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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

A Review Of Biochar Properties And Their Utilization In Crop Agriculture And Livestock Production, Kajetan Kalus, Jacek A. Koziel, Sebastian Opalinski Aug 2019

A Review Of Biochar Properties And Their Utilization In Crop Agriculture And Livestock Production, Kajetan Kalus, Jacek A. Koziel, Sebastian Opalinski

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

When it comes to the use of biochar in agriculture, the majority of research conducted in the last decade has focused on its application as a soil amendment and for soil remediation. This treatment improves soil quality, increases crops yields, and sequestrates atmospheric carbon to the soil. Another widely studied aspect connecting biochar with agriculture is the composting processes of various agricultural waste with the addition of biochar. Obtaining the material via the pyrolysis of agricultural waste, including animal manure, has also been investigated. However, given the remarkable properties of biochar, its application potential could be utilized in other areas ...


Pyrolysis Of Miscanthus And Products Characterization, Arshdeep Singh Aug 2019

Pyrolysis Of Miscanthus And Products Characterization, Arshdeep Singh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Miscanthus, an invasive crop, has recently gained attention as an emerging energy crop because of certain features such as adaptability to lower temperature, efficient use of water and nutrients, low or no need of nitrogen fertilizers, high biomass yield, fast growing cycle and less intensive agricultural cultivation practices than other energy crops, such as corn.

The literature review is focused on the value-added applications and conversion of Miscanthus for bioenergy and biomaterial applications. The thermochemical conversion technologies reviewed in this chapter include pyrolysis, liquefaction, torrefaction and gasification, whereas biochemical conversion technologies include enzymatic saccharification and fermentation.

In this work, Miscanthus ...


Anaerobic Digestion Of The Aqueous Pyrolysis Condensate, Franco Berruti, Cesar Miguel Moreira Valenzuela, Lars Rehmann, Connie Wen Jun 2019

Anaerobic Digestion Of The Aqueous Pyrolysis Condensate, Franco Berruti, Cesar Miguel Moreira Valenzuela, Lars Rehmann, Connie Wen

Pyroliq 2019: Pyrolysis and Liquefaction of Biomass and Wastes

Fractional condensation of biomass pyrolysis vapors allows the segregation of different pyrolysis fractions and a separation of an aqueous pyrolysis condensate from an organic rich dry bio-oil fraction. Aqueous pyrolysis condensate is often referred at as “wood vinegar” or “pyroligneous acid” since it contains 70-80% water together with 10-20% acetic acid, and smaller quantities of acetone and methanol mixed with hundreds of other chemicals in small concentrations. Such aqueous pyrolysis condensate cannot be easily disposed of, and it may represent a valuable resource. For example, the significant percentage of acetic acid offers the opportunity to attempt its conversion into methane ...


Evaluation Of The Antifungal Activity Of Cattle Manure Bio-Oil, Matheus Pinheiro Carvalho, Alberto Wisnievski Junior, Ingred Suellen Carvalho Carregosa, Wyllian Winckler Sartori, Maria Lucileide Nogueira Santos Ramos Jun 2019

Evaluation Of The Antifungal Activity Of Cattle Manure Bio-Oil, Matheus Pinheiro Carvalho, Alberto Wisnievski Junior, Ingred Suellen Carvalho Carregosa, Wyllian Winckler Sartori, Maria Lucileide Nogueira Santos Ramos

Pyroliq 2019: Pyrolysis and Liquefaction of Biomass and Wastes

Plant diseases are a threat to the health and functionality of both natural and man-made ecosystems. Diverse methods and strategies are being employed to prevent, ameliorate or control plant diseases. Unsustainable practices such as use and misuse of synthetic fungicides have caused severe harm to human health, wildlife and the environment (1). Fungal cause the most destructive plant diseases and impose major losses to both natural and production systems, and one of it is the fungi. Botanical fungicides are particularly sought after because they are abundant, selective, readily degraded, and are not toxic to mammals (2).

Bio-oils produced by rotatory ...


