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Articles 1 - 30 of 69

Full-Text Articles in Automotive Engineering

An Under-Hand Steering Wheel Grasp Produces Significant Risk To The Upper Extremity During Airbag Deployment, Patrick J. Atkinson, Prem Hariharan, Shresta Mari-Gowda, Paul Telehowski, Sidney Martin, Jack Van Hoof, Cynthia Bir, Theresa Atkinson Sep 2019

An Under-Hand Steering Wheel Grasp Produces Significant Risk To The Upper Extremity During Airbag Deployment, Patrick J. Atkinson, Prem Hariharan, Shresta Mari-Gowda, Paul Telehowski, Sidney Martin, Jack Van Hoof, Cynthia Bir, Theresa Atkinson

Theresa Atkinson

Recent laboratory investigations suggest that a deploying airbag may fracture the forearm. These studies positioned the arm in an overhand grasp placing the forearm over the airbag module. However, there is little published data on how drivers grip the steering wheel and the general proximity of the upper extremity to the airbag module. The objective of the current study was to identify 'real world' upper extremity positions and to correlate these with accident and experimental data. A survey of the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) for the years 1995-99 revealed an increase in the number of forearm fractures due to ...


Injury Severity Data For Front And Second Row Passengers In Frontal Crashes, Theresa Atkinson, Leszek Gawarecki, Massoud Tavakoli Sep 2019

Injury Severity Data For Front And Second Row Passengers In Frontal Crashes, Theresa Atkinson, Leszek Gawarecki, Massoud Tavakoli

Theresa Atkinson

The data contained here were obtained from the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration׳s National Automotive Sampling System – Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the years 2008–2014. This publically available data set monitors motor vehicle crashes in the United States, using a stratified random sample frame, resulting in information on approximately 5000 crashes each year that can be utilized to create national estimates for crashes. The NASS-CDS data sets document vehicle, crash, and occupant factors. These data can be utilized to examine public health, law enforcement, roadway planning, and vehicle design issues. The data provided in this brief are a ...


Injury Severity Data For Front And Second Row Passengers In Frontal Crashes, Theresa Atkinson, Leszek Gawarecki, Massoud S. Tavakoli Sep 2019

Injury Severity Data For Front And Second Row Passengers In Frontal Crashes, Theresa Atkinson, Leszek Gawarecki, Massoud S. Tavakoli

Leszek Gawarecki

The data contained here were obtained from the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration׳s National Automotive Sampling System – Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the years 2008–2014. This publically available data set monitors motor vehicle crashes in the United States, using a stratified random sample frame, resulting in information on approximately 5000 crashes each year that can be utilized to create national estimates for crashes. The NASS-CDS data sets document vehicle, crash, and occupant factors. These data can be utilized to examine public health, law enforcement, roadway planning, and vehicle design issues. The data provided in this brief are a ...


Crash Safety In The Introductory Physics Lab, Daniel Ludwigsen, Janet Brelin-Fornari, Joseph Neal Sep 2019

Crash Safety In The Introductory Physics Lab, Daniel Ludwigsen, Janet Brelin-Fornari, Joseph Neal

Daniel Ludwigsen

Crash Safety in the Introductory Physics Lab Abstract In the field of vehicle occupant protection and crash safety, the Deceleration Sled offers researchers a controlled, repeatable, and relatively cost-effective means to test interior parts such as safety restraint systems. The sled can accelerate a 2000 lb payload to achieve a speed of 40 mph before a hydraulically controlled deceleration models the deformation of the vehicle structure during a crash. Understanding the dynamics of the sled and interpreting test results incorporates many of the core concepts of a first course in introductory physics. This application of physics principles is the inspiration ...


Crash Safety In The Introductory Physics Lab, Daniel Ludwigsen, Janet Brelin-Fornari, Joseph Neal Sep 2019

Crash Safety In The Introductory Physics Lab, Daniel Ludwigsen, Janet Brelin-Fornari, Joseph Neal

Daniel Ludwigsen

Crash Safety in the Introductory Physics Lab Abstract In the field of vehicle occupant protection and crash safety, the Deceleration Sled offers researchers a controlled, repeatable, and relatively cost-effective means to test interior parts such as safety restraint systems. The sled can accelerate a 2000 lb payload to achieve a speed of 40 mph before a hydraulically controlled deceleration models the deformation of the vehicle structure during a crash. Understanding the dynamics of the sled and interpreting test results incorporates many of the core concepts of a first course in introductory physics. This application of physics principles is the inspiration ...


