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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Two-Dimensional Materials: From Fundamental To Application, Guangyu Zhang, Geng Long, Shenghuang Lin, Lede Xian, Yan Jiang, Hao Wu, Shuopei Wang, Na Li Mar 2022

Two-Dimensional Materials: From Fundamental To Application, Guangyu Zhang, Geng Long, Shenghuang Lin, Lede Xian, Yan Jiang, Hao Wu, Shuopei Wang, Na Li

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

The rapid development of the information society puts forward an ever-increasing urgent need for information storage, processing, and transmission capabilities. With the ending of Moore's Law, the semiconductor industry urgently needs to find new solutions. Lowdimensional materials are considered to be a new breakthrough in the semiconductor industry in the post-Moore era, because of the size characteristics of atomic-level thickness, the structural advantage of no dangling bonds on the surface, and the sensitivity to electrical and optical control methods caused by a large specific surface area. Songshan Lake Materials Laboratory has introduced a group of top scientists and established ...


Resource Availability And Implications For The Development Of Plug‐In Electric Vehicles, Ona Egbue, Suzanna Long, Seong Dae Kim Feb 2022

Resource Availability And Implications For The Development Of Plug‐In Electric Vehicles, Ona Egbue, Suzanna Long, Seong Dae Kim

Engineering Management and Systems Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Plug‐in electric vehicles (PEVs) have immense potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil fuels, and for smart grid applications. Although a great deal of research is focused on technological limitations that affect PEV battery performance targets, a major and arguably equal concern is the constraint imposed by the finite availability of elements or resources used in the manufacture of PEV batteries. Availability of resources, such as lithium, for batteries is critical to the future of PEVs and is, therefore, a topic that needs attention. This study addresses the issues related to lithium availability and sustainability, particularly ...


Lessons Learned From Bp: Deepwater Horizon And The Transition To Renewables, Daniel Valle Dec 2021

Lessons Learned From Bp: Deepwater Horizon And The Transition To Renewables, Daniel Valle

Journal of Global Awareness

This paper analyzes the gradual transition of British Petroleum (BP), one of the world's largest oil and gas companies, into a renewable energy company focused on sustainability and the reduction of carbon emissions. BP's leadership and ethical practices are compared before and after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster. The purpose of the comparison and the broader analysis of the transition is to identify how effective leadership can be used to transform a company with a suspect social responsibility record into a leader among its peers. Lessons learned from the disaster, and the subsequent transition conclude the research.


Modeling Electric Energy Generation In Ercot During Extreme Weather Events And The Impact Renewable Energy Has On Grid Reliability, Adam R. Ruthford, Bivin Sadler Dec 2021

Modeling Electric Energy Generation In Ercot During Extreme Weather Events And The Impact Renewable Energy Has On Grid Reliability, Adam R. Ruthford, Bivin Sadler

SMU Data Science Review

This paper shows the inadequacy of current grid backup supplies, their ongoing threat to grid reliability, and the increased risk of customer blackouts. This paper also examines reliability concerns caused by renewable energy sources under more normal operating conditions. This paper seeks to model the impacts of extreme weather on ERCOTs grid. Unusual weather patterns require that the electrical grid operates in conditions outside normal operating parameters. Electrical system demand can spike well above normal levels. At the same time, weather influences can change the operating envelope of electrical generation equipment. The ERCOT grid has changed from its’ traditional mix ...


Efficient Management Of Nitrogen And Phosphorus At Centralized Water Reclamation Facilities, Helene Kassouf Nov 2021

Efficient Management Of Nitrogen And Phosphorus At Centralized Water Reclamation Facilities, Helene Kassouf

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A variety of process configurations are employed at municipal water reclamation facilities (WRFs), such as 5-stage Bardenpho, oxidation ditch, modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) process, and sidestream recycle. However, all of these configurations face certain challenges in achieving optimum treatment of nitrogen and phosphorus. In this dissertation, the driving objectives were to: (1) quantitatively assess the fate of nitrogen and phosphorus (mass fluxes) at a treatment facility that employs biological nutrient removal, aerobic digestion, and sidestream recycle, (2) evaluate the performance of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) as a technology to remove nitrogen from sidestreams at a treatment plant that employs that ...


