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2019

Machine learning

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

On Action Quality Assessment, Paritosh Parmar Dec 2019

On Action Quality Assessment, Paritosh Parmar

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In this dissertation, we tackle the task of quantifying the quality of actions, i.e., how well an

action was performed using computer vision. Existing methods used human body pose-based features to express the quality contained in an action sample. Human body pose estimation in actions such as sports actions, like diving and gymnastic vault, is particularly challenging, since the athletes undergo convoluted transformations while performing their routines. Moreover, pose-based features do not take into account visual cues such as water splash in diving. Visual cues are taken into account by human judges. In our first work, we show that ...


Neural Network In Hardware, Jiong Si Dec 2019

Neural Network In Hardware, Jiong Si

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This dissertation describes the implementation of several neural networks built on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and used to recognize a handwritten digit dataset – the Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology (MNIST) database. A novel hardwarefriendly activation function called the dynamic ReLU (D-ReLU) function is proposed. This activation function can decrease chip area and power of neural networks when compared to traditional activation functions at no cost to prediction accuracy.

The implementations of three neural networks on FPGA are presented: 2-layer online training fully-connected neural network, 3-layer offline training fully-connected neural network, and two solutions of Super-Skinny Convolutional ...


An Application Of Deep Learning Models To Automate Food Waste Classification, Alejandro Zachary Espinoza Dec 2019

An Application Of Deep Learning Models To Automate Food Waste Classification, Alejandro Zachary Espinoza

Dissertations and Theses

Food wastage is a problem that affects all demographics and regions of the world. Each year, approximately one-third of food produced for human consumption is thrown away. In an effort to track and reduce food waste in the commercial sector, some companies utilize third party devices which collect data to analyze individual contributions to the global problem. These devices track the type of food wasted (such as vegetables, fruit, boneless chicken, pasta) along with the weight. Some devices also allow the user to leave the food in a kitchen container while it is weighed, so the container weight must also ...


Self-Driving Toy Car Using Deep Learning, Fahim Ahmed, Suleyman Turac, Mubtasem Ali Dec 2019

Self-Driving Toy Car Using Deep Learning, Fahim Ahmed, Suleyman Turac, Mubtasem Ali

Publications and Research

Our research focuses on building a student affordable platform for scale model self-driving cars. The goal of this project is to explore current developments of Open Source hardware and software to build a low-cost platform consisting of the car chassis/framework, sensors, and software for the autopilot. Our research will allow other students with low budget to enter into the world of Deep Learning, self-driving cars, and autonomous cars racing competitions.


Pixel-Level Deep Multi-Dimensional Embeddings For Homogeneous Multiple Object Tracking, Mateusz Mittek Dec 2019

Pixel-Level Deep Multi-Dimensional Embeddings For Homogeneous Multiple Object Tracking, Mateusz Mittek

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from Electrical & Computer Engineering

The goal of Multiple Object Tracking (MOT) is to locate multiple objects and keep track of their individual identities and trajectories given a sequence of (video) frames. A popular approach to MOT is tracking by detection consisting of two processing components: detection (identification of objects of interest in individual frames) and data association (connecting data from multiple frames). This work addresses the detection component by introducing a method based on semantic instance segmentation, i.e., assigning labels to all visible pixels such that they are unique among different instances. Modern tracking methods often built around Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and ...


Domain Adaptation In Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Landing Using Reinforcement Learning, Pedro Lucas Franca Albuquerque Dec 2019

Domain Adaptation In Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Landing Using Reinforcement Learning, Pedro Lucas Franca Albuquerque

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Landing an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) on a moving platform is a challenging task that often requires exact models of the UAV dynamics, platform characteristics, and environmental conditions. In this thesis, we present and investigate three different machine learning approaches with varying levels of domain knowledge: dynamics randomization, universal policy with system identification, and reinforcement learning with no parameter variation. We first train the policies in simulation, then perform experiments both in simulation, making variations of the system dynamics with wind and friction coefficient, then perform experiments in a real robot system with wind variation. We initially expected that providing ...


Machine Learning Predictions Electronic Couplings For Charge Transport Calculations Of P3ht, Evan D. Miller, Matthew L. Jones, Mike M. Henry, Bryan Stanfill, Eric Jankowski Dec 2019

Machine Learning Predictions Electronic Couplings For Charge Transport Calculations Of P3ht, Evan D. Miller, Matthew L. Jones, Mike M. Henry, Bryan Stanfill, Eric Jankowski

Materials Science and Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

The purpose of this work is to lower the computational cost of predicting charge mobilities in organic semiconductors, which will benefit the screening of candidates for inexpensive solar power generation. We characterize efforts to minimize the number of expensive quantum chemical calculations we perform by training machines to predict electronic couplings between monomers of poly-(3-hexylthiophene). We test five machine learning techniques and identify random forests as the most accurate, information-dense, and easy-to-implement approach for this problem, achieving mean-absolute-error of 0.02 [× 1.6 × 10−19 J], R2 = 0.986, predicting electronic couplings 390 times faster than quantum chemical ...


