Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Engineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering

Discipline
Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 466

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Function And Biodegradation In Soil Of Bioplastic Horticultural Containers Made Of Pla-Biorestm Composites, James Schrader, Kenneth Mccabe, William Graves, David Grewell Jun 2017

Function And Biodegradation In Soil Of Bioplastic Horticultural Containers Made Of Pla-Biorestm Composites, James Schrader, Kenneth Mccabe, William Graves, David Grewell

William R Graves

Container-crops horticultural industries rely almost exclusively on petroleum-based plastic containers for modern production systems. Containers made of these materials fulfill all of the functions required during crop production, and perform better than containers made of clay, peat, and other natural materials, but the source of the plastic materials (fossil carbon), their lack of biodegradability, and their end-of-life disposal (97% end up in landfills) are major obstacles to sustainability. Although function and efficiency are among the most important aspects in determining the best materials for horticultural containers, there is no need for containers to persist in the environment for decades when ...


Equipment Considerations: Liquid Fertilizer, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer Jul 2016

Equipment Considerations: Liquid Fertilizer, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer

John E. Sawyer

A review of application equipment considerations can help ensure that your nitrogen fertilizer is properly applied. This article focuses on liquid fertilizers and is the last in a series of three articles (other two in April 9, 2001, Integrated Crop Management issue) about nitrogen fertilizer application and equipment. A primary consideration for equipment is the relatively high application volumes required. For example, a 150-lb N/acre application of 28 percent UAN solution requires an application of 50 gal/acre.


Equipment Considerations: Anhydrous Ammonia, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer Jul 2016

Equipment Considerations: Anhydrous Ammonia, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer

John E. Sawyer

Because of abnormal nitrogen fertilizer production, import, and supply this year and with perhaps a short spring application season, some crop producers may use a form of nitrogen fertilizer with which they are unaccustomed. A review of application equipment considerations can help ensure that your nitrogen fertilizer is properly applied. This article focuses on anhydrous ammonia and is the second in a series of three articles about nitrogen fertilizer application and equipment.


Equipment Considerations: Dry Granual Fertilizer, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer Jul 2016

Equipment Considerations: Dry Granual Fertilizer, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer

John E. Sawyer

A review of application equipment considerations can help ensure that your nitrogen fertilizer is properly applied. This article focuses on dry granular fertilizers and is the first in a series of three articles about nitrogen fertilizer application and equipment. Because of varying physical properties of dry fertilizer materials, it is important to consider material distribution across the swath as well as application rate.


Equipment Maintenance: Fertilizer Applicators, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer, Michael J. Tidman Jul 2016

Equipment Maintenance: Fertilizer Applicators, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer, Michael J. Tidman

John E. Sawyer

Winter is a good time for crop producers and fertilizer dealers to work out the kinks in fertilizer application equipment for economic, environmental, efficiency, and safety reasons. Properly working application equipment translates into getting the most out of every fertilizer dollar. Overapplying to compensate for poorly calibrated equipment wastes money and could mean nutrient-rich runoff and consequently, a potential water quality problem. This article provides some tips for maintaining your fertilizer application equipment.


Fertilizer And Swine Manure Management Systems: Impacts On Agronomic And Environmental Soil Phosphorus Tests And On Phosphorus Loss With Subsurface Drainage, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer, Jeremy Klatt, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl H. Pederson, James L. Baker, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky Jul 2016

Fertilizer And Swine Manure Management Systems: Impacts On Agronomic And Environmental Soil Phosphorus Tests And On Phosphorus Loss With Subsurface Drainage, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer, Jeremy Klatt, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl H. Pederson, James L. Baker, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky

John E. Sawyer

Manure or fertilizer can be used to supply the phosphorus (P) needs of crops. However, excess P application increases the risk of P loss from fields and of water quality impairment through increased algae growth. Poor water quality in many Iowa lakes has prompted questions about the impact of P management practices on P loss from fields and the effectiveness of using agronomic soil tests for environmental purposes.


