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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Performance Simulation And Evaluation Of Net Zero Energy Buildings In An Australian Coastal Climate, Joel Anderson, Duane A. Robinson, Zhenjun Ma Jan 2019

Performance Simulation And Evaluation Of Net Zero Energy Buildings In An Australian Coastal Climate, Joel Anderson, Duane A. Robinson, Zhenjun Ma

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part B

Net zero energy buildings (NZEB) are becoming more common, and as new energy saving designs and technologies become available, the ability to estimate overall energy use and understand the impact on operation of building appliances will become important. This paper outlines simulation results of performance improvements achieved by modifying various components (glazing, lighting, thermal comfort settings) of two tertiary education NZEBs and a typical modern commercial building. The DesignBuilder models' thermal performance and energy consumption were validated using real data from case study buildings. The work shows validating models of smaller, less conven-tional, buildings is more difficult than for larger ...


Modeling And Simulation Of The Thermoforming Process In Thermoplastic-Matrix Composite Materials, Philip M. Bean Dec 2018

Modeling And Simulation Of The Thermoforming Process In Thermoplastic-Matrix Composite Materials, Philip M. Bean

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Thermoplastic-matrix composite materials have unique advantages over traditional thermosets including faster processing, improved fracture toughness, and recyclability. These and other benefits have caused increasing interest in the use of these materials in both aerospace and automotive industries. Due to the differences in behavior, these materials require a different type of manufacturing process to thermoset matrix composites. This manufacturing process generally involves using pre manufactured tape-layers. These layers, containing both thermoplastic-matrix and fiber-reinforcement, are aligned to the desired orientation, and stacked up into a “tailored blank” using an automated tape layup machine. They are then heated to the thermoplastic melting temperature ...


A Scalable, Chunk-Based Slicer For Cooperative 3d Printing, Jace J. Mcpherson Dec 2018

A Scalable, Chunk-Based Slicer For Cooperative 3d Printing, Jace J. Mcpherson

Computer Science and Computer Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cooperative 3D printing is an emerging technology that aims to increase the 3D printing speed and to overcome the size limit of the printable object by having multiple mobile 3D printers (printhead-carrying mobile robots) work together on a single print job on a factory floor. It differs from traditional layer-by-layer 3D printing due to requiring multiple mobile printers to work simultaneously without interfering with each other. Therefore, a new approach for slicing a digital model and generating commands for the mobile printers is needed, which has not been discussed in literature before. We propose a chunk-by-chunk based slicer that divides ...


Modeling And Simulation Methodologies For Spinal Cord Stimulation., Saliya Kumara Kirigeeganage Dec 2018

Modeling And Simulation Methodologies For Spinal Cord Stimulation., Saliya Kumara Kirigeeganage

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The use of neural prostheses to improve health of paraplegics has been a prime interest of neuroscientists over the last few decades. Scientists have performed experiments with spinal cord stimulation (SCS) to enable voluntary motor function of paralyzed patients. However, the experimentation on the human spinal cord is not a trivial task. Therefore, modeling and simulation techniques play a significant role in understanding the underlying concepts and mechanics of the spinal cord stimulation. In this work, simulation and modeling techniques related to spinal cord stimulation were investigated. The initial work was intended to visualize the electric field distribution patterns in ...


Effects Of Moving Bottlenecks On Traffic Operations On Four-Lane Level Freeway Segments, Jianan Zhou Nov 2018

Effects Of Moving Bottlenecks On Traffic Operations On Four-Lane Level Freeway Segments, Jianan Zhou

Civil Engineering Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

The Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) was developed to provide capacity and level of service analyses for roadway facilities. Trucks may adversely affect the quality of traffic flow on a roadway. In HCM, the passenger car equivalent (PCE) of a truck, which represents the number of passenger cars that have an equivalent effect on traffic flow, is used to account for the impacts of trucks. However, in the past ten years rural freeways in the western rural U.S. have experienced conditions that lie outside the standard HCM conditions. Also, the current HCM truck PCEs may not be appropriate for the ...