Application Of Artificial Neural Networks In The Drilling Processes: Can Equivalent Circulation Density Be Estimated Prior To Drilling?, Husam Hasan Alkinani, Abo Taleb Al-Hameedi, Shari Dunn-Norman, David Lian Dec 2019

Application Of Artificial Neural Networks In The Drilling Processes: Can Equivalent Circulation Density Be Estimated Prior To Drilling?, Husam Hasan Alkinani, Abo Taleb Al-Hameedi, Shari Dunn-Norman, David Lian

Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

As the drilling environment became more challenging nowadays, managing equivalent circulating density (ECD) is a key factor to minimize non-productive time (NPT) due to many drilling obstacles such as stuck pipe, formation fracturing, and lost circulation. The goal of this work was to predict ECD prior to drilling by using artificial neural network (ANN). Once ECD is recognized, the crucial drilling variables impact ECD can be modified to control ECD within the acceptable ranges. Data from over 2000 wells collected worldwide were used in this study to create an ANN to predict ECD prior to drilling. Into training, validation, and ...


Truck Activity Pattern Classification Using Anonymous Mobile Sensor Data, Taslima Akter Dec 2019

Truck Activity Pattern Classification Using Anonymous Mobile Sensor Data, Taslima Akter

Theses and Dissertations

To construct, operate, and maintain a transportation system that supports the efficient movement of freight, transportation agencies must understand economic drivers of freight flow. This is a challenge since freight movement data available to transportation agencies is typically void of commodity and industry information, factors that tie freight movements to underlying economic conditions. With recent advances in the resolution and availability of big data from Global Positioning Systems (GPS), it may be possible to fill this critical freight data gap. However, there is a need for methodological approaches to enable usage of this data for freight planning and operations.

To ...


Using Uncertainty To Interpret Supervised Machine Learning Predictions, Michael C. Darling Nov 2019

Using Uncertainty To Interpret Supervised Machine Learning Predictions, Michael C. Darling

Electrical and Computer Engineering ETDs

Traditionally, machine learning models are assessed using methods that estimate an average performance against samples drawn from a particular distribution. Examples include the use of cross-validation or hold0out to estimate classification error, F-score, precision, and recall.

While these measures provide valuable information, they do not tell us a model's certainty relative to particular regions of the input space. Typically there are regions where the model can differentiate the classes with certainty, and regions where the model is much less certain about its predictions.

In this dissertation we explore numerous approaches for quantifying uncertainty in the individual predictions made by ...


Groundwater Level Mapping Tool: Development Of A Web Application To Effectively Characterize Groundwater Resources, Steven William Evans Nov 2019

Groundwater Level Mapping Tool: Development Of A Web Application To Effectively Characterize Groundwater Resources, Steven William Evans

Theses and Dissertations

Groundwater is used worldwide as a major source for agricultural irrigation, industrial processes, mining, and drinking water. An accurate understanding of groundwater levels and trends is essential for decision makers to effectively manage groundwater resources throughout an aquifer, ensuring its sustainable development and usage. Unfortunately, groundwater is one of the most challenging and expensive water resources to characterize, quantify, and monitor on a regional basis. Data, though present, are often limited or sporadic, and are generally not used to their full potential to aid decision makers in their groundwater management.This thesis presents a solution to this under-utilization of available ...


Pathologically-Validated Tumor Prediction Maps In Mri, Alex Barrington Oct 2019

Pathologically-Validated Tumor Prediction Maps In Mri, Alex Barrington

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive cancer with an average 5-year survival rate of about 5%. Following treatment with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, diagnosing tumor recurrence requires serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Infiltrative tumor cells beyond gadolinium enhancement on T1-weighted MRI are difficult to detect. This study therefore aims to improve tumor detection beyond traditional tumor margins. To accomplish this, a neural network model was trained to classify tissue samples as ‘tumor’ or ‘not tumor’. This model was then used to classify thousands of tiles from histology samples acquired at autopsy with known MRI locations on the patient’s final ...