Fertilizer And Swine Manure Management Systems: Impacts On Crop Production And Nitrate-Nitrogen Leaching With Subsurface Drainage, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl H. Pederson, James L. Baker, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky Jul 2016

Fertilizer And Swine Manure Management Systems: Impacts On Crop Production And Nitrate-Nitrogen Leaching With Subsurface Drainage, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl H. Pederson, James L. Baker, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky

John E. Sawyer

Nutrient losses from row-crop land can cause nonpoint source water quality problems and “impaired waters.” Nitrogen (N) losses due to nitrate (NO3) leaching cause drinking water problems and possibly increase hypoxia (low oxygen) problems in the Gulf of Mexico. Phosphorus (P) losses can cause eutrophication problems in surface waters (lakes, streams, and reservoirs) in Iowa where algal blooms decrease oxygen, kill fish, and result in murky and bad tasting water. The U.S. EPA and the Iowa Department of Natural Resources are developing nutrient criteria/standards and implementation plans to address TMDL’s (Total Maximum Daily Load) and to improve ...


Application Checkpoints For Fall Ammonia, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer Jul 2016

Application Checkpoints For Fall Ammonia, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer

John E. Sawyer

Depending on postharvest field conditions, some producers will soon be considering anhydrous ammonia application. Using fall labor to apply fertilizer can be attractive but needs to be balanced with the potential for nutrient loss. To avoid conversion of anhydrous ammonia from ammonium to more leachable forms of nitrogen, application should be delayed until average soil temperature is below 50°F and trending lower. Measure the 4-inch soil temperature at near 10 a.m. or 7 p.m. or check Iowa State University's county soil temperatures and forecast.


Impact Of Swine Manure Applications On Nitrate And Phosphorus In Subsurface Drainage Water, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, James L. Baker, Carl H. Pederson, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky Jul 2016

Impact Of Swine Manure Applications On Nitrate And Phosphorus In Subsurface Drainage Water, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, James L. Baker, Carl H. Pederson, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky

John E. Sawyer

Nonpoint source nutrient pollution related to land application of manures is recognized as an important environmental and social issue for several reasons. First, manure from swine production facilities can have serious impacts on the quality of ground water resources. Second, several states are in the process of creating laws and/or regulations to reduce nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loadings from manure to soil and water resources. Third, pollution of water resources from nutrients supplied by manure to croplands will help set parameters for developing public policies on the management of manure.


Impact Of Swine Manure Application On Water Quality, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl H. Pederson, Matthew J. Helmers, John E. Sawyer, Antonio P. Mallarino Jul 2016

Impact Of Swine Manure Application On Water Quality, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl H. Pederson, Matthew J. Helmers, John E. Sawyer, Antonio P. Mallarino

John E. Sawyer

Nonpoint source nutrient pollution related to land application of manures is recognized as an important environmental and social issue for several reasons. First,swine manure application to land can impact water quality. Second, several states are in the process of creating laws and/or regulations to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loadings from manure to soil and water resources. Third, the quality of water resources will help set parameters for developing public policies on management of manure.


Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna Jul 2016

Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna

William Edwards

Includes advantages and disadvantages of custom hiring and information on estimating costs; includes worksheets.


Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna Jul 2016

Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna

William Edwards

Includes advantages and disadvantages of custom hiring and information on estimating costs; includes worksheets.


Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna Jul 2016

Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna

William Edwards

Includes advantages and disadvantages of custom hiring and information on estimating costs; includes worksheets.


Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna Jul 2016

Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna

William Edwards

Includes advantages and disadvantages of custom hiring and information on estimating costs; includes worksheets.


A User Evaluation Of A Decision-Support System: The Community Assessment Model For Odor Dispersion (Cam), John C. Tyndall, Jay D. Harmon, Steven J. Hoff, Nancy Grudens-Schuck Apr 2016

A User Evaluation Of A Decision-Support System: The Community Assessment Model For Odor Dispersion (Cam), John C. Tyndall, Jay D. Harmon, Steven J. Hoff, Nancy Grudens-Schuck

Steven J. Hoff

This article introduces to the agricultural Extension community a decision-support system—the Community Assessment Model for Odor Dispersion (CAM)—that is helping Iowa swine producers minimize potential odor conflict. Additionally, we share our rationale and approach to evaluating both CAM and its outreach approach. CAM accounts for local conditions and helps producers assess odor risk from new facilities. Based on a user survey, 75% of producers rated CAM as "useful" to "very useful" in decision-making. Results suggest that CAM has passed the primary test of applied science as measured by usefulness to producers in making better decisions.