Teaching Modeling To Engineers In An Undergraduate Simulation Course, Vikram Mittal, Robert Kewley, Brett Lindberg Nov 2018

Teaching Modeling To Engineers In An Undergraduate Simulation Course, Vikram Mittal, Robert Kewley, Brett Lindberg

West Point Research Papers

A significant challenge in teaching simulation to undergraduate students is to find a way to allow them to model a real world referent system within time and student skill constraints. Several research sources highlight not only the important challenge of model development (Garcia and Ceneno, 2009, Tako, 2011) but also the increased need for model development instruction among engineers (Grasas et. al., 2013, Saltzman and Roeder, 2013). One approach to this challenge is to use a general purpose discrete event simulation software package within the course, but this presents two challenges. Teaching the package to the students takes significant time ...


Dynamics And Dislodgment From Pore Constrictions Of A Trapped Nonwetting Droplet Stimulated By Seismic Waves, Wen Deng, M. Bayani Cardenas Oct 2018

Dynamics And Dislodgment From Pore Constrictions Of A Trapped Nonwetting Droplet Stimulated By Seismic Waves, Wen Deng, M. Bayani Cardenas

Wen Deng

Seismic waves affect fluid flow and transport processes in porous media. Therefore, quantitative understanding of the role of seismic waves in subsurface hydrodynamics is important for the development of practical applications and prediction of natural phenomena. We present a theoretical fluid dynamics model to describe how low-frequency elastic waves mobilize isolated droplets trapped in pores by capillary resistance. The ability of the theoretical model to predict the critical mobilization amplitudes (Ac) and the displacement dynamics of the nonwetting droplet are validated against computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Our theory has the advantage of rapid calculation of Ac for ...


Holographic Micro-Simulations To Enhance Aviation Training With Mixed Reality, Lori Brown Fraes, Msc, Hfavn Aug 2018

Holographic Micro-Simulations To Enhance Aviation Training With Mixed Reality, Lori Brown Fraes, Msc, Hfavn

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

Mixed reality technologies present a new medium, a new paradigm of augmented reality, where for the first time we have the ability to take the analog world and superimpose digital training artifacts and create a ‘mixed reality’ to enhance aviation training. Digital computing headsets such as Microsoft HoloLens are intuitive and offer a natural means of interaction with no computer, wire or touch-screen. This approach has several practical advantages to overlay holographic elements onto real-world crew environments which makes holographic micro-simulations particularly suited to aviation training and education. Unlike virtual reality—the user is not isolated from their surroundings. MR ...


Gnygrens18.Pdf, Garrett Nygren Aug 2018

Gnygrens18.Pdf, Garrett Nygren

Garrett Nygren

The finite element method was used to evaluate microstructural strengthening and toughening effects in nanoparticulate reinforced polymer composites (nanocomposites) and in short aligned discontinuous fiber reinforced polymer composites. Nanoparticulate reinforcement is a well-known method of polymer toughening which can greatly expand the range of engineering applications for polymers. However, the mechanisms of nanoparticulate toughening, as well as complementary sub-micron fracture processes, are not well understood. Short, aligned, discontinuous carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics show promise as a versatile, inexpensive material system with favorable manufacturability, but failure of the associated morphologies is also not yet well explored.
In nanocomposites, two microstructural effects ...


Grain Boundary Motion Analysis, Jeremy Marquardt, Xiaorong Cai, Marisol Koslowski Aug 2018

Grain Boundary Motion Analysis, Jeremy Marquardt, Xiaorong Cai, Marisol Koslowski

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Grain growth is a mechanism to relax residual stresses in thin films. These grains grow out of the thin film surface and are known as whiskers. These whiskers can cause short circuits, so developing scalable and cost effective solutions would increase the reliability and utility of tin electronics. A popular of method of examining tin whiskering is microscopic simulation, as it provides an accurate and cost effective way to predict the consequences of proposed models. Specifically examining the evolution of grain boundaries, this paper aims to present the results of grain boundary motion simulations through a generalized program that streamlines ...


