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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Effects Of Chloride Ions In Acid-Catalyzed Biomass Dehydration Reactions In Polar Aprotic Solvents, Max A. Mellmer, Chotitath Sanpitakseree, Benginur Demir, Kaiwen Ma, William A. Elliott, Peng Bai, Robert L. Johnson, Theodore W. Walker, Brent H. Shanks, Robert M. Rioux, Matthew Neurock, James A. Dumesic Mar 2019

Effects Of Chloride Ions In Acid-Catalyzed Biomass Dehydration Reactions In Polar Aprotic Solvents, Max A. Mellmer, Chotitath Sanpitakseree, Benginur Demir, Kaiwen Ma, William A. Elliott, Peng Bai, Robert L. Johnson, Theodore W. Walker, Brent H. Shanks, Robert M. Rioux, Matthew Neurock, James A. Dumesic

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The use of polar aprotic solvents in acid-catalyzed biomass conversion reactions can lead to improved reaction rates and selectivities. We show that further increases in catalyst performance in polar aprotic solvents can be achieved through the addition of inorganic salts, specifically chlorides. Reaction kinetics studies of the Brønsted acid-catalyzed dehydration of fructose to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) show that the use of catalytic concentrations of chloride salts leads to a 10-fold increase in reactivity. Furthermore, increased HMF yields can be achieved using polar aprotic solvents mixed with chlorides. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations (AIMD) show that highly localized negative charge on Cl ...


Economic Analysis Of Reactive Distillation In The Production Of Tert-Amyl Methyl Ether (Tame), Clayton Brandenburg Apr 2018

Economic Analysis Of Reactive Distillation In The Production Of Tert-Amyl Methyl Ether (Tame), Clayton Brandenburg

Senior Theses

Aspen HYSYS was used to make two flowsheets, one with plug flow reactors and distillation columns and another with a reactive distillation column, to see which flowsheet was better at producing tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) and which one was more economically feasible. The goal was to produce 15,000 metric tons of TAME per year by reacting a naptha stream with methanol. It was found that both flowsheets were capable of producing the desired amounts of TAME and with product purities around 100%. The conversions of the reactive distillation was 93.93%, significantly higher than the 72.48% and 76 ...


Sequence And Entropy-Based Control Of Complex Coacervates, Li-Wei Chang, Tyler K. Lytle, Mithun Radhakrishna, Joel J. Madinya, Jon Vélez, Charles E. Sing, Sarah L. Perry Jan 2017

Sequence And Entropy-Based Control Of Complex Coacervates, Li-Wei Chang, Tyler K. Lytle, Mithun Radhakrishna, Joel J. Madinya, Jon Vélez, Charles E. Sing, Sarah L. Perry

Chemical Engineering Faculty Publication Series

Biomacromolecules rely on the precise placement of monomers to encode information for structure, function, and physiology. Efforts to emulate this complexity via the synthetic control of chemical sequence in polymers are finding success; however, there is little understanding of how to translate monomer sequence to physical material properties. Here we establish design rules for implementing this sequence-control in materials known as complex coacervates. These materials are formed by the associative phase separation of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes into polyelectrolyte dense (coacervate) and polyelectrolyte dilute (supernatant) phases. We demonstrate that patterns of charges can profoundly affect the charge–charge associations that drive ...


The Influence Of Relative Particle Size And Material Interactions On The Flow-Induced Detachment Of Particles From A Microchannel, Morgan Brittany Mayfield Jul 2016

The Influence Of Relative Particle Size And Material Interactions On The Flow-Induced Detachment Of Particles From A Microchannel, Morgan Brittany Mayfield

Graduate Theses - Chemical Engineering

Particulate transport in microfluidic channels is difficult due to confined geometries and low flow rates, which promote solids settling. To re-entrain these solids, the detachment behavior of closely-fitting particles from microchannel walls must be understood. Experiments were completed to examine the effects of particle size and material interactions on particle detachment velocity. Studies were conducted for various sizes of glass and poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, spheres in glass and poly(dimethyl siloxane), PDMS, microfluidic channels. In addition, an inexpensive method to produce monodisperse PMMA microparticles was developed. To analyze the effect of material interactions, the work of adhesion between the ...


