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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Do After-School Robotics Programs Expand The Pipeline Into Stem Majors In College?, Cathy Burack, Alan Melchior, Matthew Hoover Oct 2019

Do After-School Robotics Programs Expand The Pipeline Into Stem Majors In College?, Cathy Burack, Alan Melchior, Matthew Hoover

Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research (J-PEER)

One result of the growing concerns over the numbers of young people moving into science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM)-related careers has been the expansion of formal and informal STEM education programming for pre-college youth, from elementary school through high school. While the number of programs has grown rapidly, there is little research on their long-term impacts on participant education and career trajectories. This paper presents interim findings from a multi-year longitudinal study of three national after-school robotics programs that engage students in designing, building, and competing complex robots with the goal of inspiring long-term interest in STEM. Focusing ...


Using More Frequent And Formative Assessment When Replicating The Wright State Model For Engineering Mathematics Education, Leroy Long Iii, Claudia Morello Jun 2019

Using More Frequent And Formative Assessment When Replicating The Wright State Model For Engineering Mathematics Education, Leroy Long Iii, Claudia Morello

Publications

A mid-sized private university in the Southeast has created an experimental first-year engineering course based on the Wright State Model for Engineering Mathematics Education. The course aims to increase student retention, motivation and success in engineering through an application-oriented, hands-on introduction to engineering mathematics. When compared to the traditional Wright State Model for Engineering Mathematics Education, the new course also focused on student communication (written, oral), teamwork, self-regulated learning and professionalism. The new experimental course also uses more frequent and formative assessment techniques. Faculty used Wright State’s sample homework assignments to provide students’ with formative feedback and Wright State ...


Slime Bash Social: A Tactile Manipulative For Child And Youth Play, Joyce A. Levingston, Marie E. Adebiyi, Brian Hadley, Younis Al-Hassan, Dongyub Back, Michelle Cook, Christopher R. Edginton Jun 2019

Slime Bash Social: A Tactile Manipulative For Child And Youth Play, Joyce A. Levingston, Marie E. Adebiyi, Brian Hadley, Younis Al-Hassan, Dongyub Back, Michelle Cook, Christopher R. Edginton

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

The play product of slime has gained increasing popularity amongst children and youth throughout the United States. Slime can be thought of as a tactile manipulative that can be shaped, stretched, expanded, lumped together, twisted, squeezed, squashed, folded, rolled, shredded, twirled, swirled, pounded, and cut or pulled apart. As a learning tool, slime can and does support STEM initiatives and programs. Slime can be created using simple ingredients that are easily measured, combined, and prepared by children and youth. In addition, slime can incorporate components such as glitter, beads, shaving cream, color dyes and other items. This paper offers an ...


Disciplinary Learning From An Authentic Engineering Context, Catherine Langman, Judith Zawojewski, Patricia Mcnicholas, Ali Cinar, Eric Brey, Mustafa Bilgic, Hamidreza Mehdizadeh Jan 2019

Disciplinary Learning From An Authentic Engineering Context, Catherine Langman, Judith Zawojewski, Patricia Mcnicholas, Ali Cinar, Eric Brey, Mustafa Bilgic, Hamidreza Mehdizadeh

Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research (J-PEER)

This small-scale design study describes disciplinary learning in mathematical modeling and science from an authentic engineeringthemed module. Current research in tissue engineering served as source material for the module, including science content for readings and a mathematical modeling activity in which students work in small teams to design a model in response to a problem from a client. The design of the module was guided by well-established principles of model-eliciting activities (a special class of problem-solving activities deeply studied in mathematics education) and recently published implementation design principles, which emphasize the portability of model-eliciting activities to many classroom settings.

Two ...


Infographic: D1 Stem Student-Athletes, Mckenna James, Leroy Long Iii Jan 2019

Infographic: D1 Stem Student-Athletes, Mckenna James, Leroy Long Iii

Publications

In this infographic, Division I student-athletes studying degrees in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) are displayed. The infographic focuses on women and racial/ethnic minoritized students who pursue STEM degrees and play a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I sport. For a variety of sports, the achievements, awards, and degrees of collegiate athletes are displayed. Whether they studied mathematics, psychology, or aerospace engineering, these diverse individuals from different gender/racial backgrounds rose to the challenge of being a STEM student-athlete and achieved greatness.