The Source Matters For Getting The Most Out Of Aerial Imagery, Matthew J. Darr, Zachery S. Vanderleest, Ryan William Bergman, Christopher J. Murphy Mar 2016

The Source Matters For Getting The Most Out Of Aerial Imagery, Matthew J. Darr, Zachery S. Vanderleest, Ryan William Bergman, Christopher J. Murphy

Integrated Crop Management News

As spring plans are finalized, don’t forget to consider aerial imaging as part of a continuous improvement plan. Remote sensing and the use of aerial imagery has been used for decades in agriculture but since 2010 we’ve seen the number of available imagery providers grow extensively. The use of imagery can vary from farm to farm but several common uses include variable rate fertility recommendations, assessing water management performance, quantifying soil compaction and machinery induced yield limiters, locating late season weed outbreaks, and generally evaluating the consistency of crop vigor across a field.


Selecting Nozzles For Postemergence Herbicides, Robert G. Hartzler, H. Mark Hanna Feb 2016

Selecting Nozzles For Postemergence Herbicides, Robert G. Hartzler, H. Mark Hanna

Integrated Crop Management News

An earlier ICM News article discussing affects of nozzle type and size on spray coverage prompted a question from a farmer regarding nozzle selection. In recent years there have been many advances in nozzle design. The primary improvement has been development of nozzles that minimize the formation of driftable droplets (< 200 micron) while still producing a droplet spectrum that provides the level of coverage required for consistent, postemergence weed control.


Spray Volume Is Critical For Postemergence Herbicides, Robert G. Hartzler, H. Mark Hanna Feb 2016

Spray Volume Is Critical For Postemergence Herbicides, Robert G. Hartzler, H. Mark Hanna

Integrated Crop Management News

Proper herbicide application is critical to ensure products achieve their full potential for weed control. For postemergence herbicides, this includes application to appropriately sized weeds and equipping the sprayer to achieve uniform coverage of target weeds. Weed scientists at Purdue University recently reported on the influence of nozzle type and spray volume on target coverage within the soybean canopy. A traditional flat fan (XR) nozzle and three drift reduction nozzles were included in the study. The XR nozzle produced more driftable droplets than the other nozzles, and the two types of air induction nozzles had much less volume in small ...


Nation’S Premier Site For Water Quality Drives Progress, Matt J. Helmers Jan 2016

Nation’S Premier Site For Water Quality Drives Progress, Matt J. Helmers

Integrated Crop Management News

A farm just outside the north-central Iowa town is home to Iowa State University’s Agriculture Drainage Research and Demonstration Site, a facility that has been working to further Iowa State University’s water conservation efforts since 1990. The site was born out of the Iowa Groundwater Protection Act, a piece of legislation passed in 1987 that generated funds from fees on pesticide manufacturing registrations, pesticide dealer licensing and a tax on fertilizer sales. A portion of the funds were used to create the 11-acre research site, with Iowa State University partnering with the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land ...


Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Nirs) Calibrations For Moisture In High Moisture Corn Co-Products, Camille Vernieres, Charles R. Hurburgh, Glen Rippke, Connie L. Hardy Jan 2016

Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Nirs) Calibrations For Moisture In High Moisture Corn Co-Products, Camille Vernieres, Charles R. Hurburgh, Glen Rippke, Connie L. Hardy

Animal Industry Report

Corn co-products from the ethanol industry have become a common feed ingredient in Midwest feedlot diets. However, nutrient composition, especially moisture, can vary by as much as 15% from load to load even from the same ethanol plant. Knowing the exact moisture content of the co-product is advantageous for proper ration formulation and cattle efficiency. This study demonstrates that near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology shows promise for rapid, accurate assessment of moisture in wet corn co-products.


