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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Infrared Proximity Measurement System Development And Validation For Classifying Sow Posture, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff Aug 2019

Infrared Proximity Measurement System Development And Validation For Classifying Sow Posture, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff

Brett Ramirez

The rapidly progressing field of precision livestock farming is becoming increasingly dependent on the utilization of camera technology. Integration of camera technology involves substantial intellectual input and computational power to acquire, process, and interpret images in real-time. Further, cameras and the necessary computational power can be cost-prohibitive and subsequently, become a constraint for application in a commercial livestock and poultry production systems. The purpose of this study is to develop an infrared proximity sensor based system to serve as a substitute a camera system to perform real-time monitoring of sow posture in farrowing stalls for a potentially lower cost and ...


Control Algorithm Development And Simulation For Comparing Evaporative Pads And Sprinklers For Grow-Finish Pigs, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon Aug 2019

Control Algorithm Development And Simulation For Comparing Evaporative Pads And Sprinklers For Grow-Finish Pigs, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon

Brett Ramirez

Seasonal variability attributed to heat stress (HS) has a large economic impact on the US swine industry by reducing daily gain and finishing market weights. Strategies to mitigate HS lack evidence showing effectiveness in different climates and have not been adequately controlled to provide a thermally optimum environment for pigs. Hence, the goal of this study was to describe the initial experimental design and instrumentation as well as develop innovative control algorithms for operating evaporative pads (EPs) and sprinklers. Located in northeast Iowa, a four room (~1,875 head per room) grow-finish facility featured side-by-side rooms separated by a hallway ...


Control Algorithm Development And Simulation For Comparing Evaporative Pads And Sprinklers For Grow-Finish Pigs, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon Aug 2019

Control Algorithm Development And Simulation For Comparing Evaporative Pads And Sprinklers For Grow-Finish Pigs, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon

Jay D. Harmon

Seasonal variability attributed to heat stress (HS) has a large economic impact on the US swine industry by reducing daily gain and finishing market weights. Strategies to mitigate HS lack evidence showing effectiveness in different climates and have not been adequately controlled to provide a thermally optimum environment for pigs. Hence, the goal of this study was to describe the initial experimental design and instrumentation as well as develop innovative control algorithms for operating evaporative pads (EPs) and sprinklers. Located in northeast Iowa, a four room (~1,875 head per room) grow-finish facility featured side-by-side rooms separated by a hallway ...


Infrared Proximity Measurement System Development And Validation For Classifying Sow Posture, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff Aug 2019

Infrared Proximity Measurement System Development And Validation For Classifying Sow Posture, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff

Steven J. Hoff

The rapidly progressing field of precision livestock farming is becoming increasingly dependent on the utilization of camera technology. Integration of camera technology involves substantial intellectual input and computational power to acquire, process, and interpret images in real-time. Further, cameras and the necessary computational power can be cost-prohibitive and subsequently, become a constraint for application in a commercial livestock and poultry production systems. The purpose of this study is to develop an infrared proximity sensor based system to serve as a substitute a camera system to perform real-time monitoring of sow posture in farrowing stalls for a potentially lower cost and ...


Control Algorithm Development And Simulation For Comparing Evaporative Pads And Sprinklers For Grow-Finish Pigs, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon Aug 2019

Control Algorithm Development And Simulation For Comparing Evaporative Pads And Sprinklers For Grow-Finish Pigs, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon

Steven J. Hoff

Seasonal variability attributed to heat stress (HS) has a large economic impact on the US swine industry by reducing daily gain and finishing market weights. Strategies to mitigate HS lack evidence showing effectiveness in different climates and have not been adequately controlled to provide a thermally optimum environment for pigs. Hence, the goal of this study was to describe the initial experimental design and instrumentation as well as develop innovative control algorithms for operating evaporative pads (EPs) and sprinklers. Located in northeast Iowa, a four room (~1,875 head per room) grow-finish facility featured side-by-side rooms separated by a hallway ...