Infographic: Be A Stem Professional, Christian Pierre, Leroy Long Iii Jan 2019

Infographic: Be A Stem Professional, Christian Pierre, Leroy Long Iii

Publications

Infographic describing top STEM professions.


Instilling An Entrepreneurial Mindset In A New Generation Of First-Year Engineering Students Through A Graphics Course Project, Leroy Long Iii Jan 2019

Instilling An Entrepreneurial Mindset In A New Generation Of First-Year Engineering Students Through A Graphics Course Project, Leroy Long Iii

Publications

Each year, an increasing number of engineering start-up companies emerge in the U.S. and around the world. Innovation and entrepreneurship have never been so pronounced, especially in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. How can we train engineering students to be more entrepreneurially-minded so they are well-equipped to become global innovators? Engineering educators can use entrepreneurially-minded learning activities to help students develop an entrepreneurial mindset, which is a set of beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. At a mid-sized Southeastern private institution, we used an open-ended team project and an end-of-semester poster competition within a freshman-level engineering graphics course to ...


Infographic: Enhancing Engineering Students’ Communication Skills Through A Team-Based Graphics Course Project, Leroy Long Iii, Kari L. Jordan, William Wanyagah Jan 2019

Infographic: Enhancing Engineering Students’ Communication Skills Through A Team-Based Graphics Course Project, Leroy Long Iii, Kari L. Jordan, William Wanyagah

Publications

This infographic supports the article Enhancing Engineering Students’ Communication Skills through a Team-Based Graphics Course Project which can be accessed here: https://commons.erau.edu/asee-edgd/conference70/papers-2016/5/


It Takes A Village: The Role Of Emic And Etic Adaptive Strengths In The Persistence Of Black Men In Engineering Graduate Programs, Brian A. Burt, Krystal L. Williams, Gordon J. M. Palmer Aug 2018

It Takes A Village: The Role Of Emic And Etic Adaptive Strengths In The Persistence Of Black Men In Engineering Graduate Programs, Brian A. Burt, Krystal L. Williams, Gordon J. M. Palmer

Education Publications

Black men, underrepresented in engineering, constitute a missing segment of the population who could contribute to the global knowledge economy. To address this national concern, stakeholders need additional research on strategies that aid in Black men’s persistence. This study explores the experiences of 30 Black men in engineering graduate programs. Three factors are identified as helping them persist from year to year, and in many cases through completion of the doctorate: the role of family, spirituality and faith-based community, and undergraduate mentors. The article concludes with implications for future research and professional practice that may improve the experiences of ...


Attracting Secondary Students To Stem Using A Summer Engineering Camp, Murad Mahmoud Aug 2018

Attracting Secondary Students To Stem Using A Summer Engineering Camp, Murad Mahmoud

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to study the benefits of having middle school students attend a summer camp focused on the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). A lot of research funding is being used in such camps to help get more students into STEM fields as there is a lack of graduates in those fields. Therefore, it is important to understand the benefits and effectiveness of such camps.

Students, teachers and parents were involved in this research. Students and teachers attended a one-week engineering camp at Utah State University while parents were involved via a blog ...


Making Connections: Evaluation Of A Professional Development Program For Teachers Focused On Stem Integration, Judy Lambert, Carmen Cioc, Sorin Cioc, Dawn Sandt Apr 2018

Making Connections: Evaluation Of A Professional Development Program For Teachers Focused On Stem Integration, Judy Lambert, Carmen Cioc, Sorin Cioc, Dawn Sandt

Journal of STEM Teacher Education

This article reports on a 2-year evaluation of a STEM integration professional development (PD) program for 40 math, science, and special education teachers in Grades 5–9 from a large Midwestern public school district. The National Research Council’s framework for integrated STEM education (Honey, Pearson, & Schweingruber, 2014) was used to explain the goals, outcomes, nature and scope, and implementation of the program. Teachers were measured on their growth in STEM content knowledge, technology integration, teaching confidence, pedagogical beliefs, and impact of PD. Increases resulted in all these areas with statistically significant improvements in most of them, particularly in Year 2. A significant increase in math and science scores were also found in 413 students before and after participation in an integrated STEM lesson. According to teachers, the greatest strengths of the program were the STEM connections that teachers began making; the changes in teachers’ instructional practices; improved attitudes, beliefs, and confidence in teaching; increased comfort with using technology; and the enthusiasm that students exhibited during a STEM lesson. Quantitative data and teacher feedback both indicate that the program was highly successful and had a positive impact on teachers and students.


