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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Evaluating The Effects Of Curing Methods On Bcsa Cement Concrete, Hannah Allen May 2022

Evaluating The Effects Of Curing Methods On Bcsa Cement Concrete, Hannah Allen

Civil Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

BCSA cement is a type of cement that makes concrete set up much quicker than typical portland cement concrete. BCSA cement concrete also has a much higher compressive strength than that of portland cement concrete. This study was conducted to determine the effect of different curing conditions on the compressive strength of BCSA cement concrete.


Austenitic, Duplex, And Lean Duplex Stainless Steel Critical Pitting Temperature In Simulated Concrete Environment, Bobby Giebel Jan 2022

Austenitic, Duplex, And Lean Duplex Stainless Steel Critical Pitting Temperature In Simulated Concrete Environment, Bobby Giebel

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

In this work, the critical pitting temperature (CPT) will be observed for a selection of austenitic (316LN and 24100) and duplex (2205), and lean duplex (2304, 2001) stainless steels in simulated concrete pore solution. To study the influence of temperature on the pitting stability of the stainless steels, three temperatures were tested: 25oC, 45oC, and 65oC for cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electrochemical properties of the interfaces we studied via EIS analysis. Kinetics were studied via CPP testing. To reveal the critical pitting temperature of the stainless steels, cyclic thermammetry was used. Characterization of the pits ...


A Comparison Of Common Structural Materials, Molly Green Jan 2022

A Comparison Of Common Structural Materials, Molly Green

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This report will compare structural steel, concrete, and lumber through the lenses of mechanical properties, design process, cost, and environmental impact. Steel is a versatile, strong, and lightweight material that comes at a premium price – both financially and environmentally. It is the most expensive material of the three included in this report. This is largely due to its complex manufacturing process that is also responsible for a significant amount of the world’s carbon dioxide emissions. Concrete is significantly less expensive than steel, but the carbon dioxide emissions from manufacturing are approximately equal. Concrete also only performs well in compression ...


New Type Of Lightweight Aggregate For Use In Structural Concrete, Jamal Khatib, Ali Jahami, Oussama Baalbaki, Adel Elkordi Dec 2021

New Type Of Lightweight Aggregate For Use In Structural Concrete, Jamal Khatib, Ali Jahami, Oussama Baalbaki, Adel Elkordi

BAU Journal - Science and Technology

This research studied the utilization of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI-BA) in lightweight coarse aggregate (LWC) production. A special method was followed to prepare the new aggregate to fully replace the normal aggregates (NWA) in concrete. The mechanical properties such as compressive strength, tensile strength, and elasticity modulus were investigated for the LWC concrete. Then, two beams were prepared; one from LWC and the other from NWC. The structural performance of beams made up of lightweight aggregates compared to normal aggregates was investigated. The results showed that this type of aggregates led to a 20% reduction in concrete ...


The Development Of A Finite Element Model For Ballistic Impact Predictions, Richard Allen Perkins Dec 2021

The Development Of A Finite Element Model For Ballistic Impact Predictions, Richard Allen Perkins

Theses and Dissertations

Concrete is a widely used product and is an important application throughout industry due to its inexpensive cost and wide range of applications. This work focuses on understanding the behavior of high strength concrete in high strain rate ballistic impact loading scenarios. A finite element analysis was created with the implementation of the Concrete Damage and Plasticity Model 2 (CDPM2) to represent the material behavior. The model’s parameters were calibrated to existing literature and the results were analyzed by a comparison of the impact velocity to residual velocity and a qualitative assessment of the impact crater. The model captured ...


Application Of Biochar As Beneficial Additive In Concrete, Temirlan Barissov Dec 2021

Application Of Biochar As Beneficial Additive In Concrete, Temirlan Barissov

Civil and Environmental Engineering Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Biochar is a high-carbon solid material produced via thermal decomposition of organic biomass in a low-oxygen environment. Characterized with high water retention properties and high alkalinity, biochar is generally used for soil amendment and fertilization purposes. This study is intended to explore the feasibility of using biochar as a beneficial additive of the most used manmade material, concrete. Literature review revealed several studies where biochar was successfully implemented as an additive in concrete. The beneficial influence of biochar on the mechanical characteristics of concrete is based on nucleation and densification effects. However, the internal microstructure, porosity and chemical composition of ...


