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Full-Text Articles in Automotive Engineering

The Ilo And The Regulation Of White Lead In Britain During The Interwar Years: An Examination Of International And National Campaigns In Occupational Health, John Alfred Heitmann Jun 2016

The Ilo And The Regulation Of White Lead In Britain During The Interwar Years: An Examination Of International And National Campaigns In Occupational Health, John Alfred Heitmann

John A. Heitmann

Despite the International Labour Organization's (ILO) significance for much of the twentieth century, little has been written on its early history. This case study examines the thin tightrope that the ILO had to walk in balancing the needs and demands of government, employers and labor related to the ILO's Convention No. 13 (1921), "White Lead in Painting.' Great Britain was a leading producer of the pigment white lead prior to the First World War. A government investigation was published in 1915, but measures were shelved during the War. With the peace, the focus of activity shifted to the ...


Doing 'True Science': The Early History Of The 'Institutum Divi Thomae,' 1935-1951, John Alfred Heitmann Jun 2016

Doing 'True Science': The Early History Of The 'Institutum Divi Thomae,' 1935-1951, John Alfred Heitmann

John A. Heitmann

This essay focuses on the origins and early history of the Institutum Divi Thomae (hereafter referred to as the IDT or Institutum), thus describing one particularly rich episode illustrating the relationship between American Catholicism and science during the middle of the twentieth century. The IDT was established by the Archdiocese of Cincinnati in 1935; its faculty and students, while working in the area of cancer research, published hundreds of scientific and technical papers, developed a number of commercial products, and received considerable publicity in both the religious and secular press during the first two decades of its existence. However, with ...


A Comprehensive Optimized Model For On-Board Solar Photovoltaic System For Plug-In Electric Vehicles: Energy And Economic Impacts, Mahmoud M. Abdelhamid Apr 2016

A Comprehensive Optimized Model For On-Board Solar Photovoltaic System For Plug-In Electric Vehicles: Energy And Economic Impacts, Mahmoud M. Abdelhamid

Mahmoud M Abdelhamid

Environmental concerns along with high energy demand in transportation are leading to major development in sustainable transportation technologies, not the least of which is the utilization of clean energy sources. Solar energy as an auxiliary power source of on-board fuel has not been extensively investigated. This study focuses on the energy and economic aspects of optimizing and hybridizing, the conventional energy path of plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) using solar energy by means of on-board photovoltaic (PV) system as an auxiliary fuel source. This study is novel in that the authors (i) modeled the comprehensive on-board PV system for plug-in EV ...


Muscle Synergies Improve Estimation Of Knee Contact Forces During Walking, Benjamin Fregly, Jonathan Walter, Allison Kinney, Scott Banks, Darryl D'Lima, Thor Besier, David Lloyd Dec 2015

Muscle Synergies Improve Estimation Of Knee Contact Forces During Walking, Benjamin Fregly, Jonathan Walter, Allison Kinney, Scott Banks, Darryl D'Lima, Thor Besier, David Lloyd

Allison Kinney

This study investigates whether use of subject-specific muscle synergies can improve optimization predictions of muscle excitation patterns and knee contact forces during walking. Muscle synergies describe how a small number of neural commands generated by the nervous system can be linearly combined to produce the broad range of muscle electromyographic (EMG) signals measured experimentally. By quantifying the interdependence of individual EMG signals, muscle synergies provide dimensionality reduction for the neural control redundancy problem. Our hypothesis was that use of subjectspecific muscle synergies to limit muscle excitation patterns would improve prediction of muscle EMG patterns at the hip, knee, and ankle ...


Muscle Synergy Constraints Improve Prediction Of Knee Contact Force During Gait, Benjamin Fregly, Jonathan Walter, Allison Kinney, Scott Banks, Darryl D'Lima, Thor Besier, David Lloyd Dec 2015

Muscle Synergy Constraints Improve Prediction Of Knee Contact Force During Gait, Benjamin Fregly, Jonathan Walter, Allison Kinney, Scott Banks, Darryl D'Lima, Thor Besier, David Lloyd

Allison Kinney

Knowledge of patient-specific muscle and joint contact forces during activities of daily living could improve the treatment of movement-related disorders (e.g., osteoarthritis, stroke, cerebral palsy, Parkinson’s disease). Unfortunately, it is currently impossible to measure these quantities directly under common clinical conditions, and calculation of these quantities using computer models is limited by the redundant nature of human neural control (i.e., more muscles than theoretically necessary to actuate the available degrees of freedom in the skeleton). Walking is a particularly important task to understand, since loss of mobility is associated with increased morbidity and decreased quality of life ...


