu, Calvin F. Cahall, Cong Li, Anuhya Gottipati, Brad J. Berron

Chemical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The research community is intent on harnessing increasingly complex biological building blocks. At present, cells represent a highly functional component for integration into higher order systems. In this review, we discuss the current application space for cellular coating technologies and emphasize the relationship between the target application and coating design. We also discuss how the cell and the coating interact in common analytical techniques, and where caution must be exercised in the interpretation of results. Finally, we look ahead at emerging application areas that are ideal for innovation in cellular coatings. In all, cellular coatings leverage the machinery unique to ...


Towards The Rational Design And Application Of Polymers For Gene Therapy: Internalization And Intracellular Fate, Landon Alexander Mott Jan 2019

Towards The Rational Design And Application Of Polymers For Gene Therapy: Internalization And Intracellular Fate, Landon Alexander Mott

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Gene therapy is an approach for the treatment of acquired cancers, infectious disease, degenerative disease, and inherited genetic indications. Developments in the fields of immunotherapies and CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing are revitalizing the efforts to move gene therapy to the forefront of modern medicine. However, slow progress and poor clinical outcomes have plagued the field due to regulatory and safety concerns associated with the flagship delivery vector, the recombinant virus. Immunogenicity and poor transduction in certain cell types severely limits the utility of viruses as a delivery agent of nucleic acids. As a result, significant efforts are being made to ...


Comparison Of Eosin And Fluorescein Conjugates For The Photoinitiation Of Cell-Compatible Polymer Coatings, Jacob L. Lilly, Anuhya Gottipati, Calvin F. Cahall, Mohamed Agoub, Brad J. Berron Jan 2018

Comparison Of Eosin And Fluorescein Conjugates For The Photoinitiation Of Cell-Compatible Polymer Coatings, Jacob L. Lilly, Anuhya Gottipati, Calvin F. Cahall, Mohamed Agoub, Brad J. Berron

Chemical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Targeted photopolymerization is the basis for multiple diagnostic and cell encapsulation technologies. While eosin is used in conjunction with tertiary amines as a water-soluble photoinitiation system, eosin is not widely sold as a conjugate with antibodies and other targeting biomolecules. Here we evaluate the utility of fluorescein-labeled bioconjugates to photopolymerize targeted coatings on live cells. We show that although fluorescein conjugates absorb approximately 50% less light energy than eosin in matched photopolymerization experiments using a 530 nm LED lamp, appreciable polymer thicknesses can still be formed in cell compatible environments with fluorescein photosensitization. At low photoinitiator density, eosin allows more ...


Surface Functionalization Via Photoinitiated Radical Polymerization For Rare Cell Isolation And Mechanical Protection, Calvin Frank Cahall Jan 2018

Surface Functionalization Via Photoinitiated Radical Polymerization For Rare Cell Isolation And Mechanical Protection, Calvin Frank Cahall

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Surface functionalization of living cells for cell therapeutics has gained substantial momentum in the last two decades. From encapsulating islets of Langerhans, to cell laden gels for tissue scaffolds, to individual cell encapsulation in thin hydrogels, to surface adhesives and inert surface camouflage, modification of living cell surfaces has a wide array of important applications. Here we use hydrogel encapsulation of individual cells as a mode of protection from mechanical forces for high throughput cell printing, and chemical stimuli for the isolation of rare cells in blood.

In the first study, we review methods of surface functionalization and establish a ...


Reducing Biomass Recalcitrance By Heterologous Expression Of A Bacterial Peroxidase In Tobacco (Nicotiana Benthamiana), Ayalew Ligaba-Osena, Bertrand Hankoua, Kay Dimarco, Robert Pace, Mark Crocker, Jesse Mcatee, Nivedita Nagachar, Ming Tien, Tom L. Richard Dec 2017

Reducing Biomass Recalcitrance By Heterologous Expression Of A Bacterial Peroxidase In Tobacco (Nicotiana Benthamiana), Ayalew Ligaba-Osena, Bertrand Hankoua, Kay Dimarco, Robert Pace, Mark Crocker, Jesse Mcatee, Nivedita Nagachar, Ming Tien, Tom L. Richard

Center for Applied Energy Research Faculty Publications

Commercial scale production of biofuels from lignocellulosic feed stocks has been hampered by the resistance of plant cell walls to enzymatic conversion, primarily owing to lignin. This study investigated whether DypB, the lignin-degrading peroxidase from Rodococcus jostii, depolymerizes lignin and reduces recalcitrance in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana). The protein was targeted to the cytosol or the ER using ER-targeting and retention signal peptides. For each construct, five independent transgenic lines were characterized phenotypically and genotypically. Our findings reveal that expression of DypB in the cytosol and ER does not affect plant development. ER-targeting increased protein accumulation, and extracts from transgenic ...