Why Indonesia Needs A New Energy Paradigm, Aditya Prasetyo Aug 2021

Why Indonesia Needs A New Energy Paradigm, Aditya Prasetyo

English Language Institute

The problem of Indonesia's dependence on petroleum as its main energy source can be overcome by instead using an energy mix. This study focuses on optimal utilization of other energy resources that can help to meet the demand for energy in Indonesia and help to reduce its dependence on oil, thereby preventing a future energy crises.


2021 Department Of Energy Collegiate Wind Competition Electrical System, Grayson Capers, Shane Alayvilla, Justin Rodrigues Jun 2021

2021 Department Of Energy Collegiate Wind Competition Electrical System, Grayson Capers, Shane Alayvilla, Justin Rodrigues

Electrical Engineering

In this work, the implementation of the electrical system for Cal Poly’s 2021 Department of Energy Collegiate Wind Competition turbine is described. The mission of this project was to complete the turbine testing tasks to the best of the team’s ability. This system includes an off the shelf slotless permanent magnet synchronous generator and rectifier to produce a DC voltage. To maximize the power output at below-rated wind speeds, current sensors, voltage sensors, and a dynamic load with variable resistance were designed and tested. To curtail the power and rotor speed in high wind events, the turbine was ...


Quantitative Assessment Of Sun Louver Design Performance, Alexis Severson, Khaled Mansy, Tom Spector, John Phillips, Jeanne Homer Jun 2021

Quantitative Assessment Of Sun Louver Design Performance, Alexis Severson, Khaled Mansy, Tom Spector, John Phillips, Jeanne Homer

Building Technology Educator's Society

Conventional wisdom holds that carefully designed exterior louver systems tuned to a building’s earth latitude and its glass wall’s compass orientations do a better job of regulating sunlight than interior louver systems due to the intuition-friendly observation that exterior systems reflect or shade the sunlight before it ever enters the building. A multi-criteria, multi-variable analysis performed on a 3600 SF multipurpose space came to different conclusions. The results showed that when accounting for such design criteria as carbon footprint, glare, optimal daylighting and solar heat gain of the interior, tuned exterior louvers perform well against some measures but ...


Sustainable Energy Storage, Jacob S. Grillo, Alyse C. Coonce, Jack R. Linchey, Nick P. Schnorr Jun 2021

Sustainable Energy Storage, Jacob S. Grillo, Alyse C. Coonce, Jack R. Linchey, Nick P. Schnorr

Mechanical Engineering

This Final Design Review document covers the work we, students at California Polytechnic State University – San Luis Obispo, have performed in collaboration with Mr. Harish Bhutani and Dr. Mohammad Noori. The project’s intent is to create an energy storage system for off-grid and developing region applications using alternative technologies to lithium-ion battery storage. We plan to manufacture and assemble a scale model of the energy storage system to prove effectiveness and practicality. This system will store enough energy to power basic appliances and essential devices for a house or community. The chosen design direction will be a flywheel, as ...


Cal Poly Wind Power: Wind Turbine Prototype, Sophie A. Spencer, Maggie Nevrly, Michael Reyna, Loi Q. Nguyen Jun 2021

Cal Poly Wind Power: Wind Turbine Prototype, Sophie A. Spencer, Maggie Nevrly, Michael Reyna, Loi Q. Nguyen

Mechanical Engineering

The Cal Poly Wind Power (CPWP) club is competing in the Collegiate Wind Competition (CWC) hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The CWC is hosted annually by NREL to increase the number of skilled workers prepared to work in the wind energy industry. Our senior project team is one of several design teams contributing to the CPWP prototype turbine design including the pitching mechanism, blade design, generator, and shaft. The scope of this project is to design the yaw mechanism, tower, and nacelle. The goal is to create components that function well with other planned components and are ...