Demonstration Of Visible And Near Infrared Raman Spectrometers And Improved Matched Filter Model For Analysis Of Combined Raman Signals, Alexander Matthew Atkinson Oct 2019

Demonstration Of Visible And Near Infrared Raman Spectrometers And Improved Matched Filter Model For Analysis Of Combined Raman Signals, Alexander Matthew Atkinson

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

Raman spectroscopy is a powerful analysis technique that has found applications in fields such as analytical chemistry, planetary sciences, and medical diagnostics. Recent studies have shown that analysis of Raman spectral profiles can be greatly assisted by use of computational models with achievements including high accuracy pure sample classification with imbalanced data sets and detection of ideal sample deviations for pharmaceutical quality control. The adoption of automated methods is a necessary step in streamlining the analysis process as Raman hardware becomes more advanced. Due to limits in the architectures of current machine learning based Raman classification models, transfer from pure ...


Development Of A National-Scale Big Data Analytics Pipeline To Study The Potential Impacts Of Flooding On Critical Infrastructures And Communities, Nattapon Donratanapat Oct 2019

Development Of A National-Scale Big Data Analytics Pipeline To Study The Potential Impacts Of Flooding On Critical Infrastructures And Communities, Nattapon Donratanapat

Theses and Dissertations

With the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Big data infrastructure, crowdsourcing techniques have emerged to facilitate data processing and problem solving particularly for flood emergences purposes. A Flood Analytics Information System (FAIS) has been developed as a Python Web application to gather Big data from multiple servers and analyze flooding impacts during historical and real-time events. The application is smartly designed to integrate crowd intelligence, machine learning (ML), and natural language processing of tweets to provide flood warning with the aim to improve situational awareness for flood risk management and decision making. FAIS allows the user ...


Discovery Of Materials Through Applied Machine Learning, Travis Williams Oct 2019

Discovery Of Materials Through Applied Machine Learning, Travis Williams

Theses and Dissertations

Advances in artificial intelligence technology, specifically machine learning, have cre- ated opportunities in the material sciences to accelerate material discovery and gain fundamental understanding of the interaction between certain the constituent ele- ments of a material and the properties expressed by that material. Application of machine learning to experimental materials discovery is slow due to the monetary and temporal cost of experimental data, but parallel techniques such as continuous com- positional gradients or high-throughput characterization setups are capable of gener- ating larger amounts of data than the typical experimental process, and therefore are suitable for combination with machine learning. A ...


Analyzing Evolution Of Rare Events Through Social Media Data, Xiaoyu Lu Aug 2019

Analyzing Evolution Of Rare Events Through Social Media Data, Xiaoyu Lu

Dissertations

Recently, some researchers have attempted to find a relationship between the evolution of rare events and temporal-spatial patterns of social media activities. Their studies verify that the relationship exists in both time and spatial domains. However, few of those studies can accurately deduce a time point when social media activities are most highly affected by a rare event because producing an accurate temporal pattern of social media during the evolution of a rare event is very difficult. This work expands the current studies along three directions. Firstly, we focus on the intensity of information volume and propose an innovative clustering ...


Machine Learning In Support Of Electric Distribution Asset Failure Prediction, Robert D. Flamenbaum, Thomas Pompo, Christopher Havenstein, Jade Thiemsuwan Aug 2019

Machine Learning In Support Of Electric Distribution Asset Failure Prediction, Robert D. Flamenbaum, Thomas Pompo, Christopher Havenstein, Jade Thiemsuwan

SMU Data Science Review

In this paper, we present novel approaches to predicting as- set failure in the electric distribution system. Failures in overhead power lines and their associated equipment in particular, pose significant finan- cial and environmental threats to electric utilities. Electric device failure furthermore poses a burden on customers and can pose serious risk to life and livelihood. Working with asset data acquired from an electric utility in Southern California, and incorporating environmental and geospatial data from around the region, we applied a Random Forest methodology to predict which overhead distribution lines are most vulnerable to fail- ure. Our results provide evidence ...


Data Analytics And Performance Enhancement In Edge-Cloud Collaborative Internet Of Things Systems, Tianqi Yu Aug 2019

Data Analytics And Performance Enhancement In Edge-Cloud Collaborative Internet Of Things Systems, Tianqi Yu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Based on the evolving communications, computing and embedded systems technologies, Internet of Things (IoT) systems can interconnect not only physical users and devices but also virtual services and objects, which have already been applied to many different application scenarios, such as smart home, smart healthcare, and intelligent transportation. With the rapid development, the number of involving devices increases tremendously. The huge number of devices and correspondingly generated data bring critical challenges to the IoT systems. To enhance the overall performance, this thesis aims to address the related technical issues on IoT data processing and physical topology discovery of the subnets ...