Tuning Properties Of Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Block-Poly(Simvastatin) Copolymers Synthesized Via Triazabicyclodecene, Theodora A. Asafo-Adjei, Thomas D. Dziubla, David A. Puleo Oct 2017

Tuning Properties Of Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Block-Poly(Simvastatin) Copolymers Synthesized Via Triazabicyclodecene, Theodora A. Asafo-Adjei, Thomas D. Dziubla, David A. Puleo

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Simvastatin was polymerized into copolymers to better control drug loading and release for therapeutic delivery. When using the conventional stannous octoate catalyst in ring-opening polymerization (ROP), reaction temperatures ≥ 200 °C were required, which promoted uncontrollable and undesirable side reactions. Triazabicyclodecene (TBD), a highly reactive guanidine base organocatalyst, was used as an alternative to polymerize simvastatin. Polymerization was achieved at 150 °C using 5 kDa methyl-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) as the initiator. ROP reactions with 2 kDa or 550 Da mPEG initiators were also successful using TBD at 150 °C instead of stannous octoate, which required a higher reaction temperature ...


Toxicity Evaluation Of Magnetic Hyperthermia Induced By Remote Actuation Of Magnetic Nanoparticles In 3d Micrometastasic Tumor Tissue Analogs For Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Nathanael A. Stocke, Pallavi Sethi, Amar Jyoti, Ryan Chan, Susanne M. Arnold, J. Zach Hilt, Meenakshi Upreti Mar 2017

Toxicity Evaluation Of Magnetic Hyperthermia Induced By Remote Actuation Of Magnetic Nanoparticles In 3d Micrometastasic Tumor Tissue Analogs For Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Nathanael A. Stocke, Pallavi Sethi, Amar Jyoti, Ryan Chan, Susanne M. Arnold, J. Zach Hilt, Meenakshi Upreti

Chemical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Magnetic hyperthermia as a treatment modality is acquiring increased recognition for loco-regional therapy of primary and metastatic lung malignancies by pulmonary delivery of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP). The unique characteristic of magnetic nanoparticles to induce localized hyperthermia in the presence of an alternating magnetic field (AMF) allows for preferential killing of cells at the tumor site. In this study we demonstrate the effect of hyperthermia induced by low and high dose of MNP under the influence of an AMF using 3D tumor tissue analogs (TTA) representing the micrometastatic, perfusion independent stage of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) that infiltrates the lungs ...


Fractionation And Characterization Of Lignin Streams From Genetically Engineered Switchgrass, Enshi Liu Jan 2017

Fractionation And Characterization Of Lignin Streams From Genetically Engineered Switchgrass, Enshi Liu

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

Development of biomass feedstocks with desirable traits for cost-effective conversion is one of the main focus areas in biofuels research. As suggested by techno-economic analyses, the success of a lignocellulose-based biorefinery largely relies on the utilization of lignin to generate value-added products, i.e. fuels and chemicals. The fate of lignin and its structural/compositional changes during pretreatment have received increasing attention; however, the effect of genetic modification on the fractionation, depolymerization and catalytic upgrading of lignin from genetically engineered plants is not well understood. This study aims to fractionate and characterize the lignin streams from a wild-type and two ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Poly(Simvastatin) - Incorporated Copolymers And Blends For Bone Regeneration, Theodora Asafo-Adjei Jan 2017

Synthesis And Characterization Of Poly(Simvastatin) - Incorporated Copolymers And Blends For Bone Regeneration, Theodora Asafo-Adjei

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Common biodegradable polyesters such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) are used as drug delivery vehicles for tissue regenerative applications. However, they are typically bioinert, with drug loading limitations. Polymerizing the active agent or precursor into its respective biodegradable polymer would control drug loading via molar ratios of drug to initiator used for synthesis. Simvastatin was chosen due to its favorable anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and osteogenic properties. In addition, its lactone ring lends itself to ring-opening polymerization and, consequently, the synthesis of poly(simvastatin) with controlled simvastatin release.

Simvastatin was first polymerized with a ...