Thermophotovoltaic Devices: Combustion Chamber Optimization And Modelling To Maximize Fuel Efficiency, Arnold Chris Toppo, Ernesto Marinero, Zhaxylyk Kudyshev Aug 2018

Thermophotovoltaic Devices: Combustion Chamber Optimization And Modelling To Maximize Fuel Efficiency, Arnold Chris Toppo, Ernesto Marinero, Zhaxylyk Kudyshev

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Currently, 110 billion cubic meters of natural gas (primarily methane), a potent greenhouse gas, are flared off for environmental and safety reasons. This process results in enough fuel to provide the combined natural gas consumption of Germany and France. The research team developed a thermophotovoltaic device to convert thermal energy to electricity at a high efficiency using proprietary emitters and combustion system. With the current focus being fuel efficiency and the combustion process, the assembly was simulated using ANSYS Fluent modelling software and the following parameters were optimized: air/fuel ratios, flow rates, and inlet sizes. Simultaneously the heat transfer ...


Experimental Validation Of A Numerical Phase Change Model For Microchannel Slug Flow Boiling, Christian J. Retter, Todd A. Kingston, Justin A. Weibel, Suresh V. Garimella Aug 2018

Experimental Validation Of A Numerical Phase Change Model For Microchannel Slug Flow Boiling, Christian J. Retter, Todd A. Kingston, Justin A. Weibel, Suresh V. Garimella

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Thermal management of high-power electronic devices continues to be a critical challenge. Flow boiling in microchannel heat sinks has been demonstrated to be an effective method for removing high heat fluxes from these devices owing to utilization of the latent heat of the fluid and the large surface area enhancement for heat exchange. However, microchannel flow boiling technologies have yet to be broadly implemented due to a lack of experimentally validated prediction and design tools. The goal of this study is to use high-fidelity experimental data to validate a previously developed numerical phase change model, to help enable physics-based prediction ...


Computational Catalysis: Creating A User-Friendly Tool For Research And Education, Kevin P. Greenman, Peilin Liao Aug 2018

Computational Catalysis: Creating A User-Friendly Tool For Research And Education, Kevin P. Greenman, Peilin Liao

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Catalysis is used in a significant portion of production processes in the industrialized world, including most processing of chemicals and fuels. This makes maximizing the efficiency of catalysts a high priority. However, the immense number of candidates for new catalysts precludes the possibility of testing all of them by experiments. Density functional theory (DFT) has been widely and successfully used to calculate material properties relevant to catalysis and to screen promising candidates for experimental testing, but there currently exists no publicly- available, user-friendly tool for performing these DFT calculations. This work details the development of such a tool for nanoHUB ...


Predicting And Optimizing Solar Cell Performance With Material/Surface Characteristics, Yiheng Zhu, Allison Perna, Peter Bermel Aug 2018

Predicting And Optimizing Solar Cell Performance With Material/Surface Characteristics, Yiheng Zhu, Allison Perna, Peter Bermel

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Renewable energy sources have begun replacing fossil fuels at the utility scale. In particular, photovoltaics has grown rapidly in recent years. To further improve solar technology in terms of cost and efficiency and promote adoption, researchers often seek material and device level advancements. Photovoltaic simulation tools can be utilized to predict device performance before fabrication and experimentation, streamline research processes, and interpret experimental results. Therefore, we developed ContourPV, which simulates various combinations of values of different device characteristics to optimize and predict photovoltaic performance. ContourPV sweeps the inputted range of values for each chosen device or layer characteristic and obtains ...


Development Of Iowa Dot Combination Bridge Separation Barrier With Bicycle Railing, Chaz M. Ginger Aug 2018

Development Of Iowa Dot Combination Bridge Separation Barrier With Bicycle Railing, Chaz M. Ginger

Engineering Mechanics Dissertations & Theses

The Iowa Department of Transportation typically builds separation barriers between vehicle and pedestrian/bicycle facilities when sidewalks or trails are present on vehicular bridges. Currently, Iowa DOT employs a combination bridge rail that utilizes a concrete parapet that previously had been successfully evaluated to National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 350 Test Level 4 (TL-4) criteria for these situations. While the parapet had been successfully evaluated, the combination bridge rail system as a whole had not been evaluated to any crash test standards. Iowa DOT desired that researchers at Midwest Roadside Safety Facility (MwRSF) design and test a combination ...


