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Full-Text Articles in Automotive Engineering

A Complementary Cyber-Human Systems Framework For Industry 4.0 Cyber-Physical Systems, Matthew Krugh, Laine Mears Jan 2018

A Complementary Cyber-Human Systems Framework For Industry 4.0 Cyber-Physical Systems, Matthew Krugh, Laine Mears

Publications

Humans are a vital element to automotive manufacturing; however, skilled production personnel have largely been designated as data receivers in Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) of Industry 4.0. A renewed focus on the human worker who completes significant portions of manual value-added content in automotive assembly through Cyber-Human Systems (CHS) is allowing humans to perform their jobs more safely, efficiently, and supporting enhanced control and quality monitoring of manual manufacturing tasks. There is a need for a unified complementary framework of CHS and CPS to guide the implementation of future smart manufacturing systems.


Design, Synthesis And Sustainable Applications Of Animal Protein-Based Thermoset Polymers And Covalent Organic Frameworks, Xiaoyan Yu Aug 2017

Design, Synthesis And Sustainable Applications Of Animal Protein-Based Thermoset Polymers And Covalent Organic Frameworks, Xiaoyan Yu

All Dissertations

Extensive research has been undertaken in recent times on finding suitable, alternative, non-feed and non-fertilizer applications for proteinaceous materials in the animal rendering industry. In this regard, use of such proteins to derive plastics, especially thermoplastics and derived composites, has emerged as a potentially acceptable choice. However, the widespread use of such proteins for aforementioned applications is limited by their poor mechanical properties, high moisture absorption and their inherent odor. In this study, we have engineered, for the first time, high-strength, toughened thermoset polymers from proteinaceous materials obtained from the rendering industry so that they can be employed in high ...


High Performance Computing Simulations To Identify Process Parameter Designs For Profitable Titanium Machining, Mathew Kuttolamadom, Joshua Jones, Laine Mears, James Von Oehsen, Thomas Kurfess, John Ziegert Apr 2017

High Performance Computing Simulations To Identify Process Parameter Designs For Profitable Titanium Machining, Mathew Kuttolamadom, Joshua Jones, Laine Mears, James Von Oehsen, Thomas Kurfess, John Ziegert

Publications

The objective of this paper was to conduct a study of the multi-level multi-variable design space in titanium machining through high performance computing (HPC) simulations that was otherwise too vast to be explored by physical experiments alone. For tool wear-based performance metrics, this resulted in a validated set of machining parameters for achieving profitable material removal rates (MRR) (optimized cost of processing and tooling) across multiple operational configurations, alloys, tool geometries, and process conditions. The approach was to include all machining-related variables and their distributions available within the software as inputs to finite-element models (FEM) of the machining process. The ...


Obstacle Filtering Alogrithm For Control Of An Autonomous Road Vehicle In Public Highway Traffic, Qian Wang, Beshah Ayalew Oct 2016

Obstacle Filtering Alogrithm For Control Of An Autonomous Road Vehicle In Public Highway Traffic, Qian Wang, Beshah Ayalew

Publications

This paper presents an obstacle filtering algorithm that mimics human driver-like grouping of objects within a model predictive control scheme for an autonomous road vehicle. In the algorithm, a time to collision criteria is first used as risk assessment indicator to filter the potentially dangerous obstacle object vehicles in the proximity of the autonomously controlled vehicle. Then, the filtered object vehicles with overlapping elliptical collision areas put into groups. A hyper elliptical boundary is regenerated to define an extended collision area for the group. To minimize conservatism, the parameters for the tightest hyper ellipse are determined by solving an optimization ...


Energy Consumption Modeling And Analyses In Automotive Manufacturing Plant, Lujia Feng, Laine Mears Aug 2016

Energy Consumption Modeling And Analyses In Automotive Manufacturing Plant, Lujia Feng, Laine Mears

Publications

Manufacturing plants energy consumption accounts for a large share in world energy usage. Energy consumption modeling and analyses are widely studied to understand how and where the energy is used inside of the plants. However, a systematic energy modeling approach is seldom studied to describe the holistic energy in the plants. Especially using layers of models to share information and guide the next step modeling is rarely studied. In this paper, a manufacturing system temporal and organizational framework was used to guide the systematic energy modeling approach. Various levels of models were established and tested in an automotive manufacturing plant ...


Supervisory Control Optimization For A Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle With Consideration Of Battery Thermal Management And Aging, Xueyu Zhang Aug 2016

Supervisory Control Optimization For A Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle With Consideration Of Battery Thermal Management And Aging, Xueyu Zhang

All Dissertations

This dissertation integrates battery thermal management and aging into the supervisory control optimization for a heavy-duty series hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The framework for multi-objective optimization relies on novel implementation of the Dynamic Programing algorithm, and predictive models of critical phenomena. Electrochemistry based battery aging model is integrated into the framework to assesses the battery aging rate by considering instantaneous lithium ion (Li+) surface concentration rather than average concentration. This creates a large state-action space. Therefore, the computational effort required to solve a Deterministic or Stochastic Dynamic Programming becomes prohibitively intense, and a neuro-dynamic programming approach is proposed to remove ...