Investigation Of Degradation Of Amine Sorbent, Elijah Arendt Jan 2016

Investigation Of Degradation Of Amine Sorbent, Elijah Arendt

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of amine-grafted sorbents, specifically when they are degraded at 120°C. This study varied the amine source and the amount of it in the sorbent. The additive type and the amount of it was also manipulated. The performance of sorbents is characterized by CO2 capture capacity, which is the amount (in mmol) of CO2 captured per gram of sorbent at 40°C. The best performing sorbents are ones that maintain their CO2 capture capacity after degradation. When the amount of additive was manipulated, the sorbents containing 2 ...


Heat Integration Of An Aniline Production Process To Optimize Cost Savings And Reduce Energy Usage, Dillon Ashby May 2015

Heat Integration Of An Aniline Production Process To Optimize Cost Savings And Reduce Energy Usage, Dillon Ashby

Senior Theses

The purpose of this project was to individually complete a heat integration optimization for my group’s senior design project, a process for the large-scale production of aniline.


Evaluation Of The Performance Of A Downward Flow Inclined Gravity Settler For Algae Dewatering, Dustin D. Bowden Jan 2015

Evaluation Of The Performance Of A Downward Flow Inclined Gravity Settler For Algae Dewatering, Dustin D. Bowden

ETD Archive

With recent concerns over the environmental implications of burning fossil fuels coupled with the depletion of fossil fuel reserves an alternative source of energy isneeded. Algae derived biofuels may be an effective replacement for transportation fuels as they are carbon neutral and have a high area productivity. Algae is superior to terrestrial plants as a biofuel source due to its high oil productivity and efficiency along with the fact that it will not displace food production. Currently the largest obstacle to the implementation of commercial algae to biofuel processes is algae dewatering. The separation of algae from water is difficult ...


Determining The Transport Enhancement Of Sodium Fluorescein In Mechanically-Loaded Canine Tibia, Andrew Joseph Zak Jan 2015

Determining The Transport Enhancement Of Sodium Fluorescein In Mechanically-Loaded Canine Tibia, Andrew Joseph Zak

ETD Archive

Quantitative research concerning the impact of mechanical loading on the transport properties of bone has several critical applications. One such application is the effect of a microgravity environment, where the lack of mechanical forces on bone has been shown to negatively impact both growth and repair. A method has been developed in our lab that can potentially allow for the measurement of the effective permeability of large molecules (i.e., 300-15,000 Da in size) in bone tissue under both unloaded and mechanically loaded conditions. In proof-of-concept experiments, previous students have measured the effective diffusivity of the model solute, sodium ...


Time And Temperature Dependent Surface Tension Measurements Of Responsive Protein-Based Polymer Surfactant Solutions, Hakan Celik Jan 2015

Time And Temperature Dependent Surface Tension Measurements Of Responsive Protein-Based Polymer Surfactant Solutions, Hakan Celik

ETD Archive

A three-armed star elastin-like polypeptide (ELP-foldon) has thermoreversible character which exhibits phase separation above a transition temperature (Tt) in physiologic salt concentrations. At lower salt concentration, the ELP-foldon behaves like a thermoresponsive surfactant, exhibiting micelle formation above its Tt. The purpose of this study is characterize the surfactant behavior of the ELP-foldon at air-liquid interface by measuring the surface tension. The surface tension is measured as a function of time for different ELP concentrations from 10 nM to 50 ℗æM and over range of temperatures from 25 to 35 ℗¿ using the axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA). The ADSA is a ...


Quantifying Individual Losses In A Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, Jennifer Rae Ruffing Dec 2014

Quantifying Individual Losses In A Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, Jennifer Rae Ruffing

Theses and Dissertations

The performance of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is complicated due to the complex interactions of kinetic and transport processes. As a result, changes in one aspect of the cell have consequences in other aspects, which are difficult to elucidate from the full-cell polarization (i.e. voltage vs. current) behavior that fuel cell researchers often use to characterize the performance of their systems. The objective of this work was to develop a strategy to use current and voltage relationships from anode half cells, cathode half-cells, and a hydrogen pump, coupled with methanol crossover data and a mathematical model, to ...


