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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

On The Development Of 8,000 Psi Geopolymer Mortar For Practical Use In Field Applications, Remington Gabriel Reed Dec 2018

On The Development Of 8,000 Psi Geopolymer Mortar For Practical Use In Field Applications, Remington Gabriel Reed

Theses and Dissertations

Although there are several perceived benefits from the use of geopolymer binder as an alternative to ordinary portland cement in concrete materials, it is not widely used in field applications. Geopolymer materials have no set guidelines for mixture design and often require heat curing to facilitate strength gain. Additionally, many geopolymers are created using carefully controlled and high quality materials and activator chemicals. These factors greatly affect the practicality of the material. The goal of this research was to create a geopolymer material capable of achieving high compressive strengths at 28 days without heat curing, and using only readily available ...


Use Of Rice Hull Ash (Rha) As A Sustainable Source Of Construction Material, Zahid Hossain, Ashraf Elsayed Dec 2018

Use Of Rice Hull Ash (Rha) As A Sustainable Source Of Construction Material, Zahid Hossain, Ashraf Elsayed

Data

Corresponding data set for Tran-SET Project No. 17CASU02. Abstract of the final report is stated below for reference:

"With the imminent shortage of natural resources, the need to find sustainable development is the highest in recent history. Therefore, this study examines the potential uses of Rice Hull Ash (RHA) as a sustainable cementitious material (SCM) in preparation of concrete. This study also assesses the use of RHA as an alternative of commonly used polymers in preparing high-grade asphalt binders. RHA is a potential sustainable solution because it is currently being treated as an agricultural waste material, yet its high silica ...


Bridge Deck Overlays Using Ultra-High Performance Concrete, Craig Newtson, Brad Weldon Dec 2018

Bridge Deck Overlays Using Ultra-High Performance Concrete, Craig Newtson, Brad Weldon

Data

Corresponding data set for Tran-SET Project No. 17CNMS01. Abstract of the final report is stated below for reference:

"This study investigated the use of a locally produced ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) as an alternative to typical overlay materials. Several bond strength tests including slant-shear, splitting tension, and direct tension tests were performed to assess the bond strength between UHPC and normal strength concrete (NSC) substrate with varying surface textures. Tests were also conducted to assess the early-age and longer-term shrinkage behavior and coefficient of thermal expansion of the UHPC as well as rapid chloride permeability testing. Good bond between UHPC ...


Evaluation Of The Performance And Cost-Effectiveness Of Engineered Cementitious Composites (Ecc) Produced From Region 6 Local Materials, Gabriel Andres Arce Amador, Tyson Rupnow, Marwa Hassan Dec 2018

Evaluation Of The Performance And Cost-Effectiveness Of Engineered Cementitious Composites (Ecc) Produced From Region 6 Local Materials, Gabriel Andres Arce Amador, Tyson Rupnow, Marwa Hassan

Data

Corresponding data set for Tran-SET Project No. 17CLSU05. Abstract of the final report is stated below for reference:

"The project objective is to develop cost-effective Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) with locally available ingredients in Region 6 to address the deficiencies observed in ordinary concrete materials. The study explored the utilization of two types of river sands (coarse and fine), two types of PVA fibers (long and short), four levels of cement replacement with Class F fly ash, and the implementation of recycled crumb rubber in the performance of ECC materials. A total of 24 mix designs were prepared and evaluated ...


Self-Healing Microcapsules As Concrete Aggregates For Corrosion Inhibition In Reinforced Concrete, Homero Castaneda, Marwa Hassan, Miladin Radovic Dec 2018

Self-Healing Microcapsules As Concrete Aggregates For Corrosion Inhibition In Reinforced Concrete, Homero Castaneda, Marwa Hassan, Miladin Radovic

Data

Corresponding data set for Tran-SET Project No. 17CLSU08. Abstract of the final report is stated below for reference:

"Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures are vital to the US’s civil infrastructure for their strength and versatility. Unfortunately, RC elements deteriorate rapidly when exposed to corrosive environments. One possible solution is to extend the life of RC elements and systems using microencapsulated corrosion inhibitors to reduce the rebar corrosion rate. The capsules house an anodic corrosion inhibitor agent including calcium nitrate (CN) and triethanolamine (TEA). The integration of such microencapsulated materials will enhance the durability and extend the useful life by controlling ...


