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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Highly Directional Receiver And Source Antennas Using Photonic Band Gap Crystals, Rana Biswas, Gary L. Tuttle, Ekmel Ozbay, Burak Temelkuran, Mihail Sigalas, Kai-Ming Ho Jun 2017

Highly Directional Receiver And Source Antennas Using Photonic Band Gap Crystals, Rana Biswas, Gary L. Tuttle, Ekmel Ozbay, Burak Temelkuran, Mihail Sigalas, Kai-Ming Ho

Gary Tuttle

A directional antenna made with photonic band gap structures has been presented. The directional antenna is formed with two photonic band gap structures oriented back to back and separated from each other by a distance to form a resonant cavity between the photonic band gap structures. An antenna element is placed in the resonant cavity. The resonant frequency of the cavity is tuned by adjusting the distance between the photonic band gap structures. The resonant cavity can be asymmetrical or symmetrical.


Ferromagnetism Of Magnetically Doped Topological Insulators In Crxbi2− Xte3 Thin Films, Yan Ni, Z. Zhang, Ikenna C. Nlebedim, M. Ravi Hadimani, Gary L. Tuttle, David C. Jiles Jun 2017

Ferromagnetism Of Magnetically Doped Topological Insulators In Crxbi2− Xte3 Thin Films, Yan Ni, Z. Zhang, Ikenna C. Nlebedim, M. Ravi Hadimani, Gary L. Tuttle, David C. Jiles

Gary Tuttle

We investigated the effect of magnetic doping on magnetic and transport properties of Bi2Te3thin films. CrxBi2−xTe3 thin films with x = 0.03, 0.14, and 0.29 were grown epitaxially on mica substrate with low surface roughness (∼0.4 nm). It is found that Cr is an electron acceptor in Bi2Te3 and increases the magnetization of CrxBi2−xTe3. When x = 0.14 and 0.29,ferromagnetism appears in CrxBi2−xTe3 thin films, where anomalous Hall effect and weak localization of magnetoconductance were observed. The Curie temperature, coercivity, and remnant Hall resistance of thin films increase with increasing Cr concentration ...


A New Method For Strengthening Gold, Alan M. Russell, Kai Xu, L. Scott Chumbley, James Parks, Joel Harringa May 2017

A New Method For Strengthening Gold, Alan M. Russell, Kai Xu, L. Scott Chumbley, James Parks, Joel Harringa

Alan M. Russell

Metal-metal composites were first produced in a copper matrix in the 1970’s, and they have since been produced in several other binary metal systems. This strengthening technique reinforces a ductile metal matrix with a ductile metal second phase. In some binary systems, this technique confers extraordinarily high strength and hardness while still maintaining low electrical resistivity. This article reports on the first gold matrix metal-metal composite, which was produced by deformation processing a 90%Au-10%Ag powder compact. The Au-Ag specimen studied had an ultimate tensile strength of 550 MPa and an electrical resistivity only 8% higher than that ...


Thermal Effects On The Magnetic Properties Of Titanium Modified Cobalt Ferrite, Ikenna C. Nlebedim, David C. Jiles May 2016

Thermal Effects On The Magnetic Properties Of Titanium Modified Cobalt Ferrite, Ikenna C. Nlebedim, David C. Jiles

David C. Jiles

The temperature dependence of the magnetic properties of titanium modified cobalt ferrite is presented. The change of maximum magnetization obtained at H ≈ 2.4 MA/m between any two temperatures increases systematically with composition, which is desirable for applications in devices. Variation in magnetocrystalline anisotropy and coercivity were different from previous studies on cation substituted cobalt ferrite. At lower concentrations, the effect of lower thermal energy dominated the effect of non-magnetic cation substitutions in controlling the anisotropy.The reverse was the case at higher concentrations. The temperature dependence of coercivity is dominated by the contribution of magnetocrystalline anisotropy to coercivity ...