Field Implementation And Monitoring Of An Ultra-High Performance Concrete Bridge Deck Overlay, Craig Newtson, Brad Weldon, William Toledo, Andres Alvarez, Mark Manning Dec 2021

Field Implementation And Monitoring Of An Ultra-High Performance Concrete Bridge Deck Overlay, Craig Newtson, Brad Weldon, William Toledo, Andres Alvarez, Mark Manning

Data

This project focused on field implementation of an ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) overlay during rehabilitation of an existing concrete bridge (No. 7032) deck in Socorro, New Mexico, USA. Bridge 7032 is a two-lane bridge that is approximately 300 ft. (91.4 m) long and 54 ft. (16.5 m) in width. Rehabilitation of bridge 7032 included removal of deteriorated concrete from the existing deck, installation of a high-performance deck (HPD) leveling course, and installation of a 1 in. (25 mm) UHPC overlay. An UHPC mixture with a 19.5 ksi (134 MPa) compressive strength developed in previous research was selected ...


Field Implementation And Monitoring Of An Ultra-High Performance Concrete Bridge Deck Overlay, Craig Newtson, Brad Weldon, William Toledo, Andres Alvarez, Mark Manning Dec 2021

Field Implementation And Monitoring Of An Ultra-High Performance Concrete Bridge Deck Overlay, Craig Newtson, Brad Weldon, William Toledo, Andres Alvarez, Mark Manning

Publications

This project focused on field implementation of an ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) overlay during rehabilitation of an existing concrete bridge (No. 7032) deck in Socorro, New Mexico, USA. Bridge 7032 is a two-lane bridge that is approximately 300 ft. (91.4 m) long and 54 ft. (16.5 m) in width. Rehabilitation of bridge 7032 included removal of deteriorated concrete from the existing deck, installation of a high-performance deck (HPD) leveling course, and installation of a 1 in. (25 mm) UHPC overlay. An UHPC mixture with a 19.5 ksi (134 MPa) compressive strength developed in previous research was selected ...


San Luis Obispo Botanical Garden Amphitheater Benches - The Design, Devon Barthmaier Dec 2021

San Luis Obispo Botanical Garden Amphitheater Benches - The Design, Devon Barthmaier

Construction Management

This paper will outline the process of designing, building, and installing ten concrete benches at the San Luis Obispo Botanical Gardens with an emphasis on the design phase. The San Luis Obispo Botanical Gardens is home to an amphitheater that is used for event spaces. The goal of the project was to create a design to seat approximately forty people facing the stage. The project group consisted of six students broken into two teams, a pre-construction team and a construction team. The preconstruction team focused on designing the benches and procuring the materials while the construction team focused on the ...


An Investigation Of The Flexural Strength And Toughness Of Hybrid Plain And Fiber Reinforced Concrete For Pavement Applications, Wesley Keys Dec 2021

An Investigation Of The Flexural Strength And Toughness Of Hybrid Plain And Fiber Reinforced Concrete For Pavement Applications, Wesley Keys

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

For decades, many solutions have been evaluated to combat cracking in concrete pavements. The study presented in this paper evaluates and compares the flexural performance under a third point loading configuration of plain concrete (PC) beams, fully fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) beams, and hybrid PC and FRC beams, with a top PC and bottom FRC layer. The purpose of this hybrid approach was to provide FRC in only half the section, saving cost, while providing a PC surface layer that is easier to finish. All PC top layers were applied at an age of 7-days, considered a reasonable time for ...


Shear Strength Of Concrete Beams Made With Belitic Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cement, Caleb W. Chesnut Dec 2021

Shear Strength Of Concrete Beams Made With Belitic Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cement, Caleb W. Chesnut

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The need for a cleaner alternative to portland cement (PC) concrete has led to increasing interest in alternatives to PC. Structural properties of most of these alternative cements are still an open research topic. One promising alternative cement is belitic calcium sulfoaluminate (BCSA) cement. The study presented in this paper investigated the shear strength, long term compressive strength, and carbonation in BCSA cement and PC concrete beams. A total of twelve eight-foot long beams were made; eight BCSA cement concrete beams and four PC concrete beams to be tested at various ages depending on cement type. Two beams of each ...