Self-Healing Microcapsules As Concrete Aggregates For Corrosion Inhibition In Reinforced Concrete, Homero Castaneda, Marwa Hassan, Miladin Radovic, Jose Milla Nov 2018

Self-Healing Microcapsules As Concrete Aggregates For Corrosion Inhibition In Reinforced Concrete, Homero Castaneda, Marwa Hassan, Miladin Radovic, Jose Milla

Publications

Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures are vital to the US’s civil infrastructure for their strength and versatility. Unfortunately, RC elements deteriorate rapidly when exposed to corrosive environments. One possible solution is to extend the life of RC elements and systems using microencapsulated corrosion inhibitors to reduce the rebar corrosion rate. The capsules house an anodic corrosion inhibitor agent including calcium nitrate (CN) and triethanolamine (TEA). The integration of such microencapsulated materials will enhance the durability and extend the useful life by controlling the corrosion precursors and the corrosion process during damage evolution. Therefore, this work aims to develop and characterize ...


Evaluation Of The Performance And Cost-Effectiveness Of Engineered Cementitious Composites (Ecc) Produced From Region 6 Local Materials, Gabriel Andres Arce Amador, Tyson Rupnow, Marwa Hassan Oct 2018

Evaluation Of The Performance And Cost-Effectiveness Of Engineered Cementitious Composites (Ecc) Produced From Region 6 Local Materials, Gabriel Andres Arce Amador, Tyson Rupnow, Marwa Hassan

Publications

The project objective is to develop cost-effective Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) with locally available ingredients in Region 6 to address the deficiencies observed in ordinary concrete materials. The study explored the utilization of two types of river sands (coarse and fine), two types of PVA fibers (long and short), four levels of cement replacement with Class F fly ash, and the implementation of recycled crumb rubber in the performance of ECC materials. A total of 24 mix designs were prepared and evaluated in compression, tension, and bending to assess its mechanical properties. Furthermore, the cracking characteristics of the materials produced ...


Bridge Deck Overlays Using Ultra-High Performance Concrete, Craig Newtson, Brad Weldon Oct 2018

Bridge Deck Overlays Using Ultra-High Performance Concrete, Craig Newtson, Brad Weldon

Publications

This study investigated the use of a locally produced ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) as an alternative to typical overlay materials. Several bond strength tests including slant-shear, splitting tension, and direct tension tests were performed to assess the bond strength between UHPC and normal strength concrete (NSC) substrate with varying surface textures. Tests were also conducted to assess the early-age and longer-term shrinkage behavior and coefficient of thermal expansion of the UHPC as well as rapid chloride permeability testing. Good bond between UHPC and NSC substrate was observed even with inadequate surface texture. Combined shrinkage and thermal effects were investigated for ...


A Simple, Robust, And On-Site Microwave Technique For Determining Water-To-Cement Ratio (W/C) Of Fresh Portland Cement-Based Materials, K. Mubarak, Karl Joseph Bois, R. Zoughi Sep 2018

A Simple, Robust, And On-Site Microwave Technique For Determining Water-To-Cement Ratio (W/C) Of Fresh Portland Cement-Based Materials, K. Mubarak, Karl Joseph Bois, R. Zoughi

Reza Zoughi

Inspection and evaluation of cement-based materials such as concrete is of great interest to the construction industry. In particular, real-time and on-site evaluation of water-to-cement ratio (w/c) is an important practical issue, since the compressive strength of a concrete structure is significantly influenced by its w/c. Currently, there is no single real-time, on-site, relatively in-expensive, easy-to-implement, and operator friendly technique for evaluating this parameter. Microwave nondestructive testing and evaluation techniques have shown great promise when used for inspection and evaluation of the properties of cement-based materials. In this paper, the optimal design of a monopole antenna probe used ...