Development And Validation Of A Spatial And Temporal Thermal Environment Sensor Array And Data Acquisition System, Brett C. Ramirez, Yun Gao, Steven J. Hoff Aug 2019

Development And Validation Of A Spatial And Temporal Thermal Environment Sensor Array And Data Acquisition System, Brett C. Ramirez, Yun Gao, Steven J. Hoff

Brett Ramirez

The Thermal Environment (TE) inside swine facilities has a substantial impact on animal growth performance and facility energy usage; therefore, proper control and measurement are required to maintain the optimal TE that maximizes feed efficiency and consumes minimal resources. An inexpensive and novel sensor network capable of capturing the spatial and temporal distribution of TE is needed to help guide control feedback sensor placement and identify potential issues with the facility’s environmental modification system. Hence, the objectives of this research were to: (1) design and construct a Thermal Environment Sensor Array (TESA) and (2) preliminarily evaluate the ability to ...


Heat Stress Adaptations In Pigs, Edith J. Mayorga, David Renaudeau, Brett C. Ramirez, Jason W. Ross, Lance H. Baumgard Aug 2019

Heat Stress Adaptations In Pigs, Edith J. Mayorga, David Renaudeau, Brett C. Ramirez, Jason W. Ross, Lance H. Baumgard

Brett Ramirez

Implications

• Heat stress is a global issue constraining animal agriculture productivity, negatively affects welfare, and reduces production efficiency in many countries.

• The effects of heat stress on pig production will intensify, if climate change continues as predicted.

• To date, modifying the environment is the most effective way to mitigate the effects of heat stress.

• Identifying additional strategies (nutritional and genetics) to maximize pork production during the warm summer months is necessary to satiate a growing demand for high quality meat for human consumption.


Development And Evaluation Of An Evaporation Model For Predicting Sprinkler Interval Time, Jay D. Harmon, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, John F. Patience Aug 2019

Development And Evaluation Of An Evaporation Model For Predicting Sprinkler Interval Time, Jay D. Harmon, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, John F. Patience

Brett Ramirez

Heat stress in swine causes decreased productivity and economic losses; hence, heat stress mitigation techniques must be developed to be economically and resource efficient. Current cooling strategies for livestock facilities, such as evaporative coolers or sprinklers, are governed by the Water Vapor Pressure (WVP) concentration gradient between the air (a function of dry-bulb temperature; tdb, Relative Humidity; RH, and atmospheric pressure) and the saturated WVP at the wet surface. Traditional sprinkler control systems operate at fixed ‘off’ intervals (i.e., drying) regardless if the thermal environment (TE) has the capacity or not to evaporate the dispersed water. Therefore, the objectives ...


Impact Based Odor Control System, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff Aug 2019

Impact Based Odor Control System, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff

Brett Ramirez

Biofilters are an effective and economically feasible technique for mitigating odor and other gaseous emissions from livestock production systems. They consist of a media containing a biofilm, where microorganisms break down compounds in livestock building exhaust air into energy and nutrients for growth and reproduction. In addition to capital costs, continuous filtering of exhaust air from mechanically ventilated buildings can be expensive and not always required, if odor is considered nuisance; thus, an automated control system was designed to filter odorous air when surrounding neighbors are most likely to be impacted and bypass the biofilter when odor impact potential is ...


Functional Performance Evaluation Of A Novel Thermal Environment Sensor Array, Brett C. Ramirez, Y. Gao, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon Aug 2019

Functional Performance Evaluation Of A Novel Thermal Environment Sensor Array, Brett C. Ramirez, Y. Gao, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon

Brett Ramirez

The thermal environment (TE) inside livestock and poultry facilities has a substantial impact on animal growth performance and facility energy usage; therefore, the TE must be quantified correctly to maintain the optimal TE that maximizes feed efficiency and consumes minimal resources. To achieve this goal, a TE sensor array (TESA) and accompanying data acquisition system were previously developed to measure dry-bulb temperature (tdb), black globe temperature, airspeed, and relative humidity (RH). While measurement of each parameter is useful individually, it is more informative when they are combined to estimate and assess the total impact that the TE has on an ...


An Image Acquisition System For Studying Behaviors Of Sows And Piglets In Farrowing Barns, Suzanne Leonard, Hongwei Xin, Tami Brown-Brandl, Brett C. Ramirez Aug 2019

An Image Acquisition System For Studying Behaviors Of Sows And Piglets In Farrowing Barns, Suzanne Leonard, Hongwei Xin, Tami Brown-Brandl, Brett C. Ramirez

Brett Ramirez

Behavior studies in commercial swine farrowing room environments often need to monitor each set of sow and piglets individually and simultaneously. Autonomous computer imaging systems can overcome this challenge. The system presented here utilizes a time of flight depth sensor and a digital camera to capture depth and digital images of each sow and litter, housed in individual farrowing stalls. Depth sensors were centered above the stalls on a triangular truss spanning the length of the farrowing room and mounted in waterproof boxes with attached lids, enabling them to easily be waterproofed when cleaning the farrowing room. Each depth sensor ...