Fine Structure Observation In Magnetostriction Near The Transition Temperature In Gd5si1.95ge2.05, Ravi L. Hadimani, Y. Melikhov, David C. Jiles May 2016

Fine Structure Observation In Magnetostriction Near The Transition Temperature In Gd5si1.95ge2.05, Ravi L. Hadimani, Y. Melikhov, David C. Jiles

David C. Jiles

Gd5(Si\rm xGe1 -\rm x)4 has a complex magnetic-structural phase diagram which can be divided into three distinct regions. It exhibits an unusual first-order coupled magnetic-structural phase transition in the region \rm x < 0.51. A series of magnetostrictive strain measurements were carried out as a function of magnetic field strength at different temperatures and as a function of temperature at near-zero magnetic field strengths. In this paper, we report for the first time the observation of fine structure in the variation of strain with magnetic field near the first-order phase transition temperature. This fine structure was observed ...


Ferromagnetism Of Magnetically Doped Topological Insulators In Crxbi2− Xte3 Thin Films, Yan Ni, Z. Zhang, Ikenna C. Nlebedim, M. Ravi Hadimani, Gary L. Tuttle, David C. Jiles May 2016

Ferromagnetism Of Magnetically Doped Topological Insulators In Crxbi2− Xte3 Thin Films, Yan Ni, Z. Zhang, Ikenna C. Nlebedim, M. Ravi Hadimani, Gary L. Tuttle, David C. Jiles

David C. Jiles

We investigated the effect of magnetic doping on magnetic and transport properties of Bi2Te3thin films. CrxBi2−xTe3 thin films with x = 0.03, 0.14, and 0.29 were grown epitaxially on mica substrate with low surface roughness (∼0.4 nm). It is found that Cr is an electron acceptor in Bi2Te3 and increases the magnetization of CrxBi2−xTe3. When x = 0.14 and 0.29,ferromagnetism appears in CrxBi2−xTe3 thin films, where anomalous Hall effect and weak localization of magnetoconductance were observed. The Curie temperature, coercivity, and remnant Hall resistance of thin films increase with increasing Cr concentration ...


Analysis Of Ringing Effects Due To Magnetic Core Materials In Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Circuits, Neelam G. Prabhu Gaunkar, N. R. Y. Bouda, Ikenna C. Nlebedim, Ravi L. Hadimani, I. Bulu, K. Ganesan, Y. Q. Song, Mani Mina, David C. Jiles May 2016

Analysis Of Ringing Effects Due To Magnetic Core Materials In Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Circuits, Neelam G. Prabhu Gaunkar, N. R. Y. Bouda, Ikenna C. Nlebedim, Ravi L. Hadimani, I. Bulu, K. Ganesan, Y. Q. Song, Mani Mina, David C. Jiles

David C. Jiles

This work presents investigations and detailed analysis of ringing in a non-resonant pulsednuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) circuit. Ringing is a commonly observed phenomenon in high power switching circuits. The oscillations described as ringing impede measurements in pulsed NMR systems. It is therefore desirable that those oscillations decay fast. It is often assumed that one of the causes behind ringing is the role of the magnetic core used in theantenna (acting as an inductive load). We will demonstrate that an LRC subcircuit is also set-up due to the inductive load and needs to be considered due to its parasitic effects. It ...


Second Order Phase Transition Temperature Of Single Crystals Of Gd5si1.3ge2.7 And Gd5si1.4ge2.6, Ravi L. Hadimani, Yevgen Melikhov, Deborah L. Schlagel, Thomas A. Lograsso, Kevin W. Dennis, R. William Mccallum, David C. Jiles May 2016

Second Order Phase Transition Temperature Of Single Crystals Of Gd5si1.3ge2.7 And Gd5si1.4ge2.6, Ravi L. Hadimani, Yevgen Melikhov, Deborah L. Schlagel, Thomas A. Lograsso, Kevin W. Dennis, R. William Mccallum, David C. Jiles

David C. Jiles

Gd5(Six Ge 1−x)4 has mixed phases in the composition range 0.32 < x < 0.41, which have not been widely studied. In this paper, we have synthesized and indexed single crystal samples of Gd5Si1.3 Ge 2.7 and Gd5Si1.4 Ge 2.6. We have investigated the first order and second orderphase transition temperatures of these samples using magnetic moment vs. temperature andmagnetic moment vs. magnetic field at different temperatures. We have used a modified Arrott plot technique that was developed and reported by us previously to determine the “hidden” second order phase transition temperature of ...