Diversifying Nuclear Technology: A Technical Analysis On Small Modular Reactors And Its Impact On Nuclear Energy Policy, Carolina Lugo Mejia, Marcos Lugo May 2021

Diversifying Nuclear Technology: A Technical Analysis On Small Modular Reactors And Its Impact On Nuclear Energy Policy, Carolina Lugo Mejia, Marcos Lugo

Helm's School of Government Conference

The energy policy debate in the United States has revolved around the diversification of energy sources while promoting advantageous economic profits. One drive for this has been the discussion of anthropogenic, environmental endangerment concerns (Vlassopoulous 2011, 104). However, despite the environmental concerns, the U.S. has for some time only relied on one type of energy source—fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are categorized as natural gas, coal, petroleum, and other gases responsible (U.S. Energy Administration 2019). Natural gas is responsible for 38.4%, coal for 23.4%, petroleum for 0.4%, and other gases for 0.3% of the ...


Next Generation Energy Storage: An Examination Of Lignin-Based Carbon Composite Anodes For Sodium Ion Batteries Through Modeling And Simulation, Dayton G. Kizzire May 2021

Next Generation Energy Storage: An Examination Of Lignin-Based Carbon Composite Anodes For Sodium Ion Batteries Through Modeling And Simulation, Dayton G. Kizzire

Doctoral Dissertations

The current energy market relies heavily on fossil fuel sources; however, we are amidst a momentous shift towards wind, solar, and water based renewable energies. Large-scale energy storage allows renewable energy to be stored and supply the grid with consistent energy despite changing weather conditions. Improvements to large-scale energy storage in terms of cost, safety, and sustainability are crucial to wide-scale adoption. A promising candidate for large-scale energy storage are sodium-ion batteries using hard carbon anodes. Sodium is globally available, cheaper, and more sustainable than lithium, but requires a different anode structure. A sustainable hard carbon anode with excellent Li-ion ...


Development And Testing Of Nanostructured Materials For Extreme Environment Applications, Nanthakishore Makeswaran May 2021

Development And Testing Of Nanostructured Materials For Extreme Environment Applications, Nanthakishore Makeswaran

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Nanostructured materials have many potential applications in the fields of power generation and transportation technologies, particularly in the areas of gas sensing technology, industrial gas turbines and protective coatings. In the former case β-Ga2O3 represents a promising candidate due to its high degree of stability and functionality for oxygen sensing at higher temperatures (>700oC). In the latter case, the application of Y-Si-Fe compounds acting as environmental barrier coatings for gas turbine and aerospace engine applications to protect from corrosion effects has been demonstrated in recent years. In both cases, however, there is room for improvement whether it is in the ...


Feasibility Study Of Portable Solar Powered Blood Storing Refrigerator, Saroj Subedi May 2021

Feasibility Study Of Portable Solar Powered Blood Storing Refrigerator, Saroj Subedi

Honors Theses

This report is focused on the preliminary feasibility of portable solar-powered blood-storing refrigerators primarily based on calculations of energy required to maintain the temperature of the refrigerator, the electricity required throughout the day, calculating sufficiency of power supplied by the solar panel, and selection of battery for power storage. The method and the trend of a feasibility study involve the study of blood properties, separation of blood components after donation, and their storage conditions. Then, the portable size of the refrigeration has been proposed with three different compartments for storage of each blood component. The further methods involve the selection ...


Smud Solar Regatta, Logan Garby, Nam Le, Jacob Singer, Alejandro Carrera, Laura Casas Mar 2021

Smud Solar Regatta, Logan Garby, Nam Le, Jacob Singer, Alejandro Carrera, Laura Casas

Mechanical Engineering

The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) hosts the Solar Regatta every year in Rancho Seco, CA, a competition which consists of teams building a solar powered boat to compete in three races: the sprint race, endurance race, and slalom race. The Cal Poly Solar Regatta team was informed mid-project by SMUD that the competition has been canceled once again for spring 2021, but the team decided to move forward with the construction of the boat. The previous Cal Poly team from 2019/2020 designed the hull and propulsion system of the boat. The 2020/2021 team worked with the previous ...


Infrastructure Systems Modeling Using Data Visualization And Trend Extraction, Jacob Marshal Hale Jan 2021

Infrastructure Systems Modeling Using Data Visualization And Trend Extraction, Jacob Marshal Hale

Doctoral Dissertations

“Current infrastructure systems modeling literature lacks frameworks that integrate data visualization and trend extraction needed for complex systems decision making and planning. Critical infrastructures such as transportation and energy systems contain interdependencies that cannot be properly characterized without considering data visualization and trend extraction.