Durability Of Concrete Produced With Alternative Supplementary Cementitious Material, Craig Newtson, Brad Weldon, Judit Garcia, Seyedsaleh Mousavinezhad, William Toledo Nov 2021

Durability Of Concrete Produced With Alternative Supplementary Cementitious Material, Craig Newtson, Brad Weldon, Judit Garcia, Seyedsaleh Mousavinezhad, William Toledo

Publications

Historically, Class F fly ash has been chosen as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM) in concrete for its ability to mitigate alkali-silica reaction (ASR). However, future availability of fly ash is uncertain because the energy industry has been investing in renewable energy production and removing coal burning generating stations from operation. Consequently, there is a growing need to find new, cost effective and environmentally friendly alternatives to fly ash. This study investigated a locally available natural pozzolan mined from a pumicite deposit near Espanola, NM for its ability to mediate ASR. Concrete and mortar mixtures included SCM contents ranging from ...


Impact Of Exposure On Thin Epoxy Overlay Performance, Abul Fazal Mazumder Nov 2021

Impact Of Exposure On Thin Epoxy Overlay Performance, Abul Fazal Mazumder

Dissertations

Thin epoxy overlays are used for improving the condition and extending the service life of bridge decks. The tensile bond pull-off strength, evaluated as per the ASTM C1583, is used as the performance indicator. A failure in the substrate with a tensile strength of 250 psi or greater is considered acceptable. However, the performance evaluated on in-service bridge decks shows inconsistent results. Laboratory studies by several researchers documented a distinct performance difference when the overlays are exposed to room temperatures in comparison to elevated temperatures. However, the most influential parameters such as concrete surface profile, thermal compatibility between overlay and ...


Durability Of Concrete Produced With Alternative Supplementary Cementitious Material, Craig Newtson, Brad Weldon, Judit Garcia, Seyedsaleh Mousavinezhad, William Toledo Nov 2021

Durability Of Concrete Produced With Alternative Supplementary Cementitious Material, Craig Newtson, Brad Weldon, Judit Garcia, Seyedsaleh Mousavinezhad, William Toledo

Data

Historically, Class F fly ash has been chosen as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM) in concrete for its ability to mitigate alkali-silica reaction (ASR). However, future availability of fly ash is uncertain because the energy industry has been investing in renewable energy production and removing coal burning generating stations from operation. Consequently, there is a growing need to find new, cost effective and environmentally friendly alternatives to fly ash. This study investigated a locally available natural pozzolan mined from a pumicite deposit near Espanola, NM for its ability to mediate ASR. Concrete and mortar mixtures included SCM contents ranging from ...


Assessment Of Deteriorated Structural Concrete To Provide Durable Repairs, Theodore Hopwood, Christopher Goff, Sudhir Palle Nov 2021

Assessment Of Deteriorated Structural Concrete To Provide Durable Repairs, Theodore Hopwood, Christopher Goff, Sudhir Palle

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

Most of the structural elements on Kentucky bridges are made of reinforced concrete. Many of these elements deteriorate as a result of corrosion of the reinforcing steel caused by carbonation and — primarily — applications of chlorides by the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC). Corrosion of reinforcing steel is reviewed along with assessment procedures that leverage nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods and related laboratory and field tests. Several maintenance procedures are discussed, including the application of sealers and coatings, patch and major concrete repairs, and electrochemical methods. Incorporating NDE and test results into maintenance procedure selection is discussed. Recommendations are provided on expanding application ...


Development Of Novel Ultra-High Performance Engineered Cementitious Composites (Uhp-Ecc) For Durable And Resilient Transportation Infrastructure, Gabriel A. Arce, Marwa Hassan, Daniel E. Game Sep 2021

Development Of Novel Ultra-High Performance Engineered Cementitious Composites (Uhp-Ecc) For Durable And Resilient Transportation Infrastructure, Gabriel A. Arce, Marwa Hassan, Daniel E. Game

Data

The objective of this study was to develop novel UHP-ECC materials utilizing readily available ingredients in Region 6 for the construction and repair of transportation infrastructure. Phase one of this study focused on the development of ultra-high strength cementitious matrices by evaluating the effects of ingredient selection and mixture proportioning on the materials’ compressive strength. Variables evaluated included the mass ratios of silica fume to fly ash (SF/FA), supplementary cementitious materials to cement (SCMs/C), and ordinary sand to microsilica sand (OS/MS). Phase two of the study focused on the development of UHP-ECC materials. To this end, based ...