Energy, Economy, And Environment Analysis And Optimization On Manufacturing Plant Energy Supply System, Lujia Feng, Laine Mears, Cleveland Beaufort, Joerg Schulte Jun 2016

Energy, Economy, And Environment Analysis And Optimization On Manufacturing Plant Energy Supply System, Lujia Feng, Laine Mears, Cleveland Beaufort, Joerg Schulte

Publications

Increasing attention has recently been drawn to energy consumption in manufacturing plants. Facing the challenges from reducing emissions coupled with rising raw material prices and energy costs, manufacturers are trying to balance the energy usage strategy among the total energy consumption, economy, and environment, which can be self-conflicting at times. In this paper, energy systems in manufacturing environments are reviewed, and the current status of onsite energy system and renewable energy usage are discussed. Single objective and multicriteria optimization approaches are effectively formulated for making the best use of energy delivered to the production processes. Energy supply operation suggestions based ...


A Laminated Ring On Elastic Foundation Model With Application To Analysis Of Tire-Road Contact, Chunjian Wang Dec 2015

A Laminated Ring On Elastic Foundation Model With Application To Analysis Of Tire-Road Contact, Chunjian Wang

All Dissertations

A deformable Ring on Elastic Foundation (REF) model has been widely used for modeling rotating structures such as gears, bearings and tires. This dissertation extends the existing work with three main contributions focusing on applications to tires: 1) The elastic foundation is endowed with unilateral stiffness, which leads to a nonlinear deformation dependent stiffness typical of some non-pneumatic tires; 2) The model of the deformable ring is extended from simple Timoshenko rings to a laminated orthotropic ring model, with bending, shear stiffness and extensibility in the internal layer, and transverse stiffness in the external layer; 3) Facilitated by the laminated ...


A Study On General Assembly Line Balancing Modeling Methods And Techniques, Bryan Pearce Dec 2015

A Study On General Assembly Line Balancing Modeling Methods And Techniques, Bryan Pearce

All Dissertations

The borders of the assembly line balancing problem, as classically drawn, are as clear as any other operations research topic in production planning, with well-defined sets of assumptions, parameters, and objective functions. In application, however, these borders are frequently transgressed. Many of these deviations are internal to the assembly line balancing problem itself, arising from any of a wide array of physical or technological features in modern assembly lines. Other issues are founded in the tight coupling of assembly line balancing with external production planning and management problems, as assembly lines are at the intersection of multiple related problems in ...


Understanding The Automotive Pedal Usage And Foot Movement Characteristics Of Older Drivers, Yubin Xi Dec 2015

Understanding The Automotive Pedal Usage And Foot Movement Characteristics Of Older Drivers, Yubin Xi

All Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to understand the pedal usage characteristics of older drivers in various driving tasks using an instrumented vehicle. This study stemmed from the prevalence of the pedal application errors (PAEs) and the older drivers’overrepresentation in crashes caused by PAEs.

With the population increasing and becoming older, it is estimated that in 2020 there will be 40 million drivers over the age of 65 in the United States. Compared with their younger counterparts, older drivers are facing declining cognitive and physical abilities, such as impaired vision, slower reaction time and diminishing range of limb motion ...


Measurement Of Older And Younger Drivers' Selected Seat Position Within Their Personal Vehicles To Influence Recommended Practices For Meeting Safety Needs Of Drivers, Shayne Kelly Mcconomy Aug 2015

Measurement Of Older And Younger Drivers' Selected Seat Position Within Their Personal Vehicles To Influence Recommended Practices For Meeting Safety Needs Of Drivers, Shayne Kelly Mcconomy

All Dissertations

The objective of this research was to measure and understand the preferred seat position and posture of older drivers and younger drivers within their personal vehicles to influence recommended practices for meeting the safety needs of all drivers.Currently, the United States is experiencing an ageing population, whereby in 2020 nearly 40 million people over the age of 65 will be licensed drivers. In addition, crash reports show that older drivers are over represented in vehicle fatality statistics, once adjusted for vehicle miles traveled. The increased fatality rate of older drivers has been attributed to a combination of increased fragility ...


A Study Of The Effects Of Manufacturing Complexity On Product Quality In Mixed-Model Automotive Assembly, Kavit Ravindra Antani May 2014

A Study Of The Effects Of Manufacturing Complexity On Product Quality In Mixed-Model Automotive Assembly, Kavit Ravindra Antani

All Dissertations

The objective of this research is to test the hypothesis that manufacturing complexity can reliably predict product quality in mixed-model automotive assembly.