Pyrolysis Of Aerobic Sewage Sludge, Green Wastes And Refuse Derived Fuels At High Temperatures In Bubbling Fluidized Bed Reactor, Sid Ahmed Kessas, Mehrdji Hémati, Thomas Esteves Jun 2019

Pyrolysis Of Aerobic Sewage Sludge, Green Wastes And Refuse Derived Fuels At High Temperatures In Bubbling Fluidized Bed Reactor, Sid Ahmed Kessas, Mehrdji Hémati, Thomas Esteves

Pyroliq 2019: Pyrolysis and Liquefaction of Biomass and Wastes

Effect of temperature during Flash Pyrolysis of solid wastes (Green wastes -GW-, sewage sludge -SS- and refuse-derived fuels -RDF-) in inert atmosphere was investigated in the present study. Pyrolysis was carried out in a dense fluidized bed reactor of laboratory scale (2.5 m height, 0.214 m inner diameter) where wastes are fed continuously. Experiments were conducted at temperatures between 700 and 900°C with different types of fluidized media to highlight the effect of these parameters as well as the influence of the waste nature on gas production rate and carbon distribution into pyrolysis products. For instance, the ...


Environmental Assessment Of Pyrolysis In Biorefineries Based On Palm Oil Wastes, Electo Eduardo Silva Lora, York Castillo Santiago, Eric Alberto Ocampo Battle, José Carlos Escobar Palacio, Osvaldo José Venturini, Diego Mauricio Yepes Maya, Alberto Albis Arrieta Jun 2019

Environmental Assessment Of Pyrolysis In Biorefineries Based On Palm Oil Wastes, Electo Eduardo Silva Lora, York Castillo Santiago, Eric Alberto Ocampo Battle, José Carlos Escobar Palacio, Osvaldo José Venturini, Diego Mauricio Yepes Maya, Alberto Albis Arrieta

Pyroliq 2019: Pyrolysis and Liquefaction of Biomass and Wastes

The oil palm industry is one of the largest producers of residual biomass, leading to environmental and economic concerns. For this reason, the concept of biorefinery is emerging as a means to create new ways of converting biomass into new types of renewable products bioenergetics that can contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gases. In this context, this document presents a study that consisting of a biorefinery configuration in a Palm Oil Mill (POM), considering the fast pyrolysis process to produce bio-oil and biochar, and an extraction / trans-esterification stage to produce biodiesel and glycerin in the POM. The environmental impacts ...


Thermolysis Of Plastic Waste: Reactor Comparison, Muhammad Saad Qureshi, Anja Oasmaa, Christian Lindfors Jun 2019

Thermolysis Of Plastic Waste: Reactor Comparison, Muhammad Saad Qureshi, Anja Oasmaa, Christian Lindfors

Pyroliq 2019: Pyrolysis and Liquefaction of Biomass and Wastes

Plastic waste offers an attractive business opportunity if treated intelligently. Presently, owing to the lack of economically viable recycling solutions and political interest, this valuable feedstock is bound for an ill-fated destiny i.e. landfills and inefficient incineration. Landfilling plastic waste is rather a storage mechanism than a prevention mechanism. Plastics can stay in ground and in oceans for hundreds of years without decomposing, posing serious environmental hazards. Given the complexity of the plastic waste mixture and heterogeneity of waste streams, a single recycling solution is improbable; however, the current environmental situation demands an urgent need to find ways to ...


Pyrolysis Of Polyethylene-Lined Waste Paper Cups, Franco Berruti, Connie Wen, Lars Rehmann, Cesar Miguel Moreira Valenzuela Jun 2019

Pyrolysis Of Polyethylene-Lined Waste Paper Cups, Franco Berruti, Connie Wen, Lars Rehmann, Cesar Miguel Moreira Valenzuela

Pyroliq 2019: Pyrolysis and Liquefaction of Biomass and Wastes

Fractional condensation of biomass pyrolysis vapors allows the segregation of different pyrolysis fractions and a separation of an aqueous pyrolysis condensate from an organic rich dry bio-oil fraction. Aqueous pyrolysis condensate is often referred at as “wood vinegar” or “pyroligneous acid” since it contains 70-80% water together with 10-20% acetic acid, and smaller quantities of acetone and methanol mixed with hundreds of other chemicals in small concentrations. Such aqueous pyrolysis condensate cannot be easily disposed of, and it may represent a valuable resource. For example, the significant percentage of acetic acid offers the opportunity to attempt its conversion into methane ...