Development Of Novel Ultra-High Performance Engineered Cementitious Composites (Uhp-Ecc) For Durable And Resilient Transportation Infrastructure, Gabriel A. Arce, Marwa Hassan, Daniel E. Game Sep 2021

Development Of Novel Ultra-High Performance Engineered Cementitious Composites (Uhp-Ecc) For Durable And Resilient Transportation Infrastructure, Gabriel A. Arce, Marwa Hassan, Daniel E. Game

Publications

The objective of this study was to develop novel UHP-ECC materials utilizing readily available ingredients in Region 6 for the construction and repair of transportation infrastructure. Phase one of this study focused on the development of ultra-high strength cementitious matrices by evaluating the effects of ingredient selection and mixture proportioning on the materials’ compressive strength. Variables evaluated included the mass ratios of silica fume to fly ash (SF/FA), supplementary cementitious materials to cement (SCMs/C), and ordinary sand to microsilica sand (OS/MS). Phase two of the study focused on the development of UHP-ECC materials. To this end, based ...


Assessment Of Key Imperatives For Enhancing Precast Adoptability In Egypt, Mostafa Sameh Aug 2021

Assessment Of Key Imperatives For Enhancing Precast Adoptability In Egypt, Mostafa Sameh

Theses and Dissertations

Precast Concrete’s modular application concept is a major construction method that has been used historically seen in various shapes, forms, and with a wide range of constituents. Examples include Ancient Egypt and China among several impressive structures in old civilizations. The major advantages of precast concrete lie in its adaptability, resilience, and versatility which makes precast concrete one of the most agile building materials. Precast concrete as we know it today has been introduced to our markets over the past several decades. Having similar advantages to that of old precast building methods, the road has been paved for wider ...


Evaluation Of Alternative Sources Of Supplementary Cementitious Materials (Scms) For Concrete Materials In Transportation Infrastructure, Gabriel A. Arce, Miladin Radovic, Zahid Hossain, Marwa Hassan, Sujata Subedi Aug 2021

Evaluation Of Alternative Sources Of Supplementary Cementitious Materials (Scms) For Concrete Materials In Transportation Infrastructure, Gabriel A. Arce, Miladin Radovic, Zahid Hossain, Marwa Hassan, Sujata Subedi

Data

Fly ash is the most utilized supplementary cementitious material (SCM) in the US. Nonetheless, rapid decline in coal-fired power generation threatens its supply. The objective of this study was to evaluate alternative SCMs for concrete transportation infrastructure in Region 6. SCMs investigated included reclaimed fly ash (RFA), reclaimed ground bottom ash (GBA), metakaolin (MK), and conventional Class F fly ash (FA) as a reference. SCMs were characterized and the fresh and hardened properties of concrete incorporating different dosages (i.e., 10, 20, and 30% cement replacement by mass) of the individual SCMs (i.e., binary systems) and blended SCM systems ...


Evaluation Of Alternative Sources Of Supplementary Cementitious Materials (Scms) For Concrete Materials In Transportation Infrastructure, Gabriel A. Arce, Miladin Radovic, Zahid Hossain, Marwa Hassan, Sujata Subedi Aug 2021

Evaluation Of Alternative Sources Of Supplementary Cementitious Materials (Scms) For Concrete Materials In Transportation Infrastructure, Gabriel A. Arce, Miladin Radovic, Zahid Hossain, Marwa Hassan, Sujata Subedi

Publications

Fly ash is the most utilized supplementary cementitious material (SCM) in the US. Nonetheless, rapid decline in coal-fired power generation threatens its supply. The objective of this study was to evaluate alternative SCMs for concrete transportation infrastructure in Region 6. SCMs investigated included reclaimed fly ash (RFA), reclaimed ground bottom ash (GBA), metakaolin (MK), and conventional Class F fly ash (FA) as a reference. SCMs were characterized and the fresh and hardened properties of concrete incorporating different dosages (i.e., 10, 20, and 30% cement replacement by mass) of the individual SCMs (i.e., binary systems) and blended SCM systems ...