This dissertation presents two case analyses to showcase the effectiveness and improvements that can be made using these techniques. Case one examines flood management and mitigation of disruption impacts using geospatial characteristics as part of data visualization. Case two incorporates trend analysis and sustainability assessment into energy portfolio transitions.

Four distinct contributions are made in this ...


Exploring Renewable Energy Futures In Humboldt County Consistent With The Goals Of California’S Renewable Portfolio Standard, Amin M. Younes Jan 2021

Exploring Renewable Energy Futures In Humboldt County Consistent With The Goals Of California’S Renewable Portfolio Standard, Amin M. Younes

Cal Poly Humboldt theses and projects

Humboldt County has abundant wind, solar, and biomass resources, but has made limited progress towards the state’s 2045 requirement of 100% clean electricity. A recently rejected onshore wind project showed that technically and economically viable projects can fall to social and political challenges, emphasizing the need for social considerations in renewable transitions. I therefore integrated community members’ preferences into modeling of RPS-consistent renewable energy scenarios in Humboldt County. My model suggests that offshore wind, utility-scale solar, distributed solar, and biomass power are technically and economically viable sources of significant local generation at varying costs.

In interviews with energy-engaged residents ...


Use Of Energy Consumption During Milling To Fill A Measurement Gap In Hybrid Additive Manufacturing, K. L. M. Avegnon, P. Noll, M. R. Uddin, G. Madireddy, R. Williams, A. Achuthan, M. P. Sealy Jan 2021

Use Of Energy Consumption During Milling To Fill A Measurement Gap In Hybrid Additive Manufacturing, K. L. M. Avegnon, P. Noll, M. R. Uddin, G. Madireddy, R. Williams, A. Achuthan, M. P. Sealy

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Coupling additive manufacturing (AM) with interlayer peening introduces bulk anisotropic properties within a build across several centimeters. Current methods to map high resolution anisotropy and heterogeneity are either destructive or have a limited penetration depth using a nondestructive method. An alternative pseudo-nondestructive method to map high-resolution anisotropy and heterogeneity is through energy consumption during milling. Previous research has shown energy consumption during milling correlates with surface integrity. Since surface milling of additively manufactured parts is often required for post-processing to improve dimensional accuracy, an opportunity is available to use surface milling as an alternative method to measure mechanical properties and ...


Investigating The Efficiency Of Energy Transfer In Vehicular Motion, Joshua M. Etukudo Jan 2021

Investigating The Efficiency Of Energy Transfer In Vehicular Motion, Joshua M. Etukudo

Senior Projects Spring 2021

One of my principal interests in life is transportation which involves building and working with vehicles, and that is why I chose to pursue this project. This write-up, in addition to being a small-scale study of the various properties of automobiles, is to serve as a guide for others who wish to pursue such an endeavor in the years to come. To do this, I first take a look at three of the many key structures which enable vehicular movement: The engine, the wheels and the steering system. After this, I give a detailed recount of how I built the ...


Effect Of Cloud Cover On Optimum Orientations Of Fixed Solar Panels For Maximum Yearly Energy Collection, Prethew Prasad Jan 2021

Effect Of Cloud Cover On Optimum Orientations Of Fixed Solar Panels For Maximum Yearly Energy Collection, Prethew Prasad

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

The amount of cloud cover present in the sky is a significant factor when determining the solar radiation impinging on a solar panel. The optimum tilt required to achieve maximum energy impingement on a surface is also influenced by the amount of cloud cover. This work presents a method for determining the optimum tilt angle for a fixed solar panel when a set amount of cloud cover is present in the sky. Fixed tilt angles that have the most incident solar energy over the course of a year as a function of cloud cover, latitude, and azimuthal angle orientation are ...