Focused And Deep Brain Magnetic Stimulation Using New Coil Design In Mice, S. D. March, S. Mcatee, M. Senter, K. Spoth, Daniel R. Stiner, Lawrence J. Crowther, Ravi L. Hadimani, David C. Jiles May 2016

Focused And Deep Brain Magnetic Stimulation Using New Coil Design In Mice, S. D. March, S. Mcatee, M. Senter, K. Spoth, Daniel R. Stiner, Lawrence J. Crowther, Ravi L. Hadimani, David C. Jiles

David C. Jiles

Deep brain transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) offers promising treatment for neurological disorders that originate from deeper regions of the brain, such as Parkinson's disease. Coils designed for the human head need significant redesigning to stimulate selective regions of the mouse brain for advanced TMS therapy analysis. We report a focused and deep brain TMS coil for mice that is based on a two coil configuration similar to the 'Halo coil'. A heterogeneous MRI derived head model of mouse was used to obtain an electric field of about 150 V/m in selective deeper regions of the brain. Focality of ...


Influence Of Ga-Concentration On The Electrical And Magnetic Properties Of Magnetoelectric Cogaxfe2− Xo4/Batio3 Composite, Yan Ni, Zhen Zhang, Cajetan I. Nlebedim, David C. Jiles May 2016

Influence Of Ga-Concentration On The Electrical And Magnetic Properties Of Magnetoelectric Cogaxfe2− Xo4/Batio3 Composite, Yan Ni, Zhen Zhang, Cajetan I. Nlebedim, David C. Jiles

David C. Jiles

Multiferroic materials exhibit magnetoelectric (ME) coupling and promise new device applications including magnetic sensors, generators, and filters. An effective method for developing ME materials with enhanced ME effect is achieved by the coupling through the interfacial strain between piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials. In this study, the electrical and magnetic properties of Ga doped magnetoelectric CoGaxFe2−xO4/BaTiO3composite are studied systematically. It is found that Ga doping improves the sensitivity of magnetoelastic response and stabilizes the magnetic phase of the composites. More importantly, Ga doping reduces the electrical conductivity of composite, as well as the dielectric loss. An enhancement of the ...


A Numerical Dosimetry Study For Pediatric Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Lawrence J. Crowther, Ravi L. Hadimani, David C. Jiles May 2016

A Numerical Dosimetry Study For Pediatric Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Lawrence J. Crowther, Ravi L. Hadimani, David C. Jiles

David C. Jiles

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used to study brain function and is being investigated as a possible treatment for a variety of neurological disorders and neuropsychiatric diseases. Most studies implementing TMS utilize adult subjects but the method may also be a beneficial tool in the treatment of pediatric patients. It is known that the structure of pediatric brains differ to those of adults and the use of scaled adult head models for studying exposure to electromagnetic radiation may provide erroneous results. In this study numerical calculations have been performed incorporating high-resolution anatomically realistic human models of varying age to ...


Enhancement Of Magnetocaloric Effect In The Gd2al Phase By Co Alloying, Z. Y. Huang, H. Fu, Ravi L. Hadimani, E. Agurgo Balfour, S. N. Dembele, B. H. Teng, David C. Jiles May 2016

Enhancement Of Magnetocaloric Effect In The Gd2al Phase By Co Alloying, Z. Y. Huang, H. Fu, Ravi L. Hadimani, E. Agurgo Balfour, S. N. Dembele, B. H. Teng, David C. Jiles

David C. Jiles

To understand the effect of Co doping on the magnetic entropy changes in Gd2 Al phase, a series of Gd2AlCox alloys with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6 were synthesized by arc-melting and the crystal structure was analyzed by XRD. The magnetic properties were investigated, and the entropychanges were calculated for a magnetic field change of 50 kOe. All the as-cast alloys dopedwith Co exhibited greater magnetic entropy changes than the original binary Gd2 Al phase. The main reasons attributed to this are the increase of ferromagnetic interaction indicated by the disappearance of cusp and sharp drop in magnetization and the reduction ...