Evaluating Impact Attenuator Performance For A Formula Sae Vehicle, Jason Fahland, Craig Hoff, Janet Brelin-Fornari Sep 2019

Evaluating Impact Attenuator Performance For A Formula Sae Vehicle, Jason Fahland, Craig Hoff, Janet Brelin-Fornari

Craig Hoff

Formula SAE® is one of several student design competitions organized by SAE International. In the Formula SAE events undergraduate and graduate students are required to conceive, design, fabricate and compete with a small, formula-style, race car. Formula SAE safety rules dictate a 7 m/s (or approximately 15.65 mph) frontal crash test for nose mounted impact attenuators. These rules are outlined in section B3.21 of the Formula SAE rule book. Development and testing methods of these energy absorbing devices have varied widely among teams. This paper uses real world crash sled results to research methods for predicting the ...


Analysis Of Disengagements In Semi-Autonomous Vehicles: Drivers’ Takeover Performance And Operational Implications, Francesca M. Favaro, Sky Eurich, Syeda Rizvi, Shivangi Agarwal, Sumaid Mahmood, Nazanin Nader Jul 2019

Analysis Of Disengagements In Semi-Autonomous Vehicles: Drivers’ Takeover Performance And Operational Implications, Francesca M. Favaro, Sky Eurich, Syeda Rizvi, Shivangi Agarwal, Sumaid Mahmood, Nazanin Nader

Francesca M. Favarò

This report analyzes the reactions of human drivers placed in simulated Autonomous Technology disengagement scenarios. The study was executed in a human-in-the-loop setting, within a high-fidelity integrated car simulator capable of handling both manual and autonomous driving. A population of 40 individuals was tested, with metrics for control takeover quantification given by: i) response times (considering inputs of steering, throttle, and braking); ii) vehicle drift from the lane centerline after takeover as well as overall (integral) drift over an S-turn curve compared to a baseline obtained in manual driving; and iii) accuracy metrics to quantify human factors associated with the ...


Sensitivity Analysis Of Hill Muscle Parameters, Janet Brelin-Fornari, Paras Shah, Mohamed El-Sayed Oct 2018

Sensitivity Analysis Of Hill Muscle Parameters, Janet Brelin-Fornari, Paras Shah, Mohamed El-Sayed

Janet Brelin-Fornari

A computational, rigid body model of a 50th percentile male head and neck utilizing 15 Hill Muscle pairs is used to study the sensitivity of Hill Muscle Model parameters. A 15g linear acceleration is applied within the transverse plane at the lowest vertebral level of the neck (T1). The resultant linear acceleration of the head is analyzed. In response is minimally affected. The peak accelerations did change, and in the case of varying muscle activation, the peak acceleration changed significantly, 36%. Each of the other parameter variations affected the peak acceleration of the head by less than 5%. Overall ...


Crash Safety In The Introductory Physics Lab, Daniel Ludwigsen, Janet Brelin-Fornari, Joseph Neal Oct 2018

Crash Safety In The Introductory Physics Lab, Daniel Ludwigsen, Janet Brelin-Fornari, Joseph Neal

Janet Brelin-Fornari

Crash Safety in the Introductory Physics Lab Abstract In the field of vehicle occupant protection and crash safety, the Deceleration Sled offers researchers a controlled, repeatable, and relatively cost-effective means to test interior parts such as safety restraint systems. The sled can accelerate a 2000 lb payload to achieve a speed of 40 mph before a hydraulically controlled deceleration models the deformation of the vehicle structure during a crash. Understanding the dynamics of the sled and interpreting test results incorporates many of the core concepts of a first course in introductory physics. This application of physics principles is the inspiration ...


Development Of Nhtsa’S Side Impact Test Procedure For Child Restraint Systems Using A Deceleration Sled : Part 1, Janet Brelin-Fornari, Sheryl Janca Oct 2018

Development Of Nhtsa’S Side Impact Test Procedure For Child Restraint Systems Using A Deceleration Sled : Part 1, Janet Brelin-Fornari, Sheryl Janca

Janet Brelin-Fornari

This report presents the results of the research and development of the child seat side impact tests performed at Kettering University’s Crash Safety Center for NHTSA. The tests were conducted using a deceleration sled. The objective of this testing was to obtain data for the development of a side impact test procedure for child restraint systems.