Motivational Decline And Recovery In Higher Education Stem Courses, Anna M. Young, Paul J. Wendel, Joan M. Esson, Kathryn M. Plank Apr 2018

Motivational Decline And Recovery In Higher Education Stem Courses, Anna M. Young, Paul J. Wendel, Joan M. Esson, Kathryn M. Plank

Education Faculty Scholarship & Creative Works

Decline in student motivation is a concern for STEM education, especially for underrepresented groups in the sciences. Using the Science Motivation Questionnaire II, 41 foundational STEM courses were surveyed at the beginning and end of each semester in an academic year at a small primarily undergraduate university. Significant pre- to post-semester declines were observed in each of five measured motivational factors (Intrinsic motivation, Career motivation, Self determination, Self-efficacy, and Grade motivation), with effect sizes ranging from 0.21 to 0.41. However, in the second semester pre-survey, four motivational factors rebounded, including three returning to initial levels, suggesting that the ...


Anatomy Of Stem Teaching In North American Universities, Paul J. Wendel, Joan M. Esson, Kathryn M. Plank, Anna M. Young Mar 2018

Anatomy Of Stem Teaching In North American Universities, Paul J. Wendel, Joan M. Esson, Kathryn M. Plank, Anna M. Young

Education Faculty Scholarship & Creative Works

A large body of evidence demonstrates that strategies that promote student interactions and cognitively engage students with content lead to gains in learning and attitudinal outcomes for students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses. Many educational and governmental bodies have called for and supported adoption of these student centered strategies throughout the undergraduate STEM curriculum.


Entrepreneurial Mindset: Integrating Creative Thinking And Innovation Into A Graphical Communications Course, Leroy Long Iii, Lulu Sun Jan 2018

Entrepreneurial Mindset: Integrating Creative Thinking And Innovation Into A Graphical Communications Course, Leroy Long Iii, Lulu Sun

Publications

Nationwide, leaders in business and industry have increasingly acknowledged the importance of entre¬preneurship. Several areas of the country showcase the importance of entrepreneurship such as Silicon Valley in California where a large number of start-up companies in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields are located. To meet the needs of business and industry, institutions of higher educa¬tion prepare students for future employment by offering rigorous and relevant coursework in areas such as entrepreneurship. Collegiate faculty and staff can use fundamental engineering courses to instill an en¬trepreneurial mindset – a set of beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors that drive ...


Infographic: Institutional Barriers To Black And Latino Male Collegians’ Success In Engineering And Related Stem Fields, Leroy L. Long Iii, William Wanyagah Jan 2018

Infographic: Institutional Barriers To Black And Latino Male Collegians’ Success In Engineering And Related Stem Fields, Leroy L. Long Iii, William Wanyagah

Publications

Infographic was created to support the article Institutional Barriers to Black and Latino Male Collegian's Success in Engineering and Related Stem Fields, which can be read here:


Answering Food Insecurity: Serving The Community With Food And Knowledge Using Technology, Courtney Simpson Oct 2017

Answering Food Insecurity: Serving The Community With Food And Knowledge Using Technology, Courtney Simpson

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

The courses of Tech120, CGT110, and ENGT 180/181 and Red Gold at Purdue collaborated to design a robot that would plant and water a garden for a local community charter school. The students centered the project on the users’ needs for fresh food, nutrition education, and early exposure to STEM for children. The school, Anderson Preparatory Academy (APA), is comprised of many children who come from low-income families and are in the free or reduced lunch program. Inspired from “Farm Bot,” a similar system that allows for almost hands-free gardening, the “Boiler Bot” is designed to be scalable so ...