Cold Plasma Enhanced Active Sites On Supported Nip Nanoparticles For The Oxygen Evolution Reaction, Michael Ricci Jan 2021

Cold Plasma Enhanced Active Sites On Supported Nip Nanoparticles For The Oxygen Evolution Reaction, Michael Ricci

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Identifying materials to efficiently facilitate the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is key to advancing water electrolysis, an essential technology in the pathway towards a sustainable energy future. Here, we explore cold-plasma treatment as a facile method to enhance the activity of NiP nanoparticles supported on activated carbon. NiP nanoparticles were synthesized on an activated carbon support using a solid-state method and were then treated with argon, oxygen, and hydrogen plasmas for extended times. In all cases, plasma treatment reduced the number of active sites on the support. OER activity was evaluated by testing the materials in alkaline conditions. The activities ...


Area-Delay Efficient Radix-4 8×8 Booth Multiplier For Dsp Applications, Subodh Singhal, Sujit Patel, Anurag Mahajan, Gaurav Saxena Jan 2021

Area-Delay Efficient Radix-4 8×8 Booth Multiplier For Dsp Applications, Subodh Singhal, Sujit Patel, Anurag Mahajan, Gaurav Saxena

Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences

Booth multiplier is the key component in portable very large-scale integration (VSLI) systems enabled with signal and image processing applications. The area, delay, and energy are the major constraints in these systems. Therefore, in this paper, a detailed analysis of the state-of-the-art Booth multiplier architecture and its various internal units are presented to find the scope of optimization. Based on the finding of analysis, optimized new binary to 2's complement (B2C), Booth encoder-cum-selector type-1 and type-2, and partial product addition units are proposed. Furthermore, using these optimized units, an efficient parallel radix-4 8×8 Booth multiplier architecture is proposed ...


Triboelectric Energy Harvester With Large Bandwidth Under Harmonic And Random Excitations, Alwathiqbellah Ibrahim, Abdallah Ramini, Shahrzad Towfighian Nov 2020

Triboelectric Energy Harvester With Large Bandwidth Under Harmonic And Random Excitations, Alwathiqbellah Ibrahim, Abdallah Ramini, Shahrzad Towfighian

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

This paper investigates an approach to impact vibration energy harvesting using a triboelectric mechanism under harmonic and random excitation. The harvester consists of a clamped–clamped beam with a stiff plate in the middle to realize the impact electrification process when subjected to external vibrations. The harvester uses stiffening in the clamped–clamped beam introduced by the impact between two triboelectric layers to increase the frequency bandwidth. A piecewise theoretical model is used to model the harvester for two scenarios of motions, before and after impact. The harvester is tested experimentally under different harmonic excitation to validate the theoretical model ...


Passive Control Of Structures – The Dynamic Case, F. H. Selmani Oct 2020

Passive Control Of Structures – The Dynamic Case, F. H. Selmani

UBT International Conference

Lately, powerful earthquakes stroke some parts of the world, while the Balkan peninsula was hit by moderate ones. During a powerful earthquake, a building structure is invaded by an enormous quantity of kinetic energy . From the manner this energy is, first absorbed, then dissipated throughout building structure depends, not only the reaction of structure as a whole, or structural elements in particular, but the nature, the distribution and the quantity of the damages also. As Nikola Tesla once quoted: “If you want to find the secrets of universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration”. In order to be ...


Smart Energy Management System For Domestic Applications In Pakistan, Hamid Khan, Gulzar Ahmed, Sikandar Khan Sep 2020

Smart Energy Management System For Domestic Applications In Pakistan, Hamid Khan, Gulzar Ahmed, Sikandar Khan

International Journal of Power System Operation and Energy Management

Modern lifestyle has put natural resources under unprecedented strain. The ever increasing demand for energy asks for not only increase in the production of energy but for ways and means to efficiently manage energy from various sources. Pakistan is experiencing the worst energy crisis in its history that has crippled its economy and impeded its GDP growth. Absence of any potent government effort to resolve the crisis has forced the households to look for alternate sources of energy. The solutions employed by the household range from gas powered generator units to solar and wind power units. Fluctuations in gas supply ...