Development Of Nhtsa’S Side Impact Test Procedure For Child Restraint Systems Using A Deceleration Sled : Part 2, Janet Brelin-Fornari, Sheryl Janca Oct 2018

Development Of Nhtsa’S Side Impact Test Procedure For Child Restraint Systems Using A Deceleration Sled : Part 2, Janet Brelin-Fornari, Sheryl Janca

Janet Brelin-Fornari

This report presents the results of the continued research and development of child seat side impact tests using the deceleration sled at Kettering University’s Crash Safety Center. The objective of this test series was to gain further insight into the sensitivity of the side impact test fixture response. Test variations included speed of impact, weight of the fixture, and impact characteristics. Additionally, 20 child restraint system (CRS) specific tests were conducted using a fixed set of test parameters.


A Study Of Muscle Activation In A Mathematical Model Of The Human Head And Neck, Janet Brelin-Fornari, A. Arabyan Oct 2018

A Study Of Muscle Activation In A Mathematical Model Of The Human Head And Neck, Janet Brelin-Fornari, A. Arabyan

Janet Brelin-Fornari

A model of the human head and neck that incorporates active and passive muscles is utilized in the analysis of non-impact loading in high “g” environments. The active muscles have the capability to be activated partially and in different combinations.The model is implemented in MADYMO using lumped parameters and Hill muscles. A comparison of simulation results with experimental data, generated by the Naval Biodynamics Laboratory (NBDL) for neck flexion and rebound, shows excellent agreement for a 15g impulsive load.


Automate, Jan Comfort Feb 2018

Automate, Jan Comfort

Jan Comfort

No abstract provided.


Internet Enabled Remote Driving Of A Combat Hybrid Electric Power System For Duty Cycle Measurement, Jarrett Goodell, Marc Compere, Wilford Smith, Mark Brudnak, Mike Pozolo, Et Al. Feb 2018

Internet Enabled Remote Driving Of A Combat Hybrid Electric Power System For Duty Cycle Measurement, Jarrett Goodell, Marc Compere, Wilford Smith, Mark Brudnak, Mike Pozolo, Et Al.

Marc Compere

This paper describes a human-in-the-loop motion-based simulator interfaced to hybrid-electric power system hardware, both of which were used to measure the duty cycle of a combat vehicle in a virtual simulation environment. The project discussed is a greatly expanded follow-on to the experiment published in [1,7]. This paper is written in the context of [1,7] and therefore highlights the enhancements. The most prominent of these enhancements is the integration (in real-time) of the Power & Energy System Integration Lab (P&E SIL) with a motion base simulator by means of a “long haul” connection over the Internet (a geographical ...


Optimizing Compressed Air Storage For Energy Efficiency, Brian Abels, J. Kelly Kissock Mar 2017

Optimizing Compressed Air Storage For Energy Efficiency, Brian Abels, J. Kelly Kissock

J. Kelly Kissock

Compressed air storage is an important, but often misunderstood, component of compressed air systems. This paper discusses methods to properly size compressed air storage in load-unload systems to avoid short cycling and reduce system energy use. First, key equations relating storage, pressure, and compressed air flow are derived using fundamental thermodynamic relations. Next, these relations are used to calculate the relation between volume of storage and cycle time in load-unload compressors. It is shown that cycle time is minimized when compressed air demand is 50% of compressor capacity. The effect of pressure drop between compressor system and storage on cycle ...


Energy Efficient Process Heating: Insulation And Thermal Mass, Kevin Carpenter, J. Kelly Kissock Mar 2017

Energy Efficient Process Heating: Insulation And Thermal Mass, Kevin Carpenter, J. Kelly Kissock

J. Kelly Kissock

Open tanks and exterior surfaces of process heating equipment lose heat to the surroundings via convection, radiation, and/or evaporation. A practical way of reducing heat loss is by insulating or covering the surfaces. This paper presents methods to quantify heat loss and energy savings from insulating hot surfaces and open tanks. The methods include radiation and evaporation losses, which are ignored by simplified methods. In addition, thermal mass, such as refractory, conveyor and racking equipment, acts as a heat sink and increases heating energy use in process heating applications. This paper presents lumped capacitance and finite-difference methods for estimating ...