Approaches To Integrating Engineering In Stem Units And Student Achievement Gains, Elizabeth A. Crotty, Selcen S. Guzey, Gillian H. Roehrig, Aran W. Glancy, Elizabeth A. Ring-Whalen, Tamara J. Moore Sep 2017

Approaches To Integrating Engineering In Stem Units And Student Achievement Gains, Elizabeth A. Crotty, Selcen S. Guzey, Gillian H. Roehrig, Aran W. Glancy, Elizabeth A. Ring-Whalen, Tamara J. Moore

Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research (J-PEER)

This study examined different approaches to integrating engineering practices in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curriculum units. These various approaches were correlated with student outcomes on engineering assessment items. There are numerous reform documents in the USA and around the world that emphasize the need to incorporate engineering into science education. The authors of this study contend that different approaches to integrating engineering in STEM units correlate to larger student achievement gains in engineering, based on assessment items developed from the Framework for Quality K–12 Engineering Education (Moore, Glancy, Tank, Kersten, & Smith, 2014). The goal of this work ...


A Content Analysis Of How Engineering Is Assessed In Published Curricula, Kerrie A. Douglas, Tamara J. Moore, Hillary Merzdorf, Tingxuan Lee, Amanda C. Johnston Jun 2017

A Content Analysis Of How Engineering Is Assessed In Published Curricula, Kerrie A. Douglas, Tamara J. Moore, Hillary Merzdorf, Tingxuan Lee, Amanda C. Johnston

School of Engineering Education Faculty Publications

A Content Analysis of How Engineering is Assessed in Published Curricula (Fundamental)

The purpose of this proposal is to present research findings concerning how and what about engineering is commonly assessed in well-known engineering or integrated STEM published curriculum. Two of the major shifts brought about by Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are an increased emphasis in students’ capabilities to perform higher-level reasoning skills and integrate content understanding into science practices. At the same time, NGSS has made engineering integration into science education a priority, and it is an exciting time of reform as schools are exploring curriculum resources and ...


The Engineering Admissions Partnership Program: A Navigation Strategy For Community College Students Seeking A Pathway Into Engineering, Marcia R. Laugerman, Mack C. Shelley, Steven K. Mickelson, Diane T. Rover Jun 2017

The Engineering Admissions Partnership Program: A Navigation Strategy For Community College Students Seeking A Pathway Into Engineering, Marcia R. Laugerman, Mack C. Shelley, Steven K. Mickelson, Diane T. Rover

Diane Rover

This paper presents the evaluation of a program designed to improve transfer outcomes for community college students pursuing an engineering degree. The program, the Engineering Admissions Partnership Program (E-APP), was designed to improve the navigational success of community college transfer students through connections to the university. These connections include coordinated academic advising, peer-mentoring, campus visits, and online social and professional networks. The objective of the study is to determine the efficacy of the E-APP and its interventions, which will be measured by increased participation rates and increased university retention rates for E-APP participants. Outcome data for the students are analyzed ...


Impacts Of Professional Development In Integrated Stem Education On Teacher Self-Efficacy, Outcome Expectancy, And Stem Career Awareness, John Geoffrey Knowles May 2017

Impacts Of Professional Development In Integrated Stem Education On Teacher Self-Efficacy, Outcome Expectancy, And Stem Career Awareness, John Geoffrey Knowles

Purdue Polytechnic Doctoral Dissertations

This research analyzed the effects of teacher professional development and lesson implementation in integrated Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) on: 1.) Teacher self-efficacy and their confidence to teach specific STEM subjects; 2.) Teaching outcome expectancy beliefs concerning the impact of actions by teachers on student learning; and 3.) Teacher awareness of STEM careers. High school science and technology education teachers participating in the Teachers and Researchers Advancing Integrated Lessons in STEM (TRAILS) project experimental group attended a ten-day summer professional development institute designed to educate teachers in using an integrated STEM education model to implement integrated STEM lessons. The ...