Computational Studies Of Thermal Properties And Desalination Performance Of Low-Dimensional Materials, Yang Hong Aug 2019

Computational Studies Of Thermal Properties And Desalination Performance Of Low-Dimensional Materials, Yang Hong

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

During the last 30 years, microelectronic devices have been continuously designed and developed with smaller size and yet more functionalities. Today, hundreds of millions of transistors and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor cells can be designed and integrated on a single microchip through 3D packaging and chip stacking technology. A large amount of heat will be generated in a limited space during the operation of microchips. Moreover, there is a high possibility of hot spots due to non-uniform integrated circuit design patterns as some core parts of a microchip work harder than other memory parts. This issue becomes acute as stacked microchips get ...


An Explainable Recommender System Based On Semantically-Aware Matrix Factorization., Mohammed Sanad Alshammari Aug 2019

An Explainable Recommender System Based On Semantically-Aware Matrix Factorization., Mohammed Sanad Alshammari

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collaborative Filtering techniques provide the ability to handle big and sparse data to predict the ratings for unseen items with high accuracy. Matrix factorization is an accurate collaborative filtering method used to predict user preferences. However, it is a black box system that recommends items to users without being able to explain why. This is due to the type of information these systems use to build models. Although rich in information, user ratings do not adequately satisfy the need for explanation in certain domains. White box systems, in contrast, can, by nature, easily generate explanations. However, their predictions are less ...


Understanding Self-Assembly And Charge Transport In Organic Solar Cells Through Efficient Computation, Evan Miller Aug 2019

Understanding Self-Assembly And Charge Transport In Organic Solar Cells Through Efficient Computation, Evan Miller

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Organic solar cells capable of sustainably generating electricity are possible if: (1) The structures assembled by photoactive molecules can be controlled, and (2) The structures favorable for charge transport can be determined. In this dissertation we conduct computational studies to understand relationships between organic solar cell compounds, processing, structure and charge transport. We advance tools for encapsulating computational workflows so that simulations are more reproducible and transferable. We find that molecular dynamic simulations using simplified models efficiently predict experimental structures. We find that the mobilities of charges through these structures—as determined by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations—match qualitative trends ...


Evaluating Machine Learning Performance In Predicting Injury Severity In Agribusiness Industries, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher Aug 2019

Evaluating Machine Learning Performance In Predicting Injury Severity In Agribusiness Industries, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Although machine learning methods have been used as an outcome prediction tool in many fields, their utilization in predicting incident outcome in occupational safety is relatively new. This study tests the performance of machine learning techniques in modeling and predicting occupational incidents severity with respect to accessible information of injured workers in agribusiness industries using workers’ compensation claims. More than 33,000 incidents within agribusiness industries in the Midwest of the United States for 2008–2016 were analyzed. The total cost of incidents was extracted and classified from workers’ compensation claims. Supervised machine learning algorithms for classification (support vector machines ...


Asap: A Source Code Authorship Program, Matthew F. Tennyson Phd Aug 2019

Asap: A Source Code Authorship Program, Matthew F. Tennyson Phd

Faculty & Staff Research and Creative Activity

Source code authorship attribution is the task of determining who wrote a computer program, based on its source code, usually when the author is either unknown or under dispute. Areas where this can be applied include software forensics, cases of software copyright infringement, and detecting plagiarism. Numerous methods of source code authorship attribution have been proposed and studied. However, there are no known easily accessible and user-friendly programs that perform this task. Instead, researchers typically develop software in an ad hoc manner for use in their studies, and the software is rarely made publicly available. In this paper, we present ...


Predicting Hardness Of Friction Stir Processed 304l Stainless Steel Using A Finite Element Model And A Random Forest Algorithm, Tyler Alan Mathis Aug 2019

Predicting Hardness Of Friction Stir Processed 304l Stainless Steel Using A Finite Element Model And A Random Forest Algorithm, Tyler Alan Mathis

Theses and Dissertations

Friction stir welding is an advanced welding process that is being investigated for use in many different industries. One area that has been investigated for its application is in healing critical nuclear reactor components that are developing cracks. However, friction stir welding is a complicated process and it is difficult to predict what the final properties of a set of welding parameters will be. This thesis sets forth a method using finite element analysis and a random forest model to accurately predict hardness in the welding nugget after processing. The finite element analysis code used and ALE formulation that enabled ...