A Discrete-Event Simulation Approach For Modeling Human Body Glucose Metabolism, Buket Aydas Aug 2018

A Discrete-Event Simulation Approach For Modeling Human Body Glucose Metabolism, Buket Aydas

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes CarbMetSim (Carbohydrate Metabolism Simulator), a discrete-event simulator that tracks the blood glucose level of a person in response to a timed sequence of diet and exercise activities. CarbMetSim implements broader aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in human beings with the objective of capturing the average impact of various diet/exercise activities on the blood glucose level. Key organs (stomach, intestine, portal vein, liver, kidney, muscles, adipose tissue, brain and heart) are implemented to the extent necessary to capture their impact on the production and consumption of glucose. Key metabolic pathways (glucose oxidation, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis) are accounted for ...


Translating Data From The Laboratory Into Simulation: A Computational Framework For Subject-Specific Finite Element Musculoskeletal Simulation, Donald R. Hume Aug 2018

Translating Data From The Laboratory Into Simulation: A Computational Framework For Subject-Specific Finite Element Musculoskeletal Simulation, Donald R. Hume

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Computational modeling is a powerful tool which has been used to inform decisions made by engineers, scientists, and clinicians for decades. Musculoskeletal modeling has emerged as a computational modeling technique used to understand the interaction between the body and its surroundings. There are several common approaches used for musculoskeletal modeling which take advantage of different model formulations to obtain information of interest. Unfortunately, models with different joint formulations inherit disparities in representations of ligament, muscle, and cartilage at joints of interest. These differences affect the way the joint functions and limit the insight it provides through computational analysis. Musculoskeletal models ...


Sequence-Based Simulation-Optimization Framework With Application To Port Operations At Multimodal Container Terminals, Mariam Aladdin Kotachi Jul 2018

Sequence-Based Simulation-Optimization Framework With Application To Port Operations At Multimodal Container Terminals, Mariam Aladdin Kotachi

Engineering Management & Systems Engineering Theses & Dissertations

It is evident in previous works that operations research and mathematical algorithms can provide optimal or near-optimal solutions, whereas simulation models can aid in predicting and studying the behavior of systems over time and monitor performance under stochastic and uncertain circumstances. Given the intensive computational effort that simulation optimization methods impose, especially for large and complex systems like container terminals, a favorable approach is to reduce the search space to decrease the amount of computation.

A maritime port can consist of multiple terminals with specific functionalities and specialized equipment. A container terminal is one of several facilities in a port ...


Computational Electrodynamics And Simulation In High Speed Circuit Using Finite Difference Time Domain (Fdtd) Method, Cheng Xu Jun 2018

Computational Electrodynamics And Simulation In High Speed Circuit Using Finite Difference Time Domain (Fdtd) Method, Cheng Xu

Culminating Projects in Electrical Engineering

High speed signaling over a significant length is an important issue for high speed electronic devices such as Ethernet network routers. With increasing demands on high-quality and fast communication, circuit design for high speed signaling becomes more important than ever. As frequency increases, signal integrity may decrease to a point where the system or device fails. Accurate simulation of electromagnetic wave propagating in the circuits becomes critical in today’s design cycle for high speed devices. This thesis work developed a simulation tool for characterizing high speed circuit, using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The FDTD calculates the 3-D ...


Finalist—2017 M&Som Practice-Based Research Competition—The Hurricane Decision Simulator: A Tool For Marine Forces In New Orleans To Practice Operations Management In Advance Of A Hurricane, Eva D. Regnier, Cameron A. Mackenzie May 2018

Finalist—2017 M&Som Practice-Based Research Competition—The Hurricane Decision Simulator: A Tool For Marine Forces In New Orleans To Practice Operations Management In Advance Of A Hurricane, Eva D. Regnier, Cameron A. Mackenzie

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

The U.S. Marine Forces Reserve (MFR) in New Orleans is frequently threatened by hurricanes. To protect the safety of personnel and their families while maintaining mission capability, the Commander must make timely decisions to set up an alternate headquarters and allow for an orderly evacuation. The MFR relies on forecasts from the National Hurricane Center, but these forecasts are uncertain, are updated frequently, and can be difficult to interpret in the context of the MFR's decision timeline. In addition, there are few opportunities to learn from experience.We developed the Hurricane Decision Simulator (HDS) to allow MFR personnel ...