Students Explore Fossil Creatures Of The Cambrian Period Burgess Shale Through Model-Making, Andrea Anderson, Ksenia Zhbanova, Phyllis Gray, Jolene K. Teske, Audrey C. Rule Apr 2017

Students Explore Fossil Creatures Of The Cambrian Period Burgess Shale Through Model-Making, Andrea Anderson, Ksenia Zhbanova, Phyllis Gray, Jolene K. Teske, Audrey C. Rule

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

This practical article features an arts-integrated science unit on fossils of the Burgess Shale for fourteen elementary/ middle school students at a weeklong summer day camp. The day camp had a theme of recycling, reduction and reuse; all of the fossil models had substantial recycled components to support this theme. Next Generation Science Standards were supported by the course activities in which students examined fossil specimens, images, and comparative modern relatives to determine the anatomy and lifestyles of Burgess Shale Cambrian Period fossil animals (e.g., Olenoides trilobites, Anomalocaris, Canadaspis, Opabinia, Wiwaxia, Hallucigenia) through making scientific drawings and craft models ...


Ecosystem Food Web Lift-The-Flap Pages, Dana L. Atwood-Blaine, Audrey C. Rule, Hannah Morgan Apr 2017

Ecosystem Food Web Lift-The-Flap Pages, Dana L. Atwood-Blaine, Audrey C. Rule, Hannah Morgan

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

In the lesson on which this practical article is based, third grade students constructed a “lift-the-flap” page to explore food webs on the prairie. The moveable papercraft focused student attention on prairie animals’ external structures and how the inferred functions of those structures could support further inferences about the animals’ diets. In general, most students made simple causal connections between an animal’s observable characteristics and the food it would probably eat. Some students were also able to make multi-agent connections to develop a more complex mental model of a food web. Ultimately, the lift-the flap project was engaging to ...


Flipping About The Sun And Its Pattern Of Apparent Motion, Crystal Betts, Allison Pattee Apr 2017

Flipping About The Sun And Its Pattern Of Apparent Motion, Crystal Betts, Allison Pattee

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

Arts integration has shown to enhance student comprehension, retention, and engagement, while connecting to rich science content. The integration of the Next Generation Science Standards and the National Arts Standards into a first grade lesson illustrated how the arts enhanced the students’ understandings of the sun’s apparent motion during the day, an idea that is difficult for many young children to grasp. In this project students explored the sun outdoors throughout the school day to document changes by tracing their shadows in chalk and by making a shadow clock. Students also applied the information they learned to the creation ...


Editorial: The Journal Of Stem Arts, Crafts, And Constructions As An Ideal Venue For Showcasing Application Of The Next Generation Science Standards, Dana L. Atwood-Blaine Apr 2017

Editorial: The Journal Of Stem Arts, Crafts, And Constructions As An Ideal Venue For Showcasing Application Of The Next Generation Science Standards, Dana L. Atwood-Blaine

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

The Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions is an ideal venue for disseminating new ideas, lessons, and research developed in response to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). This editorial explains how arts integration is well-suited to addressing the Science and Engineering Practices and the Cross-cutting Concepts. The research articles in this issue provide evidence that arts integration is also effective at improving student retention of disciplinary content over time. Using specific examples from the articles in this issue, this editorial elaborates on the three-dimensional nature of NGSS and how the integration of arts, crafts, and constructions into science ...


Work Integrated Learning In Stem In Australian Universities: Final Report: Submitted To The Office Of The Chief Scientist, Daniel Edwards, Kate Perkins, Jacob Pearce, Jennifer Hong Feb 2017

Work Integrated Learning In Stem In Australian Universities: Final Report: Submitted To The Office Of The Chief Scientist, Daniel Edwards, Kate Perkins, Jacob Pearce, Jennifer Hong

Kate Perkins

The Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) undertook this study for the Office of the Chief Scientist (OCS). It explores the practice and application of Work Integrated Learning (WIL) in STEM, with a particular focus on natural and physical sciences, information technology, and agriculture departments in Australian universities. The project involved a detailed ‘stocktake’ of WIL in practice in these disciplines, with collection of information by interview, survey instruments, consultation with stakeholders and literature reviews. Every university in Australia was visited as part of this project, with interviews and consultation sessions gathering insight from more than 120 academics and support ...