Structure And Growth Of Height-Selected Ag Islands On Fivefold I-Alpdmn Quasicrystalline Surfaces: Stm Analysis And Step Dynamics Modeling, Barış Ünal, V. Fournée, Patricia A. Thiel, James W. Evans Feb 2016

Structure And Growth Of Height-Selected Ag Islands On Fivefold I-Alpdmn Quasicrystalline Surfaces: Stm Analysis And Step Dynamics Modeling, Barış Ünal, V. Fournée, Patricia A. Thiel, James W. Evans

James W. Evans

The development and local structure of height-selected 3-layer Ag islands on fivefold surfaces of icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn quasicrystals is characterized by STM for Ag deposition at 365 K. Heterogeneous nucleation of pseudomorphic single layer high islands is followed by rapid formation of 2nd and 3rd layers and subsequent lateral spreading, where each of these 3 layers consists of a family of nonfcc structures. The behavior is elucidated by step dynamics modeling incorporating strain buildup for larger islands, enhanced binding in higher layers, and height selection due to quantum size effects.


Search For The Structure Of A Sulfur-Induced Reconstruction On Cu(111), Da-Jiang Liu, Holly L. Walen, Junepyo Oh, James W. Evans, Yousoo Kim, Patricia A. Thiel Feb 2016

Search For The Structure Of A Sulfur-Induced Reconstruction On Cu(111), Da-Jiang Liu, Holly L. Walen, Junepyo Oh, James W. Evans, Yousoo Kim, Patricia A. Thiel

James W. Evans

We have carried out an extensive DFT-based search for the structure of the (√43 × √43)R ± 7.5° reconstruction of S on Cu(111), which exhibits a honeycombtype structure in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). We apply two criteria in this search: The structure must have a reasonably low chemical potential, and it must provide a good match with STM data, both our own and the data published by Wahlström et al. Phys. Rev. B 1999, 60, 10699. The best model has 12 S adatoms and 9 Cu adatoms per unit cell. Local defects within the Cu9S12 framework, consisting of ...


Self-Organization Of S Adatoms On Au(111): √3r30° Rows At Low Coverage, Holly L. Walen, Da-Jiang Liu, Junepyo Oh, Hyunseob Lim, James W. Evans, Yousoo Kim, Patricia A. Thiel Feb 2016

Self-Organization Of S Adatoms On Au(111): √3r30° Rows At Low Coverage, Holly L. Walen, Da-Jiang Liu, Junepyo Oh, Hyunseob Lim, James W. Evans, Yousoo Kim, Patricia A. Thiel

James W. Evans

Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we observe an adlayer structure that is dominated by short rows of S atoms, on unreconstructed regions of a Au(111) surface. This structure forms upon adsorption of low S coverage (less than 0.1 monolayer) on a fully reconstructed clean surface at 300 K, then cooling to 5 K for observation. The rows adopt one of three orientations that are rotated by 30◦ from the close-packed directions of the Au(111) substrate, and adjacent S atoms in the rows are separated by √ 3 times the surface lattice constant, a. Monte Carlo simulations are performed on ...


Scanning Tunneling Microscopy And Density Functional Theory Study Of Initial Bilayer Growth Of Ag Films On Nial(110), Barış Ünal, Feili Qin, Yong Han, Da-Jiang Liu, Dapeng Jing, A. R. Layson, Cynthia J. Jenks, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel Feb 2016

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy And Density Functional Theory Study Of Initial Bilayer Growth Of Ag Films On Nial(110), Barış Ünal, Feili Qin, Yong Han, Da-Jiang Liu, Dapeng Jing, A. R. Layson, Cynthia J. Jenks, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel

James W. Evans

Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies of the deposition of Ag on bcc NiAl(110) in the temperature range from 200 to 300 K reveal an initial bilayer growth mode. In this regime, which encompasses at least the first two levels of bilayer islands, the film appears to have an fcc Ag(110)-like structure. Selection of this structure reflects an almost perfect lateral match between the Ag(110) and NiAl(110) lattice constants. Density functional theory (DFT) analysis of supported Ag films with an ideal fcc(110) structure on NiAl(110) indicates that the bilayer growth mode is promoted by ...