Co2 Participation In Cross-Linking Reactions And Char Formation During Bio-Oil Pyrolysis, Farid Chejne, Javier Alonso Ordoñez, Carlos F. Valdes Jun 2019

Co2 Participation In Cross-Linking Reactions And Char Formation During Bio-Oil Pyrolysis, Farid Chejne, Javier Alonso Ordoñez, Carlos F. Valdes

Pyroliq 2019: Pyrolysis and Liquefaction of Biomass and Wastes

The integration of new CO2 capture and storage technologies into energy generation processes has led to the development and study of the oxy-fuel combustion, in which the nitrogen in the air is replaced by recirculated CO2 that facilitates its capture and storage to reduce polluting emissions. Currently, the integration of oxy-fuel technologies with the use of new fuels such as bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of biomass is a topic of interest. In this case, the CO2 content surrounding the bio-oil droplets modifies the pyrolysis mechanism due to barriers in the diffusion of light volatiles at low temperatures (less than ...


Pyrolysis Of Lignin-Rich Biomass For Renewable Aromatics, Materials Paul De Wild Jun 2019

Pyrolysis Of Lignin-Rich Biomass For Renewable Aromatics, Materials Paul De Wild

Pyroliq 2019: Pyrolysis and Liquefaction of Biomass and Wastes

Currently, several national projects are conducted as an activity along the thermochemical horizon towards functionalized aromatics from lignin and lignin-rich biomass sources in the framework of the BIORIZON shared research center in the south of the Netherlands [1]. Regarding the pyrolytic valorization of lignin-rich biomass towards aromatic chemicals for various applications, it is thought that the collection of pyrolysis vapors in separate fractions [2] offers interesting opportunities for valorization, e.g. towards (additives for) bitumen, resins, rubber and specific marine biofuels. For these high market volume – medium market value products, earlier work has revealed that the application of lignin as ...


Production Of Ethyl Acetate From Pyrolysis Of Lignin Model Compound Guaiacylglycerol-Β-Guaiacyl Using Tga-Ms, Mark J. Kelly, Andrew D. Ure, Stephen Dooley Jun 2019

Production Of Ethyl Acetate From Pyrolysis Of Lignin Model Compound Guaiacylglycerol-Β-Guaiacyl Using Tga-Ms, Mark J. Kelly, Andrew D. Ure, Stephen Dooley

Pyroliq 2019: Pyrolysis and Liquefaction of Biomass and Wastes

Due to the complex chemical structure of lignin, the fundamental chemistry underlying its pyrolysis behaviour is poorly understood. A detailed knowledge of this chemistry would allow for the construction of detailed predictive chemical kinetic models, which could be used to maximise the efficiency of the pyrolysis process.

Lignin is comprised of three monolignols, guaiacyl, p-hydroxyphenyl and syringyl. These are joined together by aryl ether linkages of which β-O-4 is the most common, representing approximately 50% of the linkages found in lignin.[1] In this study, pyrolysis (20oC/minute heating rate) was carried out on a lignin model compound ...


Challenges And Progresses Made On The Microkinetic Description Of Lignin Liquefaction: Application Of Group Contribution Methods, Manuel Garcia-Perez, Evan Terrell, Linda Broadbelt Jun 2019

Challenges And Progresses Made On The Microkinetic Description Of Lignin Liquefaction: Application Of Group Contribution Methods, Manuel Garcia-Perez, Evan Terrell, Linda Broadbelt

Pyroliq 2019: Pyrolysis and Liquefaction of Biomass and Wastes

In this presentation a comprehensive microkinetic modelling framework and experimental tools are used to describe product yield and composition of direct lignin liquefaction processes with and without solvents (See Figure 1). With the framework proposed we aim to develop a unified theory and models capable of describing both dry (pyrolysis) and wet (hydrothermal and solvolysis) lignin liquefaction processes. An important phenomenon that has been shown to occur during lignin pyrolysis (as well as cellulose) is the formation of a liquid intermediate phase, and subsequent ejection of heavy products (>~250 Da) as aerosols from this intermediate. In our presentation we will ...