Mesoporous Tio2 Bragg Stack Templated By Graft Copolymer For Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells, Jung T. Park, Won S. Chi, Sang J. Kim, Daeyeon Lee, Jong H. Kim Jul 2014

Mesoporous Tio2 Bragg Stack Templated By Graft Copolymer For Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells, Jung T. Park, Won S. Chi, Sang J. Kim, Daeyeon Lee, Jong H. Kim

Departmental Papers (CBE)

Organized mesoporous TiO2 Bragg stacks (om-TiO2 BS) consisting of alternating high and low refractive index organized mesoporous TiO2(om-TiO2) films were prepared to enhance dye loading, light harvesting, electron transport, and electrolyte pore-infiltration in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The om-TiO2 films were synthesized via a sol-gel reaction using amphiphilic graft copolymers consisting of poly(vinyl chloride) backbones and poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) side chains, i.e., PVC-g-POEM as templates. To generate high and low index films, the refractive index of om-TiO2 film was tuned by controlling the grafting ratio of PVC-g-POEM ...


Design And Construction Of A Chemical Engineering (Cheme) Car Using Thermoelectrics, Timothy Barnhill, Sara Davino, Spencer Faltin, Lauryn Jamison, Christina Papadimitrio, Mccall Rogers May 2014

Design And Construction Of A Chemical Engineering (Cheme) Car Using Thermoelectrics, Timothy Barnhill, Sara Davino, Spencer Faltin, Lauryn Jamison, Christina Papadimitrio, Mccall Rogers

Senior Theses

Six chemical engineering undergraduates at the University of South Carolina formed a team to compete in the 2014 AIChE Chem-E-Car competition at the Southern Regional Student Conference in San Juan, Puerto Rico, in March. In the Chem-E-Car competition, students must design and build a vehicle powered by an unconventional form of chemical energy to carry a specified weight over a given distance (1). The group used knowledge gained through undergraduate study to construct a small-scale vehicle that is powered by a set of thermoelectric generators utilizing a heat gradient between boiling water and an ethanol-dry ice mixture (2). An iodine ...


Mechanism Of Insulin Aggregation: Applied To Alzheimer's Disease, Milos Atz May 2014

Mechanism Of Insulin Aggregation: Applied To Alzheimer's Disease, Milos Atz

Honors Scholar Theses

Alzheimer’s disease, a debilitating neurodegenerative illness, is caused by the irreversible aggregation of beta-amyloid proteins in the brain. In Alzheimer’s brains, the protein can become disfigured, causing it to aggregate into long, insoluble fibers that deposit on brain tissue. Studying the aggregation mechanisms of amyloid proteins can lead to a deeper understanding of the progression of Alzheimer’s disease and possibly point towards a potential cure or treatment for the disease. Heat induced aggregation of insulin provides a model system to study the aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins. This study investigates the early stages of heat induced insulin aggregation ...


Reduction Of Ketoximes To Amines By Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation Using Raney Nickel And 2-Propanol As Hydrogen Donor, Katherynne E. Taylor May 2014

Reduction Of Ketoximes To Amines By Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation Using Raney Nickel And 2-Propanol As Hydrogen Donor, Katherynne E. Taylor

Honors Theses

Ketoximes successfully underwent hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation under catalytic transfer conditions with Raney Nickel and 2-propanol as a hydrogen donor. Ketoximes were reduced to primary amines when 2% KOH was included in the reaction. In the absence of KOH N-isopropyl-secondary-amines were obtained in good yields.


Avoiding Aggregation During Drying And Rehydration Of Nanocellulose, Evelyn Fairman May 2014

Avoiding Aggregation During Drying And Rehydration Of Nanocellulose, Evelyn Fairman

Honors College

Nanocellulose has attracted attention from academic researchers and industrial corporations worldwide. It is a sustainable raw material with remarkable strength and rheological properties. The industrial production of nanocellulose is an aqueous process; however, many of its valuableproperties are lost upon water removal. Indeed, once dried, nanocellulose irreversibly assembles into a plastic-like material. Currently it can betoo expensive to transport the aqueous suspensions. In order to mitigate high transportation costs, a methodmust be developed to dry and rehydrate nanocellulose whilst maintaining its nano-morphology. The current work demonstrates that the introduction of a cationic surfactant into the aqueous nanocellulose suspensionyields a chemical ...