Modeling And Simulation Of Microgrid, Ahmad Alzahrani, Mehdi Ferdowsi, Pourya Shamsi, Cihan H. Dagli May 2018

Modeling And Simulation Of Microgrid, Ahmad Alzahrani, Mehdi Ferdowsi, Pourya Shamsi, Cihan H. Dagli

Pourya Shamsi

Complex computer systems and electric power grids share many properties of how they behave and how they are structured. A microgrid is a smaller electric grid that contains several homes, energy storage units, and distributed generators. The main idea behind microgrids is the ability to work even if the main grid is not supplying power. That is, the energy storage unit and distributed generation will supply power in that case, and if there is excess in power production from renewable energy sources, it will go to the energy storage unit. Therefore, the electric grid becomes decentralized in terms of control ...


Pulse Regulation Control Technique For Integrated High-Quality Rectifier-Regulators, Mehdi Ferdowsi, Ali Emadi May 2018

Pulse Regulation Control Technique For Integrated High-Quality Rectifier-Regulators, Mehdi Ferdowsi, Ali Emadi

Mehdi Ferdowsi

The pulse regulation control scheme is presented and applied to the boost integrated flyback rectifier/energy storage dc/dc (BIFRED) converter as the most popular member of the integrated high-quality rectifier-regulators (IHQRR). In contrast to the conventional control techniques, the principal idea of pulse regulation is to regulate the output voltage using a series of high- and low-power pulses generated by the current of the input inductor, which is operating in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). Analysis of the BIFRED converter operating in DCM is presented. Fundamentals of pulse regulation as well as its stability analysis and the estimation of the ...


Modeling And Simulation Of Microgrid, Ahmad Alzahrani, Mehdi Ferdowsi, Pourya Shamsi, Cihan H. Dagli May 2018

Modeling And Simulation Of Microgrid, Ahmad Alzahrani, Mehdi Ferdowsi, Pourya Shamsi, Cihan H. Dagli

Mehdi Ferdowsi

Complex computer systems and electric power grids share many properties of how they behave and how they are structured. A microgrid is a smaller electric grid that contains several homes, energy storage units, and distributed generators. The main idea behind microgrids is the ability to work even if the main grid is not supplying power. That is, the energy storage unit and distributed generation will supply power in that case, and if there is excess in power production from renewable energy sources, it will go to the energy storage unit. Therefore, the electric grid becomes decentralized in terms of control ...


Modeling Yield Of Carbon-Nanotube/Silicon-Nanowire Fet-Based Nanoarray Architecture With H-Hot Addressing Scheme, Shanrui Zhang, Minsu Choi, Nohpill Park May 2018

Modeling Yield Of Carbon-Nanotube/Silicon-Nanowire Fet-Based Nanoarray Architecture With H-Hot Addressing Scheme, Shanrui Zhang, Minsu Choi, Nohpill Park

Minsu Choi

With molecular-scale materials, devices and fabrication techniques recently being developed, high-density computing systems in the nanometer domain emerge. An array-based nanoarchitecture has been recently proposed based on nanowires such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and silicon nanowires (SiNWs). High-density nanoarray-based systems consisting of nanometer-scale elements are likely to have many imperfections; thus, defect-tolerance is considered one of the most significant challenges. In this paper we propose a probabilistic yield model for the array-based nanoarchitecture. The proposed yield model can be used (1) to accurately estimate the raw and net array densities, and (2) to design and optimize more defect and fault-tolerant ...


The Design, Modeling, And Optimization Of A Biomimetic Soft Robot For Fluid Pumping And Thrust Generation Using Electroactive Polymer Actuators, Zakai Jedidiah Olsen May 2018

The Design, Modeling, And Optimization Of A Biomimetic Soft Robot For Fluid Pumping And Thrust Generation Using Electroactive Polymer Actuators, Zakai Jedidiah Olsen

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Nature is a constant source of inspiration for engineers and scientists through its simple, effective, and elegant solutions to many complex problems. Smart materials and soft robotics have been seen to be particularly well suited for developing biomimetic devices and are active fields of research. In this study, the design, modeling, and optimization of a new biomimetic soft robot is described. Preliminary work was made in the modeling of a biomimetic robot based on the locomotion and kinematics of jellyfish. Modifications were made to the governing equations for jellyfish locomotion that accounted for geometric differences between biology and the robotic ...