Coir Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Jose De La Serna, Moses Karakouzian Sep 2018

Coir Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Jose De La Serna, Moses Karakouzian

AANAPISI Poster Presentations

This poster exhibits the testing and research done on general Portland Cement Concrete with the addition of coir (coconut) fibers as reinforcement. Using the fundamental constituents of cement (water, cement, fine and coarse aggregate) and processed coir fiber, concrete specimens were batched to test for compressive and flexural strengths (per appropriate ASTM standards). Cylindrical and rectangular beam specimens were subjected to loadings until failure occurred. The capacity and modes of failures of the specimens were observed. It was determined that:

• The addition of processed coir fibers decreases the overall strength of general Portland Cement Concrete. • The tested concrete’s mode ...


Using Coupled Eulerian And Lagrangian Grids To Model Explosive Interactions With Buildings, Braden Lusk, William P. Schonberg, Jason Baird, Robert S. Woodley, Warren Noll Aug 2018

Using Coupled Eulerian And Lagrangian Grids To Model Explosive Interactions With Buildings, Braden Lusk, William P. Schonberg, Jason Baird, Robert S. Woodley, Warren Noll

Robert S. Woodley

This paper presents the development of a computational model that can be used to study the interactions between structures and detonating explosives contained within them. This model was developed as part of an effort to develop a rubble characterization model for use in AmmoSIM, an agent based urban tactical decision aid (UTDA) software for weapon-target pairing. The rubble pile created following the collapse of a building in a combat situation can significantly impact mission accomplishment, particularly in the area of movement and maneuver. The information provided by AmmoSIM will enable both platoon level and command center staff to make informed ...


Environmental And Reinforcement Effects On Concrete Expansion Undergoing Accelerated Alkali-Silica Reaction, David Graff Jun 2018

Environmental And Reinforcement Effects On Concrete Expansion Undergoing Accelerated Alkali-Silica Reaction, David Graff

Civil Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This thesis is a part of ongoing research investigating the effects of alkali-silica reactions (ASR) on concrete’s mechanical properties. Over 50 concrete specimens have been cast and cured to encourage ASR development to the point of damage in less than a year. Specimens include 42”×30”×10” shear specimens, 14”×14”×14” blocks, 6”×6”×14” prisms, 4”×4”×16” prisms, cylinders, and wedge splitting test specimens. Some samples are stored in a fog room with conditions of 100oF, and 95% relative humidity and wrapped in burlap wetted or submerged in 1.0M sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Other specimens are ...


Alternate Reinforcement For Structural Concrete, Barrett Lowe May 2018

Alternate Reinforcement For Structural Concrete, Barrett Lowe

Construction Management

Concrete has been utilized on construction projects for thousands of years, ranging from the Pyramids to the foundation your home is built on. Innovated upon, concrete and its properties have changed over the years, one of the greatest being the discovery of tensile reinforcement. Rebar, commonly known as reinforcing steel or reinforcement bars, have been used in the construction industry for decades. Ranging in size and application, rebar’s unmatched tensile strength and anti-corrosive properties make it the champion of reinforcing structural concrete. Though the advancement in technology has created a new era where other materials may take its place ...


Study On Surface Permeability Of Concrete Under Immersion, Jun Liu, Feng Xing, Biqin Dong, Hongyan Ma, Dong Pan Feb 2018

Study On Surface Permeability Of Concrete Under Immersion, Jun Liu, Feng Xing, Biqin Dong, Hongyan Ma, Dong Pan

Hongyan Ma

In this paper, concrete specimens are immersed in ultrapure water, to study the evolutions of surface permeability, pore structure and paste microstructure following the prolonging of immersion period. According to the results, after 30-day immersion, the surface permeability of concrete becomes higher as compared with the value before immersion. However, further immersion makes the surface permeability decrease, so that the value measured after 150-day immersion is only half that measured after 30-day immersion. The early increase in surface permeability should be mainly attributed to the leaching of calcium hydroxide, while the later decrease to the refinement of pore structure due ...


The Production Of Pyrolytic Biochar For Addition In Value-Added Composite Material, Douglas Matthew Cuthbertson Jan 2018

The Production Of Pyrolytic Biochar For Addition In Value-Added Composite Material, Douglas Matthew Cuthbertson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pyrolytic biochar has recently gained attention for its potential value as a carbon sequestering by-product that can be used in industrial applications. While biochar is typically targeted for soil amendment applications, higher value applications such as addition in consumer products and building materials needs to be investigated.

