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2019

Design

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Articles 1 - 30 of 41

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Mazak Laser Optimization, Maylon Ellington, Terrilian E. Agbor Oji, William N. Palm Dec 2019

Mazak Laser Optimization, Maylon Ellington, Terrilian E. Agbor Oji, William N. Palm

Senior Design Project For Engineers

Starflex Fabrication is a manufacturing company that thrives to provide custom, precision fabricated parts, and assemblies to their customers.The Mazak laser is Starflex Fabrication’s primary cutting machine and is critical to the overall process for each order. Team Flex will look to optimize the laser’s process and improve overall shop throughput.


Development Of A Mix Design Adjustment Method For Fiber Reinforced Concrete And Super High Performance Concrete Based On Excess Paste, Joe Malloy Dec 2019

Development Of A Mix Design Adjustment Method For Fiber Reinforced Concrete And Super High Performance Concrete Based On Excess Paste, Joe Malloy

Civil and Environmental Engineering Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

The main objective of this study was to develop a mix design adjustment method for Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) that would maintain appropriate workability while improving hardened concrete performance. A literature review was conducted to examine existing methods for adjusting mix designs to account for fiber introduction. It was found that while increasing fine aggregate and cement paste content can make up for lost workability with the addition of fibers, no rational mix design adjustment method is available. Reference mix designs from the Nevada Department of