Effect Of Radiation On Bond Behavior Between Concrete And Steel Bar: Development Of Experimental Protocol, Mohammed Abdelrahman Aug 2021

Effect Of Radiation On Bond Behavior Between Concrete And Steel Bar: Development Of Experimental Protocol, Mohammed Abdelrahman

Masters Theses

There is a need to assess the effect of radiation on the behavior of bond strength between steel reinforcement and concrete. However, there is geometrical constraints in the cylindrical capsule which limit the size of concrete samples. Thus, developing a protocol to produce pullout sample and a test setup is needed.

A protocol for fabricating high-precision concrete samples with embedded \#2 steel bar has been developed based on the results of an experimental program. A pullout system has also been developed to investigate the bond activity of concrete and steel. This research looks at two different aggregate sizes 3/8 ...


Use Of Vertical Electrical Impedance For Nondestructive Evaluation Of Concrete Bridge Decks, Enoch Thomas Boekweg Jul 2021

Use Of Vertical Electrical Impedance For Nondestructive Evaluation Of Concrete Bridge Decks, Enoch Thomas Boekweg

Theses and Dissertations

Nondestructive evaluation of civil infrastructure is increasingly important in the modern world to assess structures, predict longevity, and prescribe rehabilitation or replacement. For concrete bridge decks, one emerging diagnostic technique is vertical electrical impedance (VEI) testing, which is a nondestructive evaluation technology that quantitatively assesses the cover protection offered to steel reinforcement. Because VEI testing is still a relatively new approach to bridge deck inspection, additional studies are needed to increase the interpretability of VEI data. This thesis increases VEI interpretability with two advances. The first advance, presented in Chapter 2, offers an analytical model for interpreting VEI measurements of ...


Mitigating Calcium Oxychloride Damage In Cementitious Paste And Concrete Utilizing Supplementary Cementitious Materials, Casey Jones Jul 2021

Mitigating Calcium Oxychloride Damage In Cementitious Paste And Concrete Utilizing Supplementary Cementitious Materials, Casey Jones

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

It is understood among engineers in the United States (U.S.) that improvement is needed throughout the transportation infrastructure. In the 2021 Infrastructure Report Card produced by the American Society of Civil Engineers, the roadways of this nation merit a D. This leaves room for improvement in order to provide durable pavements throughout this nation. Areas with significant winter weather may have exacerbated effects in decreased roadway longevity due to freezing/thawing cycles and the use of chemical deicers to mitigate gelid roadway conditions. Much research focuses on surface scaling and reinforcement corrosion using these materials; however, joint deterioration, due ...


Multi-Sensor Data Collection And Fusion Using Autoencoders In Condition Evaluation Of Concrete Bridge Decks, Sepehr Pashoutani, Jinying Zhu, Chungwook Sim, Kwanghee Won, Brian A. Mazzeo, W Spencer Guthrie Jun 2021

Multi-Sensor Data Collection And Fusion Using Autoencoders In Condition Evaluation Of Concrete Bridge Decks, Sepehr Pashoutani, Jinying Zhu, Chungwook Sim, Kwanghee Won, Brian A. Mazzeo, W Spencer Guthrie

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications

This paper presents a multi-sensor data collection and data fusion procedure for nondestructive evaluation/testing (NDE/NDT) of a concrete bridge deck. Three NDE technologies, vertical electrical impedance (VEI), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and high-definition imaging (HDI) for surface crack detection, were deployed on the bridge deck. A neural network autoencoder was trained to quantify the relationship between VEI and GPR results using the data collected at common positions. This relationship was then used for fusion of VEI and GPR data to increase the reliability and spatial resolution of the NDE measurements and to generate a data-fused condition map that showed ...