In this study, biochar is produced from three different Canadian feedstocks using three different pyrolysis methods. The biochar is characterized to determine the effects that feedstock selection and pyrolysis conditions has on biochar properties. The biochar is also incorporated into concrete at varying concentrations to create a lightweight and sustainable material. The effect ...


Antimicrobial Aggregates For The In-Situ Control Of Microbially Induced Concrete Corrosion, Alejandro Caicedo-Ramirez Jan 2018

Antimicrobial Aggregates For The In-Situ Control Of Microbially Induced Concrete Corrosion, Alejandro Caicedo-Ramirez

Civil Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Concrete is the most common material used to transport storm water and sewage in the world. It is used for pipes, culverts, tunnels and variety of other subterranean appurtenances. Municipalities, water utilities, and many agencies recognize that concrete corrosion is emerging as one of the most serious problems plaguing this critical infrastructure. The dominant form of concrete deterioration in wastewater conveyance systems is microbially mediated (Microbial Induced Concrete Corrosion: MICC). This type of corrosion occurs as a result of ubiquitous microbiological sulfur cycling within sewers: Below the waterline, sulfate present in wastewater is reduced to sulfide (H2S) under ...


Deterioration Of Multi-Functional Cementitious Materials In Nuclear Power Plants, Yuxiang Jing Jan 2018

Deterioration Of Multi-Functional Cementitious Materials In Nuclear Power Plants, Yuxiang Jing

Civil Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

To ensure safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) during their service life and enhance the performance of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage systems, comprehensive investigation on the behavior of concrete and their components under the long-term nuclear radiation is needed. A theoretical model was developed first to predict the deterioration of concrete under neutron radiation, taking into account both of the effects of neutron radiation and the radiation-induced heating on the mechanical property and volume change of concrete. It was shown that the volume change of concrete is dominated by the expanding characteristic of aggregates. Since neutron radiation can ...


Performance Of Common Treatments For Reinforced Concrete Highway Bridge Decks, Jeffrey David Kvamme Jan 2018

Performance Of Common Treatments For Reinforced Concrete Highway Bridge Decks, Jeffrey David Kvamme

Civil Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This study gathers information on more than 15,000 bridges to examine time domain trends in condition of bridge decks in service that employ several common treatments. This study computes average improvement to deck condition due to these treatments and computes the mean intervals of changes in general condition ratings related to the deck’s post-treatment condition and its approximate pre-treatment condition. In addition, this study performs a cost analysis to compare the average unit cost and the cost effectiveness of each treatment. The results show an average improvement to deck condition of 1.31 rating values due to treatment ...


Nondestructive Evaluation Of Corrosion Damage In Reinforced Concrete Aged Slab Specimen, Rawya Abdulsattar Abduljabbar Jan 2018

Nondestructive Evaluation Of Corrosion Damage In Reinforced Concrete Aged Slab Specimen, Rawya Abdulsattar Abduljabbar

Theses and Dissertations

The deterioration of concrete bridge decks presents a maintenance challenge for most transportation agencies and bridge owners. This problem increases during the freeze-thaw cycle. De-icing salts can accelerate the deterioration process. Corrosion of steel reinforcement in reinforced concrete structures is considered a dominant factor causing premature deterioration, especially those structures located in a coastal environment. The resulting corrosion product produced has several times the volume of steel, resulting in cracking of the concrete cover if the corrosion is significant. In this study, a bridge deck specimen was subjected to an artificial environment to accelerate the corrosion process. Prior to this ...


A Novel Concrete-Based Sensor For Detection Of Ice And Water On Roads And Bridges, Habib Tabatabai, Mohammed Aljuboori Dec 2017

A Novel Concrete-Based Sensor For Detection Of Ice And Water On Roads And Bridges, Habib Tabatabai, Mohammed Aljuboori

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Articles

Hundreds of people are killed or injured annually in the United States in accidents related to ice formation on roadways and bridge decks. In this paper, a novel embedded sensor system is proposed for the detection of black ice as well as wet, dry and frozen pavement conditions on roads, runways, and bridges. The proposed sensor works by detecting changes in electrical resistance between two sets of stainless steel poles embedded in the concrete sensor to assess surface and near-surface conditions. A preliminary decision algorithm is developed that utilizes sensor outputs indicating resistance changes and surface temperature. The sensor consists ...