Pore-Confined Carriers And Biomolecules In Mesoporous Silica For Biomimetic Separation And Targeting, Shanshan Zhou Jan 2017

Pore-Confined Carriers And Biomolecules In Mesoporous Silica For Biomimetic Separation And Targeting, Shanshan Zhou

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Selectively permeable biological membranes composed of lipophilic barriers inspire the design of biomimetic carrier-mediated membranes for aqueous solute separation. This work imparts selective permeability to lipid-filled pores of silica thin film composite membranes using carrier molecules that reside in the lipophilic self-assemblies. The lipids confined inside the pores of silica are proven to be a more effective barrier than bilayers formed on the porous surface through vesicle fusion, which is critical for quantifying the function of an immobilized carrier. The ability of a lipophilic carrier embedded in the lipid bilayer to reversibly bind the target solute and transport it through ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Curcumin Polymer For Application In Radiation Induced Lung Damage, Mark C. Bailey Jan 2016

Synthesis And Characterization Of Curcumin Polymer For Application In Radiation Induced Lung Damage, Mark C. Bailey

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Radiotherapy is used as a primary treatment for many cancers, including lung cancer. Although radiotherapy has proven to be an effective cancer treatment, its use is heavily limited due to the peripheral toxicity to healthy tissue. In this work, the antioxidant, curcumin, was tested as a radioprotectant to reduce radiation damage to healthy cells. Curcumin has been limited in use due to its poor bioavailability. In order to avoid problems associated with free curcumin delivery, curcumin poly(beta-amino ester) (CPBAE) was synthesized.

The first study investigated the in vitro radioprotection effect of curcumin in HUVEC dosed with gamma radiation. Cells ...


Bioactive Poly(Beta-Amino Ester) Biomaterials For Treatment Of Infection And Oxidative Stress, Andrew L. Lakes Jan 2016

Bioactive Poly(Beta-Amino Ester) Biomaterials For Treatment Of Infection And Oxidative Stress, Andrew L. Lakes

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Polymers have deep roots as drug delivery tools, and are widely used in clinical to private settings. Currently, however, numerous traditional therapies exist which may be improved through use of polymeric biomaterials. Through our work with infectious and oxidative stress disease prevention and treatment, we aimed to develop application driven, enhanced therapies utilizing new classes of polymers synthesized in-house. Applying biodegradable poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) polymers, covalent-addition of bioactive substrates to these PBAEs avoided certain pitfalls of free-loaded and non-degradable drug delivery systems. Further, through variation of polymer ingredients and conditions, we were able to tune degradation rates, release profiles ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Antioxidant Conjugated Poly(Βeta-Amino Ester) Micro/Nanogels For The Suppression Of Oxidative Stress, Prachi Gupta Jan 2016

Synthesis And Characterization Of Antioxidant Conjugated Poly(Βeta-Amino Ester) Micro/Nanogels For The Suppression Of Oxidative Stress, Prachi Gupta

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Oxidative stress is a pathophysiological condition defined by an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can result in the growth arrest of cells followed by cell disintegration or necrosis. A number of small molecule antioxidants (e.g. curcumin, quercetin and resveratrol) are capable of directly scavenging ROS, thereby short-circuiting the self-propagating oxidative stress state. However, poor solubility and rapid 1st pass metabolism results in overall low bioavailability and acts as a barrier for its use as a drug to suppress oxidative stress efficiently.

To overcome this limitation, these small molecule antioxidants were covalently conjugated into poly(β-amino ...


Surface-Initiated Polymerizations For The Rapid Sorting Of Rare Cancer Cells, Jacob L. Lilly Jan 2016

Surface-Initiated Polymerizations For The Rapid Sorting Of Rare Cancer Cells, Jacob L. Lilly

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Cancer metastasis directly accounts for an estimated 90% of all cancer related deaths and is correlated with the presence of malignant cells in systemic circulation. This observed relationship has prompted efforts to develop a fluid biopsy, with the goal of detecting these rare cells in patient peripheral blood as surrogate markers for metastatic disease as a partial replacement or supplement to tissue biopsies. Numerous platforms have been designed, yet these have generally failed to support a reliable fluid biopsy due to poor performance parameters such as low throughput, low purity of enriched antigen positive cells, and insufficiently low detection thresholds ...


Diffusion-Mediated Deposition Of Proteins, Ruiqian Zhan Jan 2016

Diffusion-Mediated Deposition Of Proteins, Ruiqian Zhan

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

Gradients of proteins play a prominent role in many biological processes, from development of multicellular organisms to chemical signaling in the immune system. Deposition of surface gradients is a way to permanently modifying a surface’s properties, resulting in the creation of novel materials which have widespread applications in biologically relevant fields, such as directed cell growth, production of biocompatible implantable materials, and creation of functional biosensors. These types of surfaces can also be used as an ex vivo tool to help understand many biological processes by mimicking the environment in gradient-related phenomena in a controllable way. However, despite the ...