Reconstruction Of Steps On The Cu(111) Surface Induced By Sulfur, Holly L. Walen, Da-Jiang Liu, Junepyo Oh, Hyunseob Lim, James W. Evans, Yousoo Kim, Patricia A. Thiel Feb 2016

Reconstruction Of Steps On The Cu(111) Surface Induced By Sulfur, Holly L. Walen, Da-Jiang Liu, Junepyo Oh, Hyunseob Lim, James W. Evans, Yousoo Kim, Patricia A. Thiel

James W. Evans

Arich menagerie of structures is identified at 5Kfollowing adsorption of lowcoverages (≤0.05 monolayers) of S on Cu(111) at room temperature. This paper emphasizes the reconstructions at the steps. The A-type close-packed step has 1 row of S atoms along its lower edge, where S atoms occupy alternating pseudo-fourfold-hollow (p4fh) sites. Additionally, there are 2 rows of S atoms of equal density on the upper edge, bridging a row of extra Cu atoms, together creating an extended chain. The B-type close-packed step exhibits an even more complex reconstruction, in which triangle-shaped groups of Cu atoms shift out of their ...


Transition Metals On The (0001) Surface Of Graphite: Fundamental Aspects Of Adsorption, Diffusion, And Morphology, David Victor Appy, Huaping Lei, Cai-Zhuang Wang, Michael C. Tringides, Da-Jiang Liu, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel Feb 2016

Transition Metals On The (0001) Surface Of Graphite: Fundamental Aspects Of Adsorption, Diffusion, And Morphology, David Victor Appy, Huaping Lei, Cai-Zhuang Wang, Michael C. Tringides, Da-Jiang Liu, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel

James W. Evans

In this article, we review basic information about the interaction of transition metal atoms with the (0001) surface of graphite, especially fundamental phenomena related to growth. Those phenomena involve adatom-surface bonding, diffusion, morphology of metal clusters, interactions with steps and sputter-induced defects, condensation, and desorption. General traits emerge which have not been summarized previously. Some of these features are rather surprising when compared with metal-on-metal adsorption and growth. Opportunities for future work are pointed out.


Variation Of Growth Morphology With Chemical Composition Of Terraces: Ag On A Twofold Surface Of A Decagonal Al-Cu-Co Quasicrystal, T. Duguet, Barış Ünal, Yong Han, James W. Evans, J. Ledieu, Cynthia J. Jenks, J.-M. Dubois, V. Fournée, Patricia A. Thiel Feb 2016

Variation Of Growth Morphology With Chemical Composition Of Terraces: Ag On A Twofold Surface Of A Decagonal Al-Cu-Co Quasicrystal, T. Duguet, Barış Ünal, Yong Han, James W. Evans, J. Ledieu, Cynthia J. Jenks, J.-M. Dubois, V. Fournée, Patricia A. Thiel

James W. Evans

Growth of Ag thin films on the twofold surface of a decagonal Al-Cu-Co quasicrystal is characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy, at different temperatures, and for coverages ranging from submonolayer to 11 monolayers. From prior work, three types of clean surface terraces are known to exist. By correlation with a bulk structural model, the major difference between them lies in their transition-metal (TM) content, two being aluminum-rich (0 and 15 at. % TM) and one being TM-rich (40–50 at. % TM). The present article focuses on understanding the difference between Ag film morphologies on these terminations, in terms of their chemical content ...