A Psa Process For An Oxygen Concentrator, Aaron A. Moran Jan 2014

A Psa Process For An Oxygen Concentrator, Aaron A. Moran

ETD Archive

Oxygen is used in a variety of chemical processes and for medical purposes throughout the world. Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) has become a viable alternative to cryogenic distillation for the separation of oxygen from air with the development of advanced adsorbents like zeolites. PSA processes are inherently complex because it is a dynamic process. Efficient operation of a PSA process is necessary in order to utilize the capacity of the adsorbent as much as possible and reduce the power requirements of the process.In this thesis, a novel zeolite adsorbent was utilized in a PSA process for oxygen generation with ...


Characterization Of Samples For Optimization Of Infrared Stray Light Coatings, Carey L. Baxter, Rebecca Salvemini, Zaheer A. Ali, Patrick Waddell, Greg Perryman, Bob Thompson Aug 2013

Characterization Of Samples For Optimization Of Infrared Stray Light Coatings, Carey L. Baxter, Rebecca Salvemini, Zaheer A. Ali, Patrick Waddell, Greg Perryman, Bob Thompson

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

NASA’s Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a converted 747SP that houses a 2.5 m telescope that observes the sky through an opening in the side of the aircraft. Because it flies at altitudes up to 45,000 feet, SOFIA gets 99.99% transmission in the infrared. Multiple science instruments mount one at a time on the telescope to interpret infrared and visible light from target sources. Ball Infrared Black (BIRB) currently coats everything that the optics sees inside the telescope assembly (TA) cavity in order to eliminate noise from the glow of background sky, aircraft exhaust ...


Hollow Fiber Module For Continuous Ethanol Fermentation, Leia M. Dwyer May 2013

Hollow Fiber Module For Continuous Ethanol Fermentation, Leia M. Dwyer

Honors Scholar Theses

Continuous processes have several advantages over their batch counterparts and are prevalent across the chemical engineering industry today. The process of brewing beer, however, remains a batch process. Transforming the brewing process into a continuous process could have many advantages including lowered process down-time, increased profits, and higher product homogeneity. This project looked into several aspects of the brewing process to gain insight into the potential for continuous ethanol fermentation. First, a kinetic model was developed for the enzymatic breakdown of starch to simple sugars in the production of wort from malted barley. Next, the growth kinetics of brewer’s ...


Design Focused Computer Module For Chemical Engineering Outreach, Marc Beachemin May 2013

Design Focused Computer Module For Chemical Engineering Outreach, Marc Beachemin

Honors College

The purpose of this project is to propose the use of a computer simulation to provide middle and high school students with a chemical engineering design experience. Long standing collective efforts between the University of Maine Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and the Pulp and Paper Foundation have resulted in a variety of outreach programs aimed at students of this age. Recently, both organizations have been increasing efforts in these areas, proposing a senior design project focused on making a portable model demonstrating chemical engineering concepts. This project was examined along with other outreach efforts and teaching modules. The ...


Asymmetric Hydrogenation Of Α, Β-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acid Over Chiral-Modified Palladium Catalyst, Shuai Tan Jan 2013

Asymmetric Hydrogenation Of Α, Β-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acid Over Chiral-Modified Palladium Catalyst, Shuai Tan

Theses and Dissertations

The production of optically pure chemicals through enantioselective catalytic reaction plays a key role a variety of industrials (e.g., pharmaceutical, agrochemical). Among several established methods, chiral-modified supported transition metal catalyst has been addressed attentions since past decades due to an environmental concern. Asymmetric hydrogenation of α, β-unsaturated carboxylic acid over Pd catalyst is of particular interest in this area. Nevertheless, the spectroscopic aspect, as well as the kinetic mechanism of such reaction system are still not clearly understood and require further study. In this work, a model catalytic reaction has been investigated from both spectroscopic and kinetic view. To ...