Improving Fuel Economy Of A Hybrid Electric Powertrain By Downsizing, Martin Anandaraj J, Ramyaa A. M Sep 2020

Improving Fuel Economy Of A Hybrid Electric Powertrain By Downsizing, Martin Anandaraj J, Ramyaa A. M

International Journal of Power System Operation and Energy Management

This paper aims at the development of a hybrid electric powertrain which is focused on grater fuel economy by downsizing when compared with present and future developed powertrains. In this work, the proposed hybrid vehicle is powered by four systems, a rule based system (RBS) which mainly explores the engine efficiency; a Speed Control System (SCS) which is focused on the speed control of Traction Motor and individual Front Wheel Motors; a Powertrain Feedback System (PFS) which mainly monitors the powertrain efficiency so as to maintain vehicle dynamics appropriately and a Selective Perpetual Motion System (SPMS) through which power management ...


Cost Analysis Of Optimized Islanded Energy Systems In A Dispersed Air Base Conflict, Jay F. Pearson, Torrey J. Wagner, Justin D. Delorit Sep 2020

Cost Analysis Of Optimized Islanded Energy Systems In A Dispersed Air Base Conflict, Jay F. Pearson, Torrey J. Wagner, Justin D. Delorit

Faculty Publications

The United States Air Force has implemented a dispersed air base strategy to enhance mission effectiveness for near-peer conflicts. Asset dispersal places many smaller bases across a wide geographic area, which increases resupply requirements and logistical complexity. Hybrid energy systems reduce resupply requirements through sustainable, off-grid energy production. This paper presents a novel hybrid energy renewable delivery system (HERDS) model capable of (1) selecting the optimal hybrid energy system design that meets demand at the lowest net present cost and (2) optimizing the delivery of the selected system using existing Air Force cargo aircraft. The novelty of the model’s ...


Mapping The Molecular Interface Of A Gpcr Dimer, Zhenqi Li Aug 2020

Mapping The Molecular Interface Of A Gpcr Dimer, Zhenqi Li

Theses - ALL

G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most diverse membrane proteins in eukaryotes that transmit chemical signals to the cell. GPCRs are considered the largest family of targets for approved drugs on the market. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1), a widely expressed GPCR protein in many cell types, performs signal transduction function not only in the monomeric state but also in the dimeric or complex oligomeric states. However, the detail of the S1P1 assembly is still not clearly understood. Cholesterol is believed to affect S1P1 dimerization, but the details of the cholesterol-binding sites with S1P1 are not well understood. In this project ...


Cooperative Mimo Communications In Wireless Ad Hoc Rayleigh Fading Networks, Isna Moiz Hussain, K. Swapna Swapna Aug 2020

Cooperative Mimo Communications In Wireless Ad Hoc Rayleigh Fading Networks, Isna Moiz Hussain, K. Swapna Swapna

International Journal of Smart Sensor and Adhoc Network

In this paper addresses Rayleigh fading networks, and in particular, wireless ad-hoc and sensor networks over Rayleigh fading channels. First, we will model Rayleigh fading networks and show how to map the wireless fading channel to the upper layer parameters for cross-layer design. Based on the developed fading network model, we will consider two scarce resources of wireless networks, namely energy and medium, and develop a cross-layer way to improve their efficiency. In particular, we will first study the energy-efficiency and introduce a new parameter, Energy Cost Factor, as the counterpart of Transport Capacity in wireless transmission. We investigate the ...


Improving The Piezoelectric Properties Of Flexible Polymer-Nanoparticle Energy Harvesters, Muhammet Emin Cavusoglu Jun 2020

Improving The Piezoelectric Properties Of Flexible Polymer-Nanoparticle Energy Harvesters, Muhammet Emin Cavusoglu

Theses and Dissertations

In this research, one of the widely used polymers, poly(vinylidene fluoride)(PVDF), was used to develop thin-film polymer energy harvesters. Dimethylformamide (DMF) and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) were used to dissolve the PVDF powder. Four different (0%, 3%, 5%, and 7%) ZnO nanoparticle (NP) concentrations were used to enhance the electrical output of the thin-film energy harvesters. A sonication bath and additional MEK were used in dispersing the ZnO NPs to obtained uniform PVDF/ZnO NP solution. The electrode poling technique was used for dipole alignment to improve the electrical performance of the devices. The fabricated samples were tested ...