Nucleation And Growth Of Ag Islands On Fivefold Al-Pd-Mn Quasicrystal Surfaces: Dependence Of Island Density On Temperature And Flux, Barış Ünal, V. Fournée, Kyle Schnitzenbaumer, C. Ghosh, Cynthia J. Jenks, A. R. Ross, Thomas A. Lograsso, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel Feb 2016

Nucleation And Growth Of Ag Islands On Fivefold Al-Pd-Mn Quasicrystal Surfaces: Dependence Of Island Density On Temperature And Flux, Barış Ünal, V. Fournée, Kyle Schnitzenbaumer, C. Ghosh, Cynthia J. Jenks, A. R. Ross, Thomas A. Lograsso, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel

James W. Evans

Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has been used to investigate the nucleation and growth of Ag islands on the fivefold surface of an icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn quasicrystal. Analysis of the data as a function of deposition temperature, from 127 K to 300 K, reveals that island density is constant, while at higher temperature it decreases. To model this behavior, we first show that the potential energy surface describing bonding of Ag at various locations on the surface is complex, with a few sites acting as traps for clusters of adatoms. We then develop a rate equation model which incorporates enhanced nucleation at ...


Kinetics Of Facile Bilayer Island Formation At Low Temperature: Ag/Nial(110), Yong Han, Barış Ünal, Feili Qin, Dapeng Jing, Cynthia J. Jenks, Da-Jiang Liu, Patricia A. Thiel, James W. Evans Feb 2016

Kinetics Of Facile Bilayer Island Formation At Low Temperature: Ag/Nial(110), Yong Han, Barış Ünal, Feili Qin, Dapeng Jing, Cynthia J. Jenks, Da-Jiang Liu, Patricia A. Thiel, James W. Evans

James W. Evans

Facile nucleation and growth of bilayer Ag(110) islands on NiAl(110) is observed by STM for Ag deposition at temperatures as low as 127 K. Density functional theory analysis for supported Ag films determines adatom adsorption energies (which favor bilayer islands), interaction energies, and diffusion barriers. Analysis of an atomistic lattice-gas model incorporating these energies elucidates the role of strongly anisotropic interactions in enabling the upward mass transport needed for bilayer island formation.


From Initial To Late Stages Of Epitaxial Thin Film Growth: Stm Analysis And Atomistic Or Coarsegrained Modeling, James W. Evans, Yong Han, Barış Ünal, Maozhi Li, K. J. Caspersen, Dapeng Jing, Anthony R. Layson, C. R. Stoldt, T. Duguet, Patricia A. Thiel Feb 2016

From Initial To Late Stages Of Epitaxial Thin Film Growth: Stm Analysis And Atomistic Or Coarsegrained Modeling, James W. Evans, Yong Han, Barış Ünal, Maozhi Li, K. J. Caspersen, Dapeng Jing, Anthony R. Layson, C. R. Stoldt, T. Duguet, Patricia A. Thiel

James W. Evans

Epitaxial thin film growth by vapor deposition or molecular beam epitaxy under ultra‐high vacuum conditions generally occurs in two stages: (i) nucleation and growth of well‐separated islands on the substrate; (ii) subsequent formation of a thicker continuous film with possible kinetic roughening. For homoepitaxial growth, two‐dimensional (2D) monolayer islands are formed during submonolayer deposition. Typically, the presence of a step‐edge barrier inhibits downward transport and leads to the formation of mounds (multilayer stacks of 2D islands) during multilayer growth. For heteroepitaxial growth, islands formed in the initial stages of deposition sometimes have a 2D monolayer structure ...


Formation And Coarsening Of Ag(110) Bilayer Islands On Nial(110): Stm Analysis And Atomistic Lattice-Gas Modeling, Yong Han, Barış Ünal, Dapeng Jing, Feili Qin, Cynthia J. Jenks, Da-Jiang Liu, Patricia A. Thiel, James W. Evans Feb 2016

Formation And Coarsening Of Ag(110) Bilayer Islands On Nial(110): Stm Analysis And Atomistic Lattice-Gas Modeling, Yong Han, Barış Ünal, Dapeng Jing, Feili Qin, Cynthia J. Jenks, Da-Jiang Liu, Patricia A. Thiel, James W. Evans