Effect Of Matrix Modulus On Cancer Stem Cells And Tumorsphere Formation In Three-Dimensional-Engineered Matrix, Samaneh Kamali Sarvestani Jan 2013

Effect Of Matrix Modulus On Cancer Stem Cells And Tumorsphere Formation In Three-Dimensional-Engineered Matrix, Samaneh Kamali Sarvestani

Theses and Dissertations

Maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is regulated by their microenvironment. As cancer cells are affected by many factors in their microenvironment, a major challenge is to isolate the effect of a specific factor on cancer stem cells (CSCs) while keeping other factors unchanged. We have developed a synthetic inert 3D polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) gel culture system as a unique tool to study the effect of microenvironmental factors on CSCs response. Synthetic hydrogels provide the flexibility to design three-dimensional (3D) matrices to isolate and study individual factors in the tumor microenvironment.

The objective of this work was to investigate ...


Theoretical Investigation Of The Water-Gas Shift Reaction At The Three Phase Boundary Of Ceria Supported Platinum Metal Clusters, Sara Aranifard Jan 2013

Theoretical Investigation Of The Water-Gas Shift Reaction At The Three Phase Boundary Of Ceria Supported Platinum Metal Clusters, Sara Aranifard

Theses and Dissertations

The Water-Gas Shift (WGS: CO+H2O→CO2+H2) reaction is a key step in hydrogen fuel processing for mobile fuel cell applications. Since the reaction is equilibrium-limited and exothermic, high conversions are favored by low temperatures. However, conventional low-temperature shift catalysts are not active enough. Reducible oxide supported small noble metal clusters have shown excellent activity as low temperature WGS catalysts and it is generally believed that these catalysts are bifunctional. In other words, the reaction occurs at the three-phase boundary (TPB) of the noble metal, the reducible oxide, and the gas phase. The small noble metal cluster adsorbs/activates ...


Enantioselective Hydrogenation Of Α-Methylcinnamic Acid Over Pd/Al2o3: A Spectroscopic And Kinetic Study, Xiaojing Sun Jan 2013

Enantioselective Hydrogenation Of Α-Methylcinnamic Acid Over Pd/Al2o3: A Spectroscopic And Kinetic Study, Xiaojing Sun

Theses and Dissertations

Hydrogenation of C=C in α-methylcinnamic acid (MCA) is studied by both kinetic and spectroscopic method. Kinetic study was in a semi-batch reactor. The reaction activity is strongly solvent dependent, while selectivity remains almost unaffected. The reaction is zero order in hydrogen pressure and first order in MCA. The presence of cinchonidine does not affect the reaction order with respect to either acid or H2 pressure, but has a significant inhibiting effect on the reaction rate. The catalyst exhibits stable activity during the reaction with no sign of deactivation. The adsorption and hydrogenation in dichloromethane, isopropanol and 1, 4-Dioxane over ...


High-Throughput Synthesis Of Carbohydrates And Functionalization Of Polyanhydride Nanoparticles, Brenda Rocio Carrillo-Conde, Rajarshi Roychoudhury, Ana Vianey Chavez-Santoscoy, Balaji Narasimhan, Nicola L.B. Pohl Jul 2012

High-Throughput Synthesis Of Carbohydrates And Functionalization Of Polyanhydride Nanoparticles, Brenda Rocio Carrillo-Conde, Rajarshi Roychoudhury, Ana Vianey Chavez-Santoscoy, Balaji Narasimhan, Nicola L.B. Pohl

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Transdisciplinary approaches involving areas such as material design, nanotechnology, chemistry, and immunology have to be utilized to rationally design efficacious vaccines carriers. Nanoparticle-based platforms can prolong the persistence of vaccine antigens, which could improve vaccine immunogenicity 1. Several biodegradable polymers have been studied as vaccine delivery vehicles 1; in particular, polyanhydride particles have demonstrated the ability to provide sustained release of stable protein antigens and to activate antigen presenting cells and modulate immune responses 2-12. The molecular design of these vaccine carriers needs to integrate the rational selection of polymer properties as well as the incorporation of appropriate targeting agents ...