Validation Of Cfd Simulations For Hypersonic Flow Over A Yawed Cone, Julian Cecil May 2018

Validation Of Cfd Simulations For Hypersonic Flow Over A Yawed Cone, Julian Cecil

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

This study aims to numerically simulate the wind tunnel results for hypersonic flow over a circular cone of semi-apex angle of 10 degrees yawed from 0° to 20° using the commercial computational fluid dynamics software ANSYS Fluent. The ANSYS workbench is used to create the 10° semi-apex circular cone with a shock aligned structured mesh of 3.05 million cells surrounding the cone. Simulation boundary conditions for pressure and temperature in the far field correspond to Tracy’s wind tunnel experiment at Cal Tech. The six simulations cases are conducted for yaw angles of 0, 8, 12, 16, 20 and ...


Real-Time Modeling Of Gas-Electric Dependencies: An Optimal Control Approach, Qinxu Gu May 2018

Real-Time Modeling Of Gas-Electric Dependencies: An Optimal Control Approach, Qinxu Gu

Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, several turbine-governor models such as GAST model and GGOV1 model are implemented. The simulation of the models takes electric power and speed as the variable input, respectively, to see what will influence the fuel consumption and mechanical power. These two models are implemented in detail and incorporated with non-windup limiters. Different implementations for the non-windup limiters are considered and compared. In addition to the single gas turbine model, its integration to a power system model is developed as well. We consider two-area systems, one with simple primary speed droop control and one with supplementary automatic generation control.


Effects Of Surface-Directed Spinodal Decomposition On Binary Thin-Film Morphology, Michael Brian Wise May 2018

Effects Of Surface-Directed Spinodal Decomposition On Binary Thin-Film Morphology, Michael Brian Wise

Theses and Dissertations

Preferential wetting can have a significant impact on the kinetics of phase separation in certain systems. The depletion of the wetting component can simply alter domain growth rates or change the structure entirely. In this thesis, we employ a Cahn-Hilliard model to study the evolution of binary thin-films with symmetric surface wetting. Three possible morphologies were identified: discrete, bicontinuous, and a novel quasi-2D bicontinuous structure in which both phases retain continuity throughout the volume as well as on the center xy plane. Using a continuity factor, regions of film thickness versus blend composition were classified as producing a certain morphology ...


The 3d Abstract Tile Assembly Model Is Intrinsically Universal, Aaron Koch, Daniel Hader, Matthew J. Patitz May 2018

The 3d Abstract Tile Assembly Model Is Intrinsically Universal, Aaron Koch, Daniel Hader, Matthew J. Patitz

Computer Science and Computer Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this paper, we prove that the three-dimensional abstract Tile Assembly Model (3DaTAM) is intrinsically universal. This means that there is a universal tile set in the 3DaTAM which can be used to simulate any 3DaTAM system. This result adds to a body of work on the intrinsic universality of models of self-assembly, and is specifically motivated by a result in FOCS 2016 showing that any intrinsically universal tile set for the 2DaTAM requires nondeterminism (i.e. undirectedness) even when simulating directed systems. To prove our result we have not only designed, but also fully implemented what we believe to ...


Simulation-Based Analysis And Optimization Of The United States Army Performance Appraisal System., Lee A. Evans May 2018

Simulation-Based Analysis And Optimization Of The United States Army Performance Appraisal System., Lee A. Evans

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, a discrete event simulation framework is considered to replicate the dynamics, structure, and regulatory constraints placed on the officers in the U.S. Army. Using performance appraisal data provided by the United States Army Human Resources Command, we create a multi-objective response function that quantifies the human behavior associated with evaluating subordinates. Utilizing simulation-optimization techniques for model validation enables estimating unknown input parameters, such as human behavior, based on historical data. Furthermore, the model allows users to analyze the effects of current constraints on the evaluation system and the effects of proposed personnel policy changes.The effectiveness ...