Evaluation Of Physiochemical Properties And Applications Of Grain Flour, Chinwendu Felicia Ozoh Jan 2016

Evaluation Of Physiochemical Properties And Applications Of Grain Flour, Chinwendu Felicia Ozoh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In recent years, there has been a growing demand for alternative protein sources in the US. Grains are important in the food industry and they are staple foods around the world. Grains are good energy sources and some grains have very high protein content (e.g., amaranth). There has also been high demand for fish because fish are a very good source of protein. Improving methods of fish farming and processing of grains is beneficial to meeting these high demands for protein. For this thesis, three studies were investigated. They focused cost effectiveness, sustainability, and meeting the high demand of ...


Hydraulic System Modeling And Optimization To Achieve Performance Characteristics, Kathryn Kline Jan 2016

Hydraulic System Modeling And Optimization To Achieve Performance Characteristics, Kathryn Kline

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As automation technology continues to be integrated into industrial and mobile machinery, more precise control of hydraulic cylinders will assist in the achievement of desired response characteristics. Thus, in designing the cushioning mechanism for a hydraulic cylinder, there is value in predicting the deceleration response due to pressure generated when fluid passes through the cushion orifice. The cushion orifice can be designed to change as a function of piston position to meet a desired velocity response. In practice, determination of the orifice area requires a lengthy iterative process of trial and error. Therefore, to overcome these design process challenges, dynamic ...


Evaluation And Prediction Of Hydrology And Nitrate-Nitrogen Transport In Tile-Drained Watersheds, Charles David Ikenberry Jan 2016

Evaluation And Prediction Of Hydrology And Nitrate-Nitrogen Transport In Tile-Drained Watersheds, Charles David Ikenberry

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Implementation of artificial subsurface drainage (tile drainage) for cultivation of row crops in poorly-drained areas of the Upper Midwest of the United States has enabled the region to be one of the most agriculturally productive areas of the world; but has also resulted in loss of wetland ecosystems, altered hydrology, and increased transport of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) to surface water. The direct link between subsurface tile drainage and transport of nonpoint-source pollutants, particularly NO3-N, to surface waters is a primary concern for downstream drinking water supplies and hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. The studies described in this dissertation include evaluation ...


Analysis Of Post-Harvest Handling Of Corn Stover And Corn, Xiong Cao Jan 2016

Analysis Of Post-Harvest Handling Of Corn Stover And Corn, Xiong Cao

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fuel and food are two major global issues. Interestingly, both of them have a close relationship with corn, a staple crop around the world. Bioethanol, which is the most popular gasoline alternative, is mostly produced from corn in the US. Since corn grain is for human food or livestock feed, the production of corn ethanol has caused some controversies. However, ethanol produced from corn stover is less controversial since corn stover is agricultural waste. On the other hand, more food needs to be produced globally to meet the fast-growing world population. Despite that, a stunning portion of food is being ...


Optimization And Cost Analysis Of Lignocellulosic Biomass Feedstocks Supply Chains For Biorefineries, Ambika Karkee Jan 2016

Optimization And Cost Analysis Of Lignocellulosic Biomass Feedstocks Supply Chains For Biorefineries, Ambika Karkee

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study estimated the biomass harvest and transport cost considering single pass biomass harvest with bulk and bale collections of biomass. Lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks costs were estimated using both corn stover and switchgrass as part of the feedstock supply chain. Harvest and transport cost for multi-pass biomass harvest operations using multiple feedstocks were analyzed and the optimal number of machines for all unit operations were estimated for each supply chain.

This dissertation calculated and compared the biomass harvest and transport cost for single pass biomass harvest with bulk and bale collections of biomass. The objective of the research was to ...