Long Term Blood Oxygenation Membranes, Joseph V. Alexander Jan 2015

Long Term Blood Oxygenation Membranes, Joseph V. Alexander

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Hollow fiber membranes are widely used in blood oxygenators to remove carbon dioxide and add oxygen during cardiopulmonary bypass operations. These devices are now widely used off-label by physicians to perform extracorporeal blood oxygenation for patients with lung failure. Unfortunately, the hollow fiber membranes used in these devices fail prematurely due to blood plasma leakage and gas emboli formation.

This project formed ultrathin (~100nm) polymer coatings on polymer hollow fiber membranes. The coatings were intended to “block” existing pores on the exterior surfaces while permitting high gas fluxes. This coating is synthesized using surface imitated control radical polymerization.

The coating ...


Biomimetic Oral Mucin From Polymer Micelle Networks, Sundar Prasanth Authimoolam Jan 2015

Biomimetic Oral Mucin From Polymer Micelle Networks, Sundar Prasanth Authimoolam

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Mucin networks are formed by the complexation of bottlebrush-like mucin glycoprotein with other small molecule glycoproteins. These glycoproteins create nanoscale strands that then arrange into a nanoporous mesh. These networks play an important role in ensuring surface hydration, lubricity and barrier protection. In order to understand the functional behavior in mucin networks, it is important to decouple their chemical and physical effects responsible for generating the fundamental property-function relationship. To achieve this goal, we propose to develop a synthetic biomimetic mucin using a layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition approach. In this work, a hierarchical 3-dimensional structures resembling natural mucin networks was generated ...


Inhalable Nanocomposites And Anticancer Agents For Cancer Therapy, Nathanael A. Stocke Jan 2015

Inhalable Nanocomposites And Anticancer Agents For Cancer Therapy, Nathanael A. Stocke

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Cancer is designated as the leading cause of mortality worldwide and lung cancer is responsible for nearly 30% of all cancer related deaths. Over the last few decades mortality rates have only marginally increased and rates of recurrence remain high. These factors, among others, suggest the need for more innovative treatment modalities in lung cancer therapy. Targeted pulmonary delivery is well established for treating pulmonary diseases such as asthma and provides a promising platform for lung cancer therapy. Increasing local deposition of anticancer agents (ACAs) and reducing systemic exposure of these toxic moieties could lead to better therapeutic outcomes and ...


Applications Of Antioxidant And Anti-Inflammatory Polymers To Inhibit Injury And Disease, David B. Cochran Jan 2013

Applications Of Antioxidant And Anti-Inflammatory Polymers To Inhibit Injury And Disease, David B. Cochran

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

There is an undeniable link between oxidative stress, inflammation, and disease. Currently, approaches using antioxidant therapies have been largely unsuccessful due to poor delivery and bioavailability. Responding to these limitations, we have developed classes of polymer and delivery systems that can overcome the challenges of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapy. In our initial studies, nanoparticles of poly(trolox), a polymeric form of trolox, were surface-modified with antibodies. This modification allows for specific targeting to endothelial cells, affording controllable and localized protection against oxidative stress. We have shown these targeted nanoparticles bind, internalize, and provide protection against oxidative stress generation and cytotoxicity ...


Protein Based Biomimetic Approachs To Surface Hemocompatibility And Biocompatibility Enhancement, Matthew Thomas Dickerson Jan 2012

Protein Based Biomimetic Approachs To Surface Hemocompatibility And Biocompatibility Enhancement, Matthew Thomas Dickerson

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

T. pallidum can survive a primary immune response and continue growing in the host for an extended period of time. T. pallidum is thought to bind serum fibronectin (FN) through Tp0483 on the surface to obscure antigens. A Tp0483 fragment (rTp0483) was adsorbed onto functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with FN. FN capture by adsorbed rTp0483 depended greatly on surface chemistry with COO- groups being best for FN binding. Hemocompatibility was determined by analysis of plasma protein adsorption, intrinsic pathway activation, and platelet activation. rTp0483+FN bound an equal or lesser amount of fibrinogen (Fg), human serum albumin (HSA), and factor ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Magnetic Hydrogel Nanocomposites For Cancer Therapy Applications, Samantha Ann Meenach Jan 2010

Synthesis And Characterization Of Magnetic Hydrogel Nanocomposites For Cancer Therapy Applications, Samantha Ann Meenach

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Currently, cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Conventional cancer treatment includes chemotherapy, radiation, and surgical resection, but unfortunately, all of these methods have significant drawbacks. Hyperthermia, the heating of cancerous tissues to between 41 and 45°C, has been shown to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy when used in conjunction with irradiation and/or chemotherapy. In this work, a novel method for remotely administering heat is presented. This method involves heating of tumor tissue using hydrogel nanocomposites containing magnetic nanoparticles which can be remotely heated upon exposure to an external alternating magnetic field ...