Improving Compressed Air Energy Efficiency In Automotive Plants: Practical Examples And Implementation, Nasr Alkadi, J. Kelly Kissock Mar 2017

Improving Compressed Air Energy Efficiency In Automotive Plants: Practical Examples And Implementation, Nasr Alkadi, J. Kelly Kissock

J. Kelly Kissock

The automotive industry is the largest industry in the United States in terms of the dollar value of production [1]. U.S. automakers face tremendous pressure from foreign competitors, which have an increasing manufacturing presence in this country. The Big Three North American Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs)-General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler-are reacting to declining sales figures and economic strain by working more efficiently and seeking out opportunities to reduce production costs without negatively affecting the production volume or the quality of the product. Successful, cost-effective investment and implementation of the energy efficiency technologies and practices meet the challenge of ...


Energy Efficient Process Heating: Managing Air Flow, Kevin Carpenter, J. Kelly Kissock Mar 2017

Energy Efficient Process Heating: Managing Air Flow, Kevin Carpenter, J. Kelly Kissock

J. Kelly Kissock

Much energy is lost through excess air flow in and out of process heating equipment. Energy saving opportunities from managing air flow include minimizing combustion air, preheating combustion air, minimizing ventilation air, and reconfiguring openings to reduce leakage.

This paper identifies these opportunities and presents methods to quantify potential energy savings from implementing these energy-savings measures. Case study examples are used to demonstrate the methods and the potential energy savings.The method for calculating savings from minimizing combustion air accounts for improvement in efficiency from increased combustion temperature and decreased combustion gas mass flow rate.

The method for calculating savings ...


Development Of A Spring-Based Automotive Starter, David H. Myszka, Jonathan Lauden, Patrick Joyce, Andrew P. Murray, Christoph Gillum Feb 2017

Development Of A Spring-Based Automotive Starter, David H. Myszka, Jonathan Lauden, Patrick Joyce, Andrew P. Murray, Christoph Gillum

David Myszka

Automotive starting systems require substantial amounts of mechanical energy in a short period of time. Lead-acid batteries have historically provided that energy through a starter motor. Springs have been identified as an alternative energy storage medium and are well suited to engine-starting applications due to their ability to rapidly deliver substantial mechanical power and their long service life. This paper presents the development of a conceptual, spring-based starter. The focus of the study was to determine whether a spring of acceptable size could provide the required torque and rotational speed to start an automotive engine. Engine testing was performed on ...


A Mechanical Regenerative Brake And Launch Assist Using An Open Differential And Elastic Energy Storage, David H. Myszka, Andrew P. Murray, Kevin Giaier, Vijay Krishna Jayaprakash, Christoph Gillum Feb 2017

A Mechanical Regenerative Brake And Launch Assist Using An Open Differential And Elastic Energy Storage, David H. Myszka, Andrew P. Murray, Kevin Giaier, Vijay Krishna Jayaprakash, Christoph Gillum

David Myszka

Regenerative brake and launch assist (RBLA) systems are used to capture kinetic energy while a vehicle decelerates and subsequently use that stored energy to assist propulsion. Commercially available hybrid vehicles use generators, batteries and motors to electrically implement RBLA systems. Substantial increases in vehicle efficiency have been widely cited. This paper presents the development of a mechanical RBLA that stores energy in an elastic medium. An open differential is coupled with a variable transmission to store and release energy to an axle that principally rotates in a single direction. The concept applies regenerative braking technology to conventional automobiles equipped with ...


A Mechanical Regenerative Brake And Launch Assist Using An Open Differential And Elastic Energy Storage, David H. Myszka, Andrew P. Murray, Kevin Giaier, Vijay Krishna Jayaprakash, Christoph Gillum Feb 2017

A Mechanical Regenerative Brake And Launch Assist Using An Open Differential And Elastic Energy Storage, David H. Myszka, Andrew P. Murray, Kevin Giaier, Vijay Krishna Jayaprakash, Christoph Gillum

Andrew P. Murray

Regenerative brake and launch assist (RBLA) systems are used to capture kinetic energy while a vehicle decelerates and subsequently use that stored energy to assist propulsion. Commercially available hybrid vehicles use generators, batteries and motors to electrically implement RBLA systems. Substantial increases in vehicle efficiency have been widely cited. This paper presents the development of a mechanical RBLA that stores energy in an elastic medium. An open differential is coupled with a variable transmission to store and release energy to an axle that principally rotates in a single direction. The concept applies regenerative braking technology to conventional automobiles equipped with ...