Experimental And Simplified Analytical Investigation Of Full Scale Sandwich Panel Walls, Salam Adil Al-Rubaye Dec 2017

Experimental And Simplified Analytical Investigation Of Full Scale Sandwich Panel Walls, Salam Adil Al-Rubaye

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Concrete sandwich wall panels have been used for decades in the precast concrete construction industry because of their thermal efficiency. To achieve full or partial-composite action in concrete sandwich panel walls, the engineer must obtain a percent composite action from a connector manufacturer, making some engineers uncomfortable. Engineers are dependent upon the recommendations given by the connector manufacturers to establish their designs. This project tested six full scale sandwich panel walls to evaluate the percent composite action of various connectors and compare the results to those provided by the composite connector manufacturers.

This project aimed to validate current procedures using ...


Investigation Of Concrete Electrical Resistivity As A Performance Based Test, Amir Malakooti Dec 2017

Investigation Of Concrete Electrical Resistivity As A Performance Based Test, Amir Malakooti

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research project was to identify the extent that concrete resistivity measurements (bulk and/or surface) can be used as a performance based lab test to improve the quality of concrete in Utah bridge decks. By allowing UDOT to specify a required resistivity, concrete bridge deck quality will increase and future maintenance costs will decrease.

This research consisted of two phases: the field phase and the lab phase. In the field phase, concrete samples were gathered from local concrete producers in Utah. These concrete samples were made with common concrete mixes used in bridge decks across the ...


Testing And Modeling Of The Thixotropic Behavior Of Cementitious Materials., Bashir Hasanzadeh Dec 2017

Testing And Modeling Of The Thixotropic Behavior Of Cementitious Materials., Bashir Hasanzadeh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

During construction, concrete goes under various operations. It is normally transported to the job site, be placed and consolidated in the formwork, etc. The easiness and quality of these operations are very much related to the intrinsic rheological properties of concrete. Therefore, a good understanding of rheological behavior of concrete under various conditions are needed. Thixotropy is an important part of rheology. The thixotropic behaviors of concrete can be good representatives of its flow behaviors on the job site. For example, the breakdown aspect of thixotropy can help to explain how its flow behavior can impact concrete pumping and its ...


Applying Modern Technology In The Preservation Of Historic Concrete Picnic Tables, Michele M. Anderson Nov 2017

Applying Modern Technology In The Preservation Of Historic Concrete Picnic Tables, Michele M. Anderson

Civil Engineering ETDs

Preserving historical concrete structures recognizes the work and skills of past generations and allows the communities surrounding these pieces of history the opportunity to enjoy the character and purpose of their construction. Restoration of concrete picnic tables, constructed in the 1930s by the Civilian Conservation Corps, required researching materials and methods of construction during the original construction period. Eight decades of environmental and weather cycles did not decay the historic structures. Acts of vandalism destroyed the purpose of the tables and benches. Restoration of the historic picnic tables required extensive literature review for the materials and methods used during the ...


State-Based Peridynamic Particle Method, Siavash Nikravesh Kazeroni Nov 2017

State-Based Peridynamic Particle Method, Siavash Nikravesh Kazeroni

Civil Engineering ETDs

In this study, a novel discrete Peridynamics framework called the “State-Based Peridynamic Particle Model (SPPM)” is introduced. In this approach, a solid body is simulated by neither solving differential equations nor integral equations; instead, the simulation is accomplished by directly solving discrete systems of equations using finite summations. SPPM is formulated for a random distribution of particles, hence, it can be considered as a meshfree method. The assumptions of continuity and homogeneity are not necessary for this approach. The SPPM is a generalization of the “State-Based Peridynamic Lattice Model (SPLM)”. In the SPLM formulation, for sake of simplicity and computational ...