Evaluation Of Different Optimal Control Problem Formulations For Solving The Muscle Redundancy Problem, Friedl De Groote, Allison Kinney, Anil Rao, Benjamin Fregly Dec 2015

Evaluation Of Different Optimal Control Problem Formulations For Solving The Muscle Redundancy Problem, Friedl De Groote, Allison Kinney, Anil Rao, Benjamin Fregly

Allison Kinney

This study evaluates several possible optimal control problem formulations for solving the muscle redundancy problem with the goal of identifying the most efficient and robust formulation. One novel formulation involves the introduction of additional controls that equal the time derivative of the states, resulting in very simple dynamic equations. The nonlinear equations describing muscle dynamics are then imposed as algebraic constraints in their implicit form, simplifying their evaluation. By comparing different problem formulations for computing muscle controls that can reproduce inverse dynamic joint torques during gait, we demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed novel formulation.


Synergies Controls Improve Prediction Of Knee Contact Forces And Muscle Excitations During Gait, Benjamin Fregly, Jonathan Walter, Allison Kinney, Scott Banks, Darryl D'Lima, Thor Besier, David Lloyd Dec 2015

Synergies Controls Improve Prediction Of Knee Contact Forces And Muscle Excitations During Gait, Benjamin Fregly, Jonathan Walter, Allison Kinney, Scott Banks, Darryl D'Lima, Thor Besier, David Lloyd

Allison Kinney

This study investigates whether use of muscle excitation controls constructed from subjectspecific muscle synergy information can improve optimization prediction of knee contact forces and muscle excitations during walking. Muscle synergies quantify how a large number of experimental muscle electromyographic (EMG) signals can be reconstructed by linearly mixing a much smaller number of neural commands generated by the nervous system. Our hypothesis was that controlling all muscle excitations with a small set of experimentally calculated neural commands would improve prediction of knee contact forces and leg muscle excitations compared to using independently controlled muscle excitations.


Comparison Of Material Properties And Microstructure Of Specimens Built Using The 3d Systems Vanguard Hs And Vanguard Hiq+Hs Sls Systems, T.J. Silverman, Allison Kinney, W. Yong, J.H. Koo Dec 2015

Comparison Of Material Properties And Microstructure Of Specimens Built Using The 3d Systems Vanguard Hs And Vanguard Hiq+Hs Sls Systems, T.J. Silverman, Allison Kinney, W. Yong, J.H. Koo

Allison Kinney

The HiQ upgrade to the 3D Systems Vanguard selective laser sintering (SLS) machine incorporates a revised thermal calibration system and new control software. The paper compares the tensile modulus, tensile strength, elongation at break, flexural modulus, Izod impact resistance and microstructure of two batteries of standard specimens built from recycled Duraform PA (Nylon 12). The first set is built on a Vanguard HS system and the second on the same system with the HiQ upgrade installed. The upgrade reduces user intervention, decreases total build time and improves surface finish. However, using the default processing parameters, tensile, flexure and impact properties ...


Metacomposites Protection System Against Primary Blast Injury, Kwek Tan, C. Sun May 2015

Metacomposites Protection System Against Primary Blast Injury, Kwek Tan, C. Sun

Dr. Kwek-Tze Tan

There is an increasing use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in terrorist and insurgent activities. Exposure to blast is becoming more frequent. Blast related injuries can be inflicted at various levels. Primary blast injury results from blast wave-induced changes in atmospheric pressure, causing organs and tissues to rupture due to shearing and stretching at different rates. Secondary blast injury results from objects put in motion by the blast wind impacting a person. Tertiary blast injury results from a person being blown into solid objects by the blast wind. This paper deals with the protection system against primary blast injury by ...


Cord Load Characteristics In Bias And Belted-Bias Tires, Joseph Walter, George Hall Apr 2015

Cord Load Characteristics In Bias And Belted-Bias Tires, Joseph Walter, George Hall

Dr. Joseph D. Walter

Two improved versions of a recently developed miniature force transducer were used to measure cord loads at the crown, shoulder, and sidewall of bias and belted-bias automobile tires under different testing conditions. As a transducer at a given location passes through the footprint, a “basic shape” for the cord force pattern is generated for straight ahead rolling and cornering. Factors such as wheel load, inflation pressure, obstacle impact, tire speed, rim width, and frictional properties of the tire-drum interface can affect the total force excursion and/or the base line value but do not affect the basic shape of the ...


Usability Evaluation Of A Paratransit Mobile Application, Elizabeth Argyle, Chen Ling, Randa Shehab Apr 2015

Usability Evaluation Of A Paratransit Mobile Application, Elizabeth Argyle, Chen Ling, Randa Shehab

Dr. Chen Ling

TransitMobile is a mobile application that provides logistic information to drivers in Oklahoma community-based paratransit operations. Passenger reservation information is transferred from the home agency to in-vehicle mobile devices to notify the drivers as reservations are made in real-time. In this study, user testing and a questionnaire were used to evaluate the usability of the application. Task completion times and subjective measures from the questionnaire pointed to areas of the system design that caused errors. The effects of practice revealed the importance of training for drivers in the field. While TransitMobile is a promising application, the system in which it ...