James W. Evans

Scanning tunneling microscopy analysis of the initial stages of film growth during deposition of Ag on NiAl(110) reveals facile formation of bilayer Ag(110) islands at temperatures of 130 K and above. Annealing subsequent to deposition at 130 K induces coarsening of the bilayer island distribution. The thermodynamic driving force for bilayer island formation reflects a lower relative surface energy for films of even layer thicknesses. This feature derives from quantum size effects due to electron confinement in the Ag film. The kinetics of island formation and relaxation is controlled by terrace and edge-diffusion barriers, detachment barriers, interlayer diffusion ...


Exploration Of Complex Multilayer Film Growth Morphologies: Stm Analysis And Predictive Atomistic Modeling For Ag On Ag(111), Maozhi Li, P.-W. Chung, E. Cox, Cynthia J. Jenks, Patricia A. Thiel, James W. Evans Feb 2016

Exploration Of Complex Multilayer Film Growth Morphologies: Stm Analysis And Predictive Atomistic Modeling For Ag On Ag(111), Maozhi Li, P.-W. Chung, E. Cox, Cynthia J. Jenks, Patricia A. Thiel, James W. Evans

James W. Evans

Scanning tunneling microscopy studies are integrated with development of a realistic atomistic model to both characterize and elucidate the complex mounded morphologies formed by deposition of Ag on Ag(111) at 150 and 180 K. Threefold symmetric lateral shapes of islands and mounds are shown to reflect the influence of a nonuniform step edge barrier inhibiting interlayer transport. Modeling of structure at the mound peaks leads to a sensitive estimate of the magnitude of this large barrier.


Cu2s3 Complex On Cu(111) As A Candidate For Mass Transport Enhancement, Holly L. Walen, Da-Jiang Liu, Junepyo Oh, Hyunseob Lim, James W. Evans, Christine M. Aikens, Yousoo Kim, Patricia A. Thiel Feb 2016

Cu2s3 Complex On Cu(111) As A Candidate For Mass Transport Enhancement, Holly L. Walen, Da-Jiang Liu, Junepyo Oh, Hyunseob Lim, James W. Evans, Christine M. Aikens, Yousoo Kim, Patricia A. Thiel

James W. Evans

Sulfur-metal complexes, containing only a few atoms, can open new, highly efficient pathways for transport of metal atoms on surfaces. For example, they can accelerate changes in the shape and size of morphological features, such as two-dimensional nanoclusters, over time. In this study we perform STM under conditions that are designed to specifically isolate such complexes. We find a new, unexpected S-Cu complex on the Cu(111) surface, which we identify as Cu2S3. We propose that Cu2S3 enhances mass transport in this system, which contradicts a previous proposal based on Cu3S3. We analyze bonding within these Cu-S complexes, identifying a ...


Coarsening Of Two-Dimensional Nanoclusters On Metal Surfaces, Patricia A. Thiel, Mingmin Shen, Da-Jiang Liu, James W. Evans Feb 2016

Coarsening Of Two-Dimensional Nanoclusters On Metal Surfaces, Patricia A. Thiel, Mingmin Shen, Da-Jiang Liu, James W. Evans

James W. Evans

We describe experimental observations and theoretical analysis of the coarsening of distributions of two-dimensional nanoclusters, either adatom islands or vacancy pits, on metal surfaces. A detailed analyses is provided for Ag(111) and Ag(100) surfaces, although we also discuss corresponding behavior for Cu(111) and Cu(100) surfaces. The dominant kinetic pathway for coarsening can be either Ostwald ripening (OR), i.e., growth of larger clusters at the expense of smaller ones, or Smoluchowski ripening (SR), i.e., diffusion and coalescence of clusters. First, for pristine additive-free surfaces, we elucidate the factors which control the dominant pathway. OR kinetics ...