Using Of Proper Pavement Material For The Intersections With Slow-Moving Traffic, Bekim Selimi Oct 2017

Using Of Proper Pavement Material For The Intersections With Slow-Moving Traffic, Bekim Selimi

UBT International Conference

Use of proper pavement material for some of intersections need special attention by road designers. At Camp Bondsteel-Kosovo on 2002 were built four road intersections using the concrete as pavement material. Heavy and slow-moving trucks that are turning or accelerating exposed these intersections to some of the highest stress level. After some years this intresections start deteriorating on their surface due to friction. The concrete pavements did not survive this period of usage and after eight years were removed and replaced with asphalt pavements. After more than seven years, the asphalt has shown minor distress but is still in good ...


Reducing The Porosity And Sealing Cracks By Using Crystalline Admixture In Conventional Concrete, Visar Krelani, Liberato Ferrara Oct 2017

Reducing The Porosity And Sealing Cracks By Using Crystalline Admixture In Conventional Concrete, Visar Krelani, Liberato Ferrara

UBT International Conference

There is a continuous increase of quality on civil engineering materials in developed countries and parallel increase of need for new constructions in developing countries. Professional community should propose solutions for the durability that can resist in different severe environments. The most important factor that can affect concrete durability is represented by the pore distribution. Transport properties can take place through the porous network inside the cementitious composites and the aggregates interface, permitting the ingress of aggressive agents damaging concrete function intrinsically as a material and the wellfunctioning of the entire structure. The use of a crystalline admixture during the ...


Evaluation Of The Environmental Benefits Of Biochar Addition Into Concrete-Based Composites, Isabella Bianco, Mauro Giorcelli, Massimo Rovere, Alberto Tagliaferro, Gian Andrea Blengini, Silvia Bobba Aug 2017

Evaluation Of The Environmental Benefits Of Biochar Addition Into Concrete-Based Composites, Isabella Bianco, Mauro Giorcelli, Massimo Rovere, Alberto Tagliaferro, Gian Andrea Blengini, Silvia Bobba

Biochar: Production, Characterization and Applications

Biochar is a carbon by-product obtained from a termochemical conversion of biomass. Currently, biochar is generally treated in biomass landfill, representing an economic and environmental cost.

Recent works focus their attention to the use of biochar as an alternative filler to produce more economic and environmental friendly composites. Some studies proved that the introduction of biochar as carbon filler can also increase mechanical [1] or electrical [2] properties. As a consequence, large scale production of composites containing biochar could have important effects both on the economic and environmental point of view.

Please click on the file below for full content ...


Proposal For Monitoring Concrete Painting As A Preventive Maintenance Tool (Abutments And Pier Caps), Danny Wells, Sudhir Palle, Theodore Hopwood Ii Jul 2017

Proposal For Monitoring Concrete Painting As A Preventive Maintenance Tool (Abutments And Pier Caps), Danny Wells, Sudhir Palle, Theodore Hopwood Ii

Kentucky Transportation Center Technical Assistance Report

One of the growing number of preventive bridge maintenance activities conducted by the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) is washing and applying thin film protective coatings to bridge abutments and piers. Previous work conducted by Kentucky Transportation Center (KTC) under KYSPR 10-406 documented increased chloride contamination of these bridge components and the need for protective coatings. KYTC Contract ID 162952 includes, among other tasks, cleaning and coating specific concrete elements of eighteen bridges in Anderson and Woodford counties (District 7). These elements are interior faces of the barrier walls, pier caps, and abutment seats. The contract was let on July 29 ...


Proposed Testing Of Concrete Sealers, Danny Wells, Sudhir Palle, Theodore Hopwood Ii Jul 2017

Proposed Testing Of Concrete Sealers, Danny Wells, Sudhir Palle, Theodore Hopwood Ii

Kentucky Transportation Center Technical Assistance Report

Chlorides, in sufficient concentrations, will cause corrosion of steel reinforcement in bridge decks. Previous studies have shown that de-icing chemicals and practices used by the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) can result in problematic levels of chloride at steel reinforcing depths in a relatively short amount of time. With the advent of liquid applied pre-treatment deicing chemicals, testing performed in Kentucky indicate chloride levels in bridge decks at a depth of two inches have increased significantly.

Chlorides, in sufficient concentrations, will cause corrosion of steel reinforcement in bridge decks. Previous studies have shown that de-icing chemicals and practices used by the ...