Biofuels From Waste To Road Transport, Marine Peyrot, Johnny Stuen, Robbie Venderbosh, Wolfgang Hofer, Hank Vleeming, Mauro F. Sgroi, Yves Schuurman, Duncan Akporiaye Jun 2019

Biofuels From Waste To Road Transport, Marine Peyrot, Johnny Stuen, Robbie Venderbosh, Wolfgang Hofer, Hank Vleeming, Mauro F. Sgroi, Yves Schuurman, Duncan Akporiaye

Pyroliq 2019: Pyrolysis and Liquefaction of Biomass and Wastes

Biofuels from Waste to Road (WASTE2ROAD) is an EU funded project under the Grant Agreement No. 818120 within the LC-SC3-RES-21-2018 call, “Development of next generation biofuels and alternative renewable fuel technologies for road transport”, as a Research and Innovation Action of the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Programme. The project started in the fall 2018 and will run for 4 years.

In 2014, total waste production in the EU amounted to 2.5 billion tons. From this total only a limited (albeit increasing) share (36%) was recycled, while the rest was landfilled or burned, of which some 600 million tons ...


The Proof-Of-The-Concept Of Application Of Pelletization For Mitigation Of Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions From Carbonized Refuse-Derived Fuel, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Antoni Szumny, Jacek Łyczko, Jacek A. Koziel May 2019

The Proof-Of-The-Concept Of Application Of Pelletization For Mitigation Of Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions From Carbonized Refuse-Derived Fuel, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Antoni Szumny, Jacek Łyczko, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Waste can be effectively reused through the production of carbonized refuse-derived fuel (CRDF) that enables further energy recovery. Developing cleaner production of CRDF requires consideration of practical issues of storage and handling. Thus, it needs to be ensured that CRDF does not pose an excessive risk to humans and the ecosystem. Very few studies indicate a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are present in CRDF, some of which are toxic. During handling, storage, transportation, and use of VOC-rich CRDF, workers and end-users could be exposed to emissions that could pose a health and safety hazard. Our recent study ...


Chemical And Physical Modification Of Thiol-Ene And Epoxy-Amine Networks For Advanced Control Of Gas Transport And Flame Retardant Behavior, Vivek Vasagar Apr 2019

Chemical And Physical Modification Of Thiol-Ene And Epoxy-Amine Networks For Advanced Control Of Gas Transport And Flame Retardant Behavior, Vivek Vasagar

Dissertations

Crosslinked polymers are widely used due to its several advantages not limited to high mechanical strength combined with the easy processability. Despite of its popular usage, the fundamental understanding of polymer structure affecting the desired properties is still lacking. This PhD thesis is in two parts, the first part is devoted to the design and developing a basic understanding of structure and chemical composition dependencies of gas transport, whereas in the second part a fundamental relationship between structure to the fire-retardant properties is established.

Membrane based gas separation technique has attracted interest of selective removal of carbon dioxide gas from ...


Thermal Decomposition Of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants Diisopropyl Methylphosphonate And Tributyl Phosphate, Patrick Sanderson Jan 2019

Thermal Decomposition Of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants Diisopropyl Methylphosphonate And Tributyl Phosphate, Patrick Sanderson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The pyrolysis of chemical warfare agent simulants, diisopropyl methylphosphonate

(DIMP) and tributyl phosphate (TBP), were studied in a constant volume heated cell

using infrared spectroscopy (9:35 μm to 10:55 μm) over a temperature range of 50 C to

550 C. DIMP began decomposing at 130 C and was undetectable by 280 C. The ex-

pected decomposition products observed were propene, 2-propanol and methylphospho-

nic acid. One unexpected species, methanol, was observed, and isopropyl methylphospho-

nate was not observed. Tributyl phosphate began decomposing as low as 130 C and was

undetectable by 270 C. The pyrolysis of TBP had ...


Paddle Mixer-Extrusion Reactor For Torrefaction And Pyrolysis, Stas Zinchik Jan 2019

Paddle Mixer-Extrusion Reactor For Torrefaction And Pyrolysis, Stas Zinchik

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

This work is focused on the fundamental understanding and the development of paddle mixer reactors (or modified screw augers). This work will contribute to the effort of the thermal conversion of biomass and wastes. We developed and studied two paddle systems (i) 25-mm lab-scale (up to 1 kg/hr) and (ii) 101-mm pilot-scale (up to 100 kg/hr). Thermal behavior of the two systems was studied and it was estimated that the lab-scale system has a high heating rate of up to 530 °C/s. Residence times were thoroughly measured and were determined as a function of rotation frequency and ...