Communication: Structure, Formation, And Equilibration Of Ensembles Of Ag-S Complexes On An Ag Surface, Selena M. Russell, Yousoo Kim, Da-Jiang Liu, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel Feb 2016

Communication: Structure, Formation, And Equilibration Of Ensembles Of Ag-S Complexes On An Ag Surface, Selena M. Russell, Yousoo Kim, Da-Jiang Liu, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel

James W. Evans

We have utilized conditions of very low temperature (4.7 K) and very low sulfur coverage to isolate and identify Ag-S complexes that exist on the Ag(111) surface. The experimental conditions are such that the complexes form at temperatures above the temperature of observation. These complexes can be regarded as polymeric chains of varying length, with an Ag4S pyramid at the core of each monomeric unit. Steps may catalyze the formation of the chains and this mechanism may be reflected in the chain length distribution.


Anisotropic Coarsening: One-Dimensional Decay Of Ag Islands On Ag(110), Yong Han, Selena M. Russell, Anthony R. Layson, Holly L. Walen, Chad D. Yuen, Patricia A. Thiel, James W. Evans Feb 2016

Anisotropic Coarsening: One-Dimensional Decay Of Ag Islands On Ag(110), Yong Han, Selena M. Russell, Anthony R. Layson, Holly L. Walen, Chad D. Yuen, Patricia A. Thiel, James W. Evans

James W. Evans

Scanning tunneling microscopy studies show that coarsening of arrays of rectangular single-layer Ag islands on Ag(110) at 220 K and below occurs by one-dimensional (1D) decay of narrower islands, which maintain roughly constant width in the 〈001〉 direction. Adatoms mainly detach from the island ends with 〈001〉 step edges. 1D decay derives from the absence of corner rounding diffusion from 〈001〉 to 〈1̅ 10〉 edges and from inhibited nucleation of new layers on 〈1̅ 10〉 edges. In contrast, rounding from 〈1̅ 10〉 to 〈001〉 edges is active. The island decay rate exhibits an unexpectedly low effective Arrhenius energy due ...


Accelerated Coarsening Of Ag Adatom Islands On Ag(111) Due To Trace Amounts Of S: Mass-Transport Mediated By Ag–S Complexes, Mingmin Shen, Da-Jiang Liu, Cynthia J. Jenks, Patricia A. Thiel, James W. Evans Feb 2016

Accelerated Coarsening Of Ag Adatom Islands On Ag(111) Due To Trace Amounts Of S: Mass-Transport Mediated By Ag–S Complexes, Mingmin Shen, Da-Jiang Liu, Cynthia J. Jenks, Patricia A. Thiel, James W. Evans

James W. Evans

Scanning tunneling microscopy studies reveal that trace amounts of adsorbed S below a critical coverage on the order of 10 mML have little effect on the coarsening and decay of monolayer Ag adatom islands on Ag(111) at 300 K. In contrast, above this critical coverage, decay is greatly accelerated. This critical value appears to be determined by whether all S can be accommodated at step edges. Accelerated coarsening derives from the feature that the excess S (above that incorporated at steps) produces significant populations on the terraces of metal-sulfur complexes, which are stabilized by strong Ag–S bonding. These ...


Adsorbate-Enhanced Transport Of Metals On Metal Surfaces: Oxygen And Sulfur On Coinage Metals, Patricia A. Thiel, Mingmin Shen, Da-Jiang Liu, James W. Evans Feb 2016

Adsorbate-Enhanced Transport Of Metals On Metal Surfaces: Oxygen And Sulfur On Coinage Metals, Patricia A. Thiel, Mingmin Shen, Da-Jiang Liu, James W. Evans

James W. Evans

Coarsening (i.e., ripening) of single-atom-high, metal homoepitaxial islands provides a useful window on the mechanism and kinetics of mass transport at metal surfaces. This article focuses on this type of coarsening on the surfaces of coinage metals (Cu, Ag, Au), both clean and with an adsorbed chalcogen (O, S) present. For the clean surfaces, three aspects are summarized: (1) the balance between the two major mechanisms—Ostwald ripening (the most commonly anticipated mechanism) and Smoluchowski ripening—and how that balance depends on island size; (2) the nature of the mass transport agents, which are metal adatoms in almost all ...