Development Of A Spring-Based Automotive Starter, David H. Myszka, Jonathan Lauden, Patrick Joyce, Andrew P. Murray, Christoph Gillum Feb 2017

Development Of A Spring-Based Automotive Starter, David H. Myszka, Jonathan Lauden, Patrick Joyce, Andrew P. Murray, Christoph Gillum

Andrew P. Murray

Automotive starting systems require substantial amounts of mechanical energy in a short period of time. Lead-acid batteries have historically provided that energy through a starter motor. Springs have been identified as an alternative energy storage medium and are well suited to engine-starting applications due to their ability to rapidly deliver substantial mechanical power and their long service life. This paper presents the development of a conceptual, spring-based starter. The focus of the study was to determine whether a spring of acceptable size could provide the required torque and rotational speed to start an automotive engine. Engine testing was performed on ...


Industrial Solid-State Energy Harvesting: Mechanisms And Examples, Matthew Kocoloski, Carl Eger, Robin Mccarty, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock Sep 2016

Industrial Solid-State Energy Harvesting: Mechanisms And Examples, Matthew Kocoloski, Carl Eger, Robin Mccarty, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock

J. Kissock

This paper explores the potential for solid-state energy harvesting in industrial applications. In contrast to traditional heat recovery, the output of solid-state devices is electricity, which can be readily used in virtually any plant. The progress in harvesting waste heat via thermoelectric and thermionic generators is described. With second law efficiencies now approaching 50% and 80% respectively, we show that these technologies are on the cusp of practical use. Finally, we present an example of energy harvesting using thermionic devices in an industrial application. The example considers energy harvesting from a furnace at a glass manufacturing facility where exhaust gases ...


Energy Information Augmented Community-Based Energy Reduction, Kevin P. Hallinan, Harvey Enns, Stephenie Ritchey, Phil Brodrick, Nathan Lammers, Nichole Hanus, Mark Rembert, Tony Rainsberger Aug 2016

Energy Information Augmented Community-Based Energy Reduction, Kevin P. Hallinan, Harvey Enns, Stephenie Ritchey, Phil Brodrick, Nathan Lammers, Nichole Hanus, Mark Rembert, Tony Rainsberger

Harvey Enns

More than one-half of all U.S. states have instituted energy efficiency mandates requiring utilities to reduce energy use. To achieve these goals, utilities have been permitted rate structures to help them incentivize energy reduction projects. This strategy is proving to be only modestly successful in stemming energy consumption growth. By the same token, community energy reduction programs have achieved moderate to very significant energy reduction. The research described here offers an important tool to strengthen the community energy reduction efforts—by providing such efforts energy information tailored to the energy use patterns of each building occupant. The information provided ...


Microscale Investigation Of Thermo-Fluid Transport In The Transition Fil, Region Of An Evaporating Capillary Meniscus Using A Microgravity Environment, Kenneth D. Kihm, Jeffrey S. Allen, Kevin P. Hallinan, David M. Pratt Jul 2016

Microscale Investigation Of Thermo-Fluid Transport In The Transition Fil, Region Of An Evaporating Capillary Meniscus Using A Microgravity Environment, Kenneth D. Kihm, Jeffrey S. Allen, Kevin P. Hallinan, David M. Pratt

Kevin Hallinan

In order to enhance the fundamental understanding of thin film evaporation and thereby improve the critical design concept for two-phase heat transfer devices, microscale heat and mass transport is to be investigated for the transition film region using state-of-the-art optical diagnostic techniques. By utilizing a microgravity environment, the length scales of the transition film region can be extended sufficiently, from submicron to micron, to probe and measure the microscale transport fields which are affected by intermolecular forces. Extension of the thin film dimensions under microgravity will be achieved by using a conical evaporator made of a thin silicon substrate under ...