Developing A Faculty Learning Community To Support Writing Across Different Stem Disciplines, Vukica M. Jovanovic, Denise Tombolato-Terzic, Daniel P. Richards, Pilar Pazos, Megan Mckittrick, Julia Romberger, Otilia Popescu Jan 2017

Developing A Faculty Learning Community To Support Writing Across Different Stem Disciplines, Vukica M. Jovanovic, Denise Tombolato-Terzic, Daniel P. Richards, Pilar Pazos, Megan Mckittrick, Julia Romberger, Otilia Popescu

Engineering Technology Faculty Publications

Writing to learn is one of the very important pedagogical strategies in a variety of disciplines. This concept is not specifically addressed in the majority of engineering courses. Hence, university initiatives such as the Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP), emerging out of accreditation and institutional assessments, are focusing on infusing scholarship from other disciplines (in this case English) for the purpose of student learning improvement. Engineering and Science programs do include various courses in English Composition as the part of the curriculum; however, writing is not embedded in all discipline-specific courses at the upper-division level. The program outlined here focuses on ...


The Peec Experiment: Native Hawaiian And Native American Engineering Education, Suzette R. Burckhard, Joanita M. Kant Dec 2016

The Peec Experiment: Native Hawaiian And Native American Engineering Education, Suzette R. Burckhard, Joanita M. Kant

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Books

PART I: Context
1. Engineering for Native nations: Origins and goals of the Pre-Engineering Education Collaboratives (PEECs)
PART II: Culture matters
2. Recognizing history: Indigeneity matters
3. Moving beyond cultural sensitivity: Developing culturally responsive programs for and with Native engineers
4. Invoking cultural relevance at tribal colleges: Grandmother’s way is important
5. Discovering what works: STEM pedagogy and curriculum development for Native Americans
6. Exploring indigenous science and engineering: Projects with indigenous roots
PART III: Providing support for Natives in Engineering

7. Finding an Engineering identity: A Native American PEEC leader’s experience
8. Outreaching to K-12 and tribal ...


Rearranging Algebraic Equations Using Electrical Circuit Applications: A Unit Plan Aligned To The New York State Common Core Learning Standards, Susan L. Sommers Jun 2016

Rearranging Algebraic Equations Using Electrical Circuit Applications: A Unit Plan Aligned To The New York State Common Core Learning Standards, Susan L. Sommers

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

As a response to both the implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and a recent approval of a change by the New York State Board of Regents to allow multiple pathways for graduation, this curriculum project, which will be referred to as a unit plan throughout the paper, was designed to meet the need for more units of study that apply mathematical modeling in algebra to real world situations that allow students to explore applications of mathematics in careers. The unit plan on rearranging algebraic equations using electrical circuit applications is aligned to the New York State Common ...


Designing Sewn Circuits And Stem Self-Efficacy In Middle School Girls, Kara Kaiser May 2016

Designing Sewn Circuits And Stem Self-Efficacy In Middle School Girls, Kara Kaiser

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to determine if the experience of designing and sewing LilyPad Arduino circuits in crafts projects can increase middle school girls’ STEM self-efficacy. Boys STEM self-efficacy will also be assessed to determine if LilyPad Arduino circuits can also increase boys’ STEM self-efficacy. Researchers have been wondering why there is a male dominance in STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) fields and why some women do not have a particular interest in these subjects. There are several reasons this could happen; stereotypes conveyed to them by parents and/or teachers, they genuinely are not interested in ...


Academic And Social Experiences Of Female Community College Transfer Students In Engineering Fields At Midwestern University, Darryle D. Bohanna Jan 2016

Academic And Social Experiences Of Female Community College Transfer Students In Engineering Fields At Midwestern University, Darryle D. Bohanna

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Currently, there remains a shortage of women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields despite recent efforts to increase numbers. The Department of Commerce is predicting that STEM job openings will grow 17% by 2018, which is a much faster rate than most other careers. These are among the highest-paying fields, in part because of the rising demand. Educational institutions in the United States will have to address this issue in order to compete economic leadership globally. High schools, community colleges, and four year institutions must increase awareness and efforts to recruit and retain more women in STEM majors ...