Development, Validation And Application Of A Mobile Air Filter Testing Unit, Jay D. Harmon, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, John P. Stinn Aug 2019

Development, Validation And Application Of A Mobile Air Filter Testing Unit, Jay D. Harmon, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, John P. Stinn

Brett Ramirez

The recent shift in commercial swine breeding-gestation-farrowing facilities to incorporate filtered ventilation systems raises numerous questions about system performance and longevity of filters. It has been shown that air filtration with ASHRAE standard MERV 14, 15 and 16 type filters are effective at reducing the aerosol spread of PRRSV and Mycoplasma hypopneumonia. The areas that are lacking in current literature is relevant filter testing methodology and criteria for determining filter end of life in an agricultural setting. To address this, a mobile air filter testing unit (MAFT) was developed to address the testing needs for the swine industry to evaluate ...


Thermal Environment Assessment And Controller Performance Comparison For A Wean-Finish Barn, Jay D. Harmon, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff Aug 2019

Thermal Environment Assessment And Controller Performance Comparison For A Wean-Finish Barn, Jay D. Harmon, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff

Brett Ramirez

The thermal environment (TE) inside swine facilities has a substantial impact on animal growth performance and facility energy usage; therefore, proper control and measurement are required to maintain the optimal TE that maximizes feed efficiency and consumes minimal resources. An inexpensive and novel network of 44 thermal environment sensor arrays (TESAs) capable of capturing the spatial and temporal distribution of the TE were deployed in August 2016 inside a two-room (designated as North; N and South; S), wean-finish barn (~1200 hd and 22 TESAs per room) and placed about 1.8 m above the slatted floor. All TESAs simultaneously measured ...


Design And Feasibility Of An Impact-Based Odor Control System, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Lun Tong Aug 2019

Design And Feasibility Of An Impact-Based Odor Control System, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Lun Tong

Brett Ramirez

Legislation and rural communities are increasingly requesting reductions in odor emitted from swine production facilities. If odor is regarded solely as a nuisance, and not an environmental hazard (as in this research), such that the objective of treating ventilation exhaust air is to prevent odor from impacting nearby receptors, it is unnecessary to treat exhaust air when dispersed odor is not identifiable. This approach maximizes odor reduction potential when most needed, with economic benefit through decreased energy and resource usage by simply operating the mitigation device for less time. The objectives of this article were: to develop an on-off, real-time ...


Infrared Proximity Measurement System Development And Validation For Classifying Sow Posture, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff Jan 2019

Infrared Proximity Measurement System Development And Validation For Classifying Sow Posture, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

The rapidly progressing field of precision livestock farming is becoming increasingly dependent on the utilization of camera technology. Integration of camera technology involves substantial intellectual input and computational power to acquire, process, and interpret images in real-time. Further, cameras and the necessary computational power can be cost-prohibitive and subsequently, become a constraint for application in a commercial livestock and poultry production systems. The purpose of this study is to develop an infrared proximity sensor based system to serve as a substitute a camera system to perform real-time monitoring of sow posture in farrowing stalls for a potentially lower cost and ...


Heat Stress Adaptations In Pigs, Edith J. Mayorga, David Renaudeau, Brett C. Ramirez, Jason W. Ross, Lance H. Baumgard Jan 2019

Heat Stress Adaptations In Pigs, Edith J. Mayorga, David Renaudeau, Brett C. Ramirez, Jason W. Ross, Lance H. Baumgard

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Implications

• Heat stress is a global issue constraining animal agriculture productivity, negatively affects welfare, and reduces production efficiency in many countries.

• The effects of heat stress on pig production will intensify, if climate change continues as predicted.

• To date, modifying the environment is the most effective way to mitigate the effects of heat stress.

• Identifying additional strategies (nutritional and genetics) to maximize pork production during the warm summer months is necessary to satiate a growing demand for high quality meat for human consumption.