Kinetic Modeling Of Methanol Synthesis From Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, And Hydrogen Over A Cu/Zno/Cr2o3 Catalyst, Daaniya Rahman Jan 2012

Kinetic Modeling Of Methanol Synthesis From Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, And Hydrogen Over A Cu/Zno/Cr2o3 Catalyst, Daaniya Rahman

Master's Theses

The main purpose of this study was to investigate kinetic models proposed in the

literature for methanol synthesis and select the best fit model using regression techniques

in POLYMATH. Another aim was to use the results from the best fit model to explain

some aspects and resolve some questions related to methanol synthesis kinetics. Two

statistically sound kinetic models were chosen from literature based on their goodness of

fit to the respective kinetic data. POLYMATH, the non-linear regression software, was

used to fit published experimental data to different kinetic models and evaluate kinetic

parameters. The statistical results from POLYMATH were ...


The Economic Potential Of The All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery With A Focus On State Of Charge, Elizabeth Hope Mouron May 2011

The Economic Potential Of The All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery With A Focus On State Of Charge, Elizabeth Hope Mouron

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Slides: Geospatial Decision Support For Shale Gas Site Development, Malcolm Williamson, Jackson Cothren, Peter Smith Oct 2010

Slides: Geospatial Decision Support For Shale Gas Site Development, Malcolm Williamson, Jackson Cothren, Peter Smith

Opportunities and Obstacles to Reducing the Environmental Footprint of Natural Gas Development in Uintah Basin (October 14)

Presenter: Malcolm Williamson, Center for Advanced Spatial Technologies, University of Arkansas

50 slides


Effects Of Preparative Parameters On The Structure And Performance Of Ca-La Metal Oxide Catalysts For Oil Transesterification, Shuli Yan, Manhoe Kim, Siddharth Mohan, Steven O. Salley, K.Y. Simon Ng Jan 2010

Effects Of Preparative Parameters On The Structure And Performance Of Ca-La Metal Oxide Catalysts For Oil Transesterification, Shuli Yan, Manhoe Kim, Siddharth Mohan, Steven O. Salley, K.Y. Simon Ng

National Biofuels Energy Laboratory

The effects of preparative parameters on the surface basicity, composition, and transesterification activities of several Ca-La metal oxide catalysts were investigated. Four different preparation methods: ammonia-ethanol-carbon dioxide precipitation, physical mixing, impregnation, and co-precipitation, were studied. It was found that the ammonia-ethanol-carbon dioxide precipitation method resulted in the highest BET specific surface area, base strength and base site concentration. Moreover, catalyst surface composition and basicity are a function of calcination temperature, precipitants, pH, and molar ratio of Ca to La in precursor solution, and storage conditions. XRD, XPS, basicity and BET tests revealed that catalyst structure and dispersion of Ca species ...


Patterned Well-Ordered Mesoporous Silica Films For Device Fabrication, Todd A. Crosby Jan 2009

Patterned Well-Ordered Mesoporous Silica Films For Device Fabrication, Todd A. Crosby

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Developing effective methods of generating thin metal oxide films are important for sensing and separations applications. An obstacle to device fabrication is controlling the size and spatial orientation of domain level pores while retaining the ability to generate arbitrary device level patterns. Well-ordered hexagonally packed cylindrical pores were created by taking advantage of block copolymer self-assembly followed by selective condensation of silica precursors using supercritical carbon dioxide as the solvent. It was possible to control the pore size by choosing PEO-PPO-PEO (Pluronic® series) triblock copolymers of differing molecular weights.

These processes were then incorporated with conventional lithographic techniques to generate ...


Slurry Based Coatings On Silicon Based Ceramics, Sameer K. Khaja-Abdul Jan 2008

Slurry Based Coatings On Silicon Based Ceramics, Sameer K. Khaja-Abdul

ETD Archive

The use of advanced structural ceramics, such as Si3N4 (SN282), SiC, and SiC/SiC composites, is a promising technology to accomplish the high performance goals for advanced turbine applications. These materials exhibit excellent corrosion resistance by forming a dense silica scale. However, severe degradation of the silica scale has been observed due to the presence of certain environmental species, like alkali salts and water vapors, limiting the long-term reliability of structural ceramics. Presence of water vapor in the turbine environment leads to the formation of a gaseous silicon hydroxide species (Si(OH)4) via a reaction with silica layer, SiO2 ...