Mid To Late Season Weed Detection In Soybean Production Fields Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle And Machine Learning, Arun Narenthiran Veeranampalayam Sivakumar Jul 2019

Mid To Late Season Weed Detection In Soybean Production Fields Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle And Machine Learning, Arun Narenthiran Veeranampalayam Sivakumar

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Mid-late season weeds are those that escape the early season herbicide applications and those that emerge late in the season. They might not affect the crop yield, but if uncontrolled, will produce a large number of seeds causing problems in the subsequent years. In this study, high-resolution aerial imagery of mid-season weeds in soybean fields was captured using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and the performance of two different automated weed detection approaches – patch-based classification and object detection was studied for site-specific weed management. For the patch-based classification approach, several conventional machine learning models on Haralick texture features were compared ...


Intelligent Software Tools For Recruiting, Swatee B. Kulkarni, Xiangdong Che Jul 2019

Intelligent Software Tools For Recruiting, Swatee B. Kulkarni, Xiangdong Che

Journal of International Technology and Information Management

In this paper, we outline how recruiting and talent acquisition gained importance within HRM field, then give a brief introduction to the newest tools used by the professionals for recruiting and lastly, describe the Artificial Intelligence-based tools that have started playing an increasingly important role. We also provide further research suggestions for using artificial intelligence-based tools to make recruiting more efficient and cost-effective.


A Hardware-Assisted Insider Threat Detection And Prevention Framework, Kyle W. Denney Jun 2019

A Hardware-Assisted Insider Threat Detection And Prevention Framework, Kyle W. Denney

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Today, the USB protocol is among the most widely used protocols. However, the mass-proliferation of USB has led to a threat vector wherein USB devices are assumed innocent, leaving computers open to an attack. Malicious USB devices can disguise themselves as benign devices to insert malicious commands to connected end devices. A rogue device appears benign to the average OS, requiring advanced detection schemes to identify malicious devices. However, using system-level hooks, advanced threats may subvert OS-reliant detection schemes. This thesis showcases USB-Watch, a hardware-based USB threat detection framework. The hardware can collect live USB traffic before the data can ...


High‑Throughput Analysis Of Leaf Physiological And Chemical Traits With Vis–Nir–Swir Spectroscopy: A Case Study With A Maize Diversity Panel, Yufeng Ge, Abbas Atefi, Huichun Zhang, Chenyong Miao, Raghuprakash Kastoori Ramamurthy, Brandi Sigmon, Jinliang Yang, James C. Schnable Jun 2019

High‑Throughput Analysis Of Leaf Physiological And Chemical Traits With Vis–Nir–Swir Spectroscopy: A Case Study With A Maize Diversity Panel, Yufeng Ge, Abbas Atefi, Huichun Zhang, Chenyong Miao, Raghuprakash Kastoori Ramamurthy, Brandi Sigmon, Jinliang Yang, James C. Schnable

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Hyperspectral reflectance data in the visible, near infrared and shortwave infrared range (VIS–NIR– SWIR, 400–2500 nm) are commonly used to nondestructively measure plant leaf properties. We investigated the usefulness of VIS–NIR–SWIR as a high-throughput tool to measure six leaf properties of maize plants including chlorophyll content (CHL), leaf water content (LWC), specific leaf area (SLA), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). This assessment was performed using the lines of the maize diversity panel. Data were collected from plants grown in greenhouse condition, as well as in the field under two nitrogen application regimes. Leaf-level hyperspectral ...


Field Drilling Data Cleaning And Preparation For Data Analytics Applications, Daniel Cardoso Braga Jun 2019

Field Drilling Data Cleaning And Preparation For Data Analytics Applications, Daniel Cardoso Braga

LSU Master's Theses

Throughout the history of oil well drilling, service providers have been continuously striving to improve performance and reduce total drilling costs to operating companies. Despite constant improvement in tools, products, and processes, data science has not played a large part in oil well drilling. With the implementation of data science in the energy sector, companies have come to see significant value in efficiently processing the massive amounts of data produced by the multitude of internet of thing (IOT) sensors at the rig. The scope of this project is to combine academia and industry experience to analyze data from 13 different ...


Implementation Of Multivariate Artificial Neural Networks Coupled With Genetic Algorithms For The Multi-Objective Property Prediction And Optimization Of Emulsion Polymers, David Chisholm Jun 2019

Implementation Of Multivariate Artificial Neural Networks Coupled With Genetic Algorithms For The Multi-Objective Property Prediction And Optimization Of Emulsion Polymers, David Chisholm

Master's Theses

Machine learning has been gaining popularity over the past few decades as computers have become more advanced. On a fundamental level, machine learning consists of the use of computerized statistical methods to analyze data and discover trends that may not have been obvious or otherwise observable previously. These trends can then be used to make predictions on new data and explore entirely new design spaces. Methods vary from simple linear regression to highly complex neural networks, but the end goal is similar. The application of these methods to material property prediction and new material discovery has been of high interest ...