Assessment Of Carbon Dioxide Emission And Its Impact On High-Rise Mixed-Use Buildings In Egypt, Ahmed Salah Hamza Jun 2021

Assessment Of Carbon Dioxide Emission And Its Impact On High-Rise Mixed-Use Buildings In Egypt, Ahmed Salah Hamza

Theses and Dissertations

With Egypt's vision of 2030 focusing on sustainable development with a true emphasis on Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emission reduction in the newly built cities and high-rise buildings, efforts are exerted on various levels towards accomplishing the vision’s goals. This is achieved through multiple tools and models associated with aiding the reduction of carbon emissions, yet not a clear one was introduced for the mixed-use buildings in Egypt.

Through this work, a significant gap was identified with respect to high-rise buildings carbon emission assessment in Egypt. This was a main driving force for this work in an attempt ...


Volumetric Envelopes: Precast Elements In Building Envelopes, Niloufar Emami Jun 2021

Volumetric Envelopes: Precast Elements In Building Envelopes, Niloufar Emami

Building Technology Educator's Society

By supplanting survival with comfort, the environmental technologies ultimately increased the dependence of the building design on form and materials, particularly those of its ‘envelope.’ The emphasis on form and materials is best seen in the Brutalism Architecture where the “honesty in structure and material” is exhibited through the envelope. Brutalist is relevant to today’s digital fabrication techniques where materiality and fabrication methods are integrated with the realized building elements. For example, looking at 3D printed concrete, parallel and continuous layers of concrete placed on top of each other can be an indicator of the method, whereas seeing a ...


San Luis Obispo Botanical Garden Benches, Brandon Keefer Jun 2021

San Luis Obispo Botanical Garden Benches, Brandon Keefer

Construction Management

The San Luis Obispo Botanical Garden is an outdoor area where people often gather for events such as weddings or just simply for a casual stroll through nice scenery. There were 6 students, including myself, who teamed up to complete this project where we divided into two sub-teams, one design team and one construction team. Since I was assigned to be the team captain but was placed on the construction team, I will touch a little bit on the design process since I was involved with overseeing this aspect but focus mainly on the actual construction of the benches. This ...


Paso Robles Police Department Outdoor Training Facility Improvements, Nicolas A. Petri Jun 2021

Paso Robles Police Department Outdoor Training Facility Improvements, Nicolas A. Petri

Construction Management

This paper will outline the pre-construction and construction processes of the Paso Robles Police Department’s outdoor training facility improvements. The project, located in East Paso Robles, focuses on 12,000 square feet of a 24,300 square foot site owned by the city of Paso Robles. This is a group project done with Gavin Abraham and Zach Stellini that remodeled an existing outdoor training facility, including over 1400 square feet of concrete flatwork, underground utilities, 80 cubic yards of decomposed granite and various site civil improvements. The purpose of this project was to provide the Paso Robles Police Department ...


Pouring Concrete Benches For The Amphitheater At Slo Botanical Garden, Makenna Paige Gitchell Jun 2021

Pouring Concrete Benches For The Amphitheater At Slo Botanical Garden, Makenna Paige Gitchell

Construction Management

This paper will outline the logistics and construction processes for the construction of ten concrete benches for a new amphitheater area at the San Luis Obispo Botanical Garden. These benches will provide stadium-style seating for around forty guests that the botanical garden staff can utilize for special events, tours and outdoor classes. The overall project team was composed of 6 students broken out into a preconstruction (Anthony Masarweh, Sydnee Greer and Devon Barthmaier) and a construction team (Makenna Gitchell, Brandon Keefer, and Kyler Cruz). As part of the construction team, we were responsible for coordinating material deliveries, building the formwork ...


Testing Concrete Reinforcing Fibers To Reduce Surface Cracking, Shaina Marie Suanico Jun 2021

Testing Concrete Reinforcing Fibers To Reduce Surface Cracking, Shaina Marie Suanico

Construction Management

Concrete reinforcing fibers are a fairly new technology being used in the construction industry to replace reinforcing bar in various applications. In partnership with Largo Concrete, Master Builders Solutions, and Cal Portland, this action research-based project aimed to test how the MasterFiber 360FF synthetic reinforcing fibers impact plastic shrinkage cracking with various types of aggregate using the ASTM C1579-06 test. The end goal of this project is to provide a baseline for future construction management students to test plastic shrinkage using the C1579-06 apparatus that was built to produce further knowledge on the feasibility of concrete reinforcing fibers. The review ...