Originally, assembly lines were developed for cost efficient mass-production of standardized products. Today, in order to respond to diversified customer needs, companies have to allow for an individualization of their products, leading to the development of the Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS). Assembly line balancing problems (ALBP) consist of assigning the total workload for manufacturing a product to stations of an assembly line as typically applied in the automotive industry. Precedence relationships among tasks are required to conduct partly ...


Impact-Acoustic Evaluation Method Of Internal Crack In Rubber Composite Structure, Qin Shen May 2013

Impact-Acoustic Evaluation Method Of Internal Crack In Rubber Composite Structure, Qin Shen

All Dissertations

The main objective of this work is to investigate the impact acoustic method as a means of nondestructive testing (NDT) for internal cracks in a rubber composite structure, such as that found in a tire. As demonstrated in this dissertation, this approach is an effective and economical alternative to the current NDT methods for tires casing integrity inspection. There are two separate aspects of the impact acoustic signals considered in this work: the impact force signal and the resultant acoustic signal. First, a contact dynamics model is developed based on the Hertz’s impact theory and modified for rubber composite ...


Effect Of Machining Feed On Surface Roughness In Cutting 6061 Aluminum, Mathew Kuttolamadom, Sina Hamzehlouia, Laine Mears Apr 2010

Effect Of Machining Feed On Surface Roughness In Cutting 6061 Aluminum, Mathew Kuttolamadom, Sina Hamzehlouia, Laine Mears

Publications

The general manufacturing objective during the fabrication of automotive components, particularly through machining, can be stated as the striving to achieve predefined product quality characteristics within equipment, cost and time constraints. The current state of the economy and the consequent market pressure has forced vehicle manufacturers to simultaneously reduce operating expenses along with further improving product quality. This paper examines the achievability of surface roughness specifications within efforts to reduce automotive component manufacture cycle time, particularly by changing cutting feeds. First, the background and attractiveness of aluminum as a lightweight automotive material is discussed. Following this, the methodologies employed for ...


Energy-Based Modeling Of An Electrically-Assisted Forging Process, Cristina Bunget, Wesley A. Salandro, Laine Mears, John T. Roth Jan 2010

Energy-Based Modeling Of An Electrically-Assisted Forging Process, Cristina Bunget, Wesley A. Salandro, Laine Mears, John T. Roth

Publications

A new approach to improving formability of metals using electrical current field application has been recently studied, and found to not only greatly improve achievable elongation, but also has a beneficial effect on residual stress levels and reduces elastic springback magnitude. The effect has been shown to be somewhat attributable to thermal softening, but there are also unaccounted electrical effects. This paper presents a formal quantification of the electrical field effect using an energy balance approach. A physical model incorporating the electrical field and mechanical energy input is derived, and a new electroplastic effect coefficient is introduced to account for ...


Volumetric Flank Wear Characterization For Titanium Milling Insert Tools, Uli Burger, Mathew Kuttolamadom, April Bryan, Laine Mears, Thomas Kurfess Oct 2009

Volumetric Flank Wear Characterization For Titanium Milling Insert Tools, Uli Burger, Mathew Kuttolamadom, April Bryan, Laine Mears, Thomas Kurfess

Publications

Machining wear models are useful for the prediction of tool life and the estimation of machining productivity. Existing wear models relate the cutting parameters of feed, speed, and depth of cut to tool wear. The tool wear is often reported as changes in flank width or crater depth. However, these one-dimensional wear measurements do not fully characterize the tool condition when tools wear by other types of wear such as notching, chipping, and adhesion. This is especially true when machining difficult-to-machine materials such as titanium. This paper proposes another approach for characterizing tool wear. It is based on taking measurements ...


Warning! Engineers In Training: Introducing Middle School Students To Industrial Engineering, Its Usefulness, And Its Applications, M. Grubb, A. Berger, D. Browning, M. Mayorga, Laine Mears May 2009

Warning! Engineers In Training: Introducing Middle School Students To Industrial Engineering, Its Usefulness, And Its Applications, M. Grubb, A. Berger, D. Browning, M. Mayorga, Laine Mears

Publications

The McCants Middle School Pre-engineering class is designed to teach engineering skills to students with a predisposition for and interest in math and science. This team’s initiative is to use Industrial Engineering tools to enhance the existing pre-engineering course curriculum. The purpose of this study is to make middle school students better aware of an engineer’s thought process as it pertains to effectively planning and working on projects, and to measure the impact of our influence. Through this study, we want to improve the overall quality of the student’s projects and ultimately increase the retention and quantity ...