Impacts Of Swine Manure Application And Alternative N-Management Practices On Productivity, Sustainability And Water Quality, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Douglas Karlen, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas Moorman, Thomas R. Steinheimer, Thomas S. Colvin Dec 2015

Impacts Of Swine Manure Application And Alternative N-Management Practices On Productivity, Sustainability And Water Quality, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Douglas Karlen, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas Moorman, Thomas R. Steinheimer, Thomas S. Colvin

Douglas L Karlen

In the fourth year of this ongoing project, the effects of nine N-management practices under different tillage and cropping systems were evaluated. Forty experimental plots equipped with individual sumps and subsurface drainage metering and monitoring devices were used for the study. Overall results indicate that manure application rates and methods can be successfully managed for corn-soybean systems without damaging the water quality if the appropriate amount of N from swine manure can be applied.


Evaluation Of Tillage And Crop Rotation Effects On Groundwater Quality—Nashua Project, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Douglas Karlen, Thomas S. Colvin, William W. Simpkins, Vince J. Mcfadden Dec 2015

Evaluation Of Tillage And Crop Rotation Effects On Groundwater Quality—Nashua Project, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Douglas Karlen, Thomas S. Colvin, William W. Simpkins, Vince J. Mcfadden

Douglas L Karlen

Sampling shows that agricultural chemicals are occurring increasingly in ground- and surface water in Iowa. The same trend has been reported throughout the United States; one study reported finding 73 pesticides in the groundwater of 34 states. Even pesticides known to be adsorbed to soil particles (and thus relatively immobile) have been found in a few sampled wells in trace concentrations. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) is the most common agricultural chemical found in groundwater. Nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides applied to the soil surface prior to and immediately following crop planting are particularly susceptible to surface runoff or leaching to groundwater through the ...


Effect Of Tillage, Crop Rotation And Innovative Nitrogen And Pesticide Management Practices On Productivity, Sustainability And Water Quality, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Douglas Karlen, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas B. Moorman, T. R. Steinheimer, Thomas S. Colvin Dec 2015

Effect Of Tillage, Crop Rotation And Innovative Nitrogen And Pesticide Management Practices On Productivity, Sustainability And Water Quality, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Douglas Karlen, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas B. Moorman, T. R. Steinheimer, Thomas S. Colvin

Douglas L Karlen

Better nitrogen (N) management practices can improve nitrogen uptake and possibly reduce nitrogen leaching to groundwater. More efficient herbicide use can decrease or eliminate the herbicide leaching losses to water sources. In this project, the effects of seven N management practices on water quality were evaluated after collecting data from 40 experimental plots. Lower rates of N application and strip and hay cropping systems help produce lower concentrations of NO3-N in the shallow groundwater in comparison with the higher rate of N application. Also, banding of herbicides has resulted in lower herbicide losses to shallow groundwater. The use of the ...


Manure Storage & Handling—Aeration Overview, Daniel S. Andersen, Jay D. Harmon, Steven J. Hoff, Angela M. Rieck-Hinz Nov 2015

Manure Storage & Handling—Aeration Overview, Daniel S. Andersen, Jay D. Harmon, Steven J. Hoff, Angela M. Rieck-Hinz

Daniel S. Andersen

Aeration is the process of mixing air into the manure to promote the growth of aerobic bacteria. Oxygen must be supplied either naturally, mechanically through mixing, or using oxygen diffusion systems. This technology can provide dramatic odor reduction from livestock waste management facilities, but has not found frequent application in agriculture due to intensive energy use and resulting added utility costs.This fact sheet is part of the Air Management Practices Assessment Tool (AMPAT) developed at Iowa State University and funded by the National Pork Board. Additional resources can be found on the AMPAT web page at: www.agronext.iastate ...


What A Difference The Weather Makes, Charles R. Hurburgh Oct 2015

What A Difference The Weather Makes, Charles R. Hurburgh

Integrated Crop Management News

A few weeks ago a cool and wet long range forecast meant that large volumes of wet grains would be coming out of the field, at highly variable quality. Well, that did not happen. Warm temperatures and low dewpoints (dry air) since Labor Day have completely changed the crop quality picture. While there are still instances of wet grain and areas with delayed harvest from early September rains, overall the Iowa corn and soybean crops have had a marked reversal from what we anticipated.