Nanocharacterization Of Bio-Silica Using Atomic Force And Ultrasonic Force Microscopy, Vinaypreet S. Gill, Kevin P. Hallinan, N. S. Brar Jul 2016

Nanocharacterization Of Bio-Silica Using Atomic Force And Ultrasonic Force Microscopy, Vinaypreet S. Gill, Kevin P. Hallinan, N. S. Brar

Kevin Hallinan

Nanotechnology has become central to our research efforts to fabricate relatively smaller size devices, which are more versatile than their older and larger predecessors. Silica is a very important material in this regard. Recently, a new biomimetically inspired path to silica production has been demonstrated. This processing technique was inspired from biological organisms, such as marine diatoms, which produce silica at ambient conditions and almost neutral ph with beautiful control over location and structure. Recently, several researchers have demonstrated that positional control of silica formed could be achieved by application of an electric field to locate charged enzymes responsible for ...


Leveraging Students’ Passion And Creativity: Ethos At The University Of Dayton, Margaret Pinnell, Malcolm Daniels, Kevin P. Hallinan, Gretchen Berkemeier Jul 2016

Leveraging Students’ Passion And Creativity: Ethos At The University Of Dayton, Margaret Pinnell, Malcolm Daniels, Kevin P. Hallinan, Gretchen Berkemeier

Kevin Hallinan

The Engineers in Technical Humanitarian Opportunities of Service-learning (ETHOS) program was developed in the spring of 2001 by an interdisciplinary group (electrical, chemical, civil and mechanical) of undergraduate engineering students at the University of Dayton (UD). ETHOS was founded on the belief that engineers are more apt and capable to appropriately serve our world if they have an understanding of technology’s global linkage with values, culture, society, politics, and the economy. Since 2001, the ETHOS program at UD has grown and changed. From conceptualization, to implementation, to maturation and national recognition, the program has addressed challenges of academic acceptance ...


Experimental Verification Of Source Temperature Modulation Via A Thermal Switch In Thermal Energy Harvesting, Robin Mccarty, D. Monaghan, Kevin P. Hallinan, Brian Sanders Jul 2016

Experimental Verification Of Source Temperature Modulation Via A Thermal Switch In Thermal Energy Harvesting, Robin Mccarty, D. Monaghan, Kevin P. Hallinan, Brian Sanders

Kevin Hallinan

This paper provides a description of research seeking to experimentally verify the effectiveness of a thermal switch used in series with TE devices for waste heat recovery for constant and variable source heat input and for variable source thermal capacitance (mass). Using an experimental set-up comprised serially of a fixed heat source, a variable thermal resistance air gap serving as a thermal switch, a thermoelectric device and a heat sink, the time-averaged power output to power input ratios improved up to 15% and 30% respectively for constant and variable heat input in certain design space conditions. The experimental results, as ...


Industrial Solid-State Energy Harvesting: Mechanisms And Examples, Matthew Kocoloski, Carl Eger, Robin Mccarty, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock Jul 2016

Industrial Solid-State Energy Harvesting: Mechanisms And Examples, Matthew Kocoloski, Carl Eger, Robin Mccarty, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock

Kevin Hallinan

This paper explores the potential for solid-state energy harvesting in industrial applications. In contrast to traditional heat recovery, the output of solid-state devices is electricity, which can be readily used in virtually any plant. The progress in harvesting waste heat via thermoelectric and thermionic generators is described. With second law efficiencies now approaching 50% and 80% respectively, we show that these technologies are on the cusp of practical use. Finally, we present an example of energy harvesting using thermionic devices in an industrial application. The example considers energy harvesting from a furnace at a glass manufacturing facility where exhaust gases ...


Energy Information Augmented Community-Based Energy Reduction, Kevin P. Hallinan, Harvey Enns, Stephenie Ritchey, Phil Brodrick, Nathan Lammers, Nichole Hanus, Mark Rembert, Tony Rainsberger Jul 2016

Energy Information Augmented Community-Based Energy Reduction, Kevin P. Hallinan, Harvey Enns, Stephenie Ritchey, Phil Brodrick, Nathan Lammers, Nichole Hanus, Mark Rembert, Tony Rainsberger

Kevin Hallinan

More than one-half of all U.S. states have instituted energy efficiency mandates requiring utilities to reduce energy use. To achieve these goals, utilities have been permitted rate structures to help them incentivize energy reduction projects. This strategy is proving to be only modestly successful in stemming energy consumption growth. By the same token, community energy reduction programs have achieved moderate to very significant energy reduction. The research described here offers an important tool to strengthen the community energy reduction efforts—by providing such efforts energy information tailored to the energy use patterns of each building occupant. The information provided ...