Open-Loop Velocity Planning To Mitigate The Stiction Effect In Pushing Positioning, Laine Mears, Thomas Kurfess Jan 2008

Open-Loop Velocity Planning To Mitigate The Stiction Effect In Pushing Positioning, Laine Mears, Thomas Kurfess

Publications

No abstract provided.


Quality And Inspection Of Machining Operations: Review Of Condition Monitoring And Cmm Inspection Techniques 2000 To Present, John T. Roth, Laine Mears, Dragan Djurdjanovic, Xiaping Yang, Thomas Kurfess Oct 2007

Quality And Inspection Of Machining Operations: Review Of Condition Monitoring And Cmm Inspection Techniques 2000 To Present, John T. Roth, Laine Mears, Dragan Djurdjanovic, Xiaping Yang, Thomas Kurfess

Publications

In order to consistently produce quality parts, many aspects of the manufacturing process must be carefully monitored, controlled, and measured. The methods and techniques by which to accomplish these tasks has been the focus of numerous studies in recent years. With the rapid advances in computing technology, the complexity and overhead that can be feasibly incorporated in any developed technique has dramatically improved. Thus, techniques that would have been impractical for implementation just a few years ago can now be realistically applied.

This rapid growth has resulted in a wealth of new capabilities for improving part and process quality and ...


Selection Of The Spraying Technologies For Over-Coating Of Metal-Stampings With Thermo-Plastics For Use In Direct-Adhesion Polymer Metal Hybrid Load-Bearing Components, M. Grujicic, V. Sellappan, Laine Mears, X. Xuan, Norbert Seyr, Marc Erdmann, Jochen Holzleitner Jul 2007

Selection Of The Spraying Technologies For Over-Coating Of Metal-Stampings With Thermo-Plastics For Use In Direct-Adhesion Polymer Metal Hybrid Load-Bearing Components, M. Grujicic, V. Sellappan, Laine Mears, X. Xuan, Norbert Seyr, Marc Erdmann, Jochen Holzleitner

Publications

The suitability of various polymer-powder spraying technologies for coating of metal-stampings used in polymer metal hybrid (PMH) load-bearing automotive-component applications is considered. The suitability of the spraying technologies is assessed with respect to a need for metal-stamping surface preparation/treatment, their ability to deposit the polymeric material without significant material degradation, the ability to selectively overcoat the metal-stamping, the resulting magnitude of the polymer-to-metal adhesion strength, durability of the polymer/metal bond with respect to prolonged exposure to high-temperature/high-humidity and mechanical/thermal fatigue service conditions, and compatibility with the automotive body-in-white (BIW) manufacturing process chain. The analysis revealed that ...


Real-Time System Identification For Impact-Based Part Positioning, Laine Mears, Jeannie Falcon Mar 2007

Real-Time System Identification For Impact-Based Part Positioning, Laine Mears, Jeannie Falcon

Publications

Simplified part positioning in manufacturing has been achieved using pushing or tapping actuation in place of more complex pick-and-place systems. However, positioning by impact introduces a new source of uncertainty: interfacial frictional effects of sliding, which can result in an uncontrollable and often poorlypredictable actuation distance. The described work provides a friction-based dynamic model of the sliding distance after impact that is used to predict static friction characteristics. A prototype system is simulated and validation data used to improve the model. A control algorithm is also described, tested and validated over a range of actuated masses.


Impulsive-Actuation Part Positioning Through Constrained Energy Balance Planning, Laine Mears, Thomas R. Kurfess Jan 2007

Impulsive-Actuation Part Positioning Through Constrained Energy Balance Planning, Laine Mears, Thomas R. Kurfess

Publications

Impulsive actuation has been researched in the past two decades as an inexpensive alternative to multi-degree-of-freedom precision positioning systems. The position of a sliding workpiece can be controlled by a 2-degree-offreedom actuation system through simple pushing path planning. However, the final part position as a result of the last touch of the actuator is subject to uncertainty in the friction model used for actuation planning, particularly the free-sliding distance undergone by the workpiece after losing contact with the actuator. This paper first reviews an impact planning method, then augments it using a restitutionbased model that results in an explicit actuator ...


Real-Time Identification Of Sliding Friction Using Labview Fpga, Laine Mears, Jeannie S. Falcon, Thomas R. Kurfess Jun 2006

Real-Time Identification Of Sliding Friction Using Labview Fpga, Laine Mears, Jeannie S. Falcon, Thomas R. Kurfess

Publications

Friction is present in all mechanical systems, and can greatly affect system stability and control in precision motion applications. In this paper, we present application of a frictional model to trajectory planning of a part centering system with real-time identification of model parameters through system force and position response. This identification is carried out using LabVIEW motion control software and digital signal processing (DSP) and field-programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware. A comparison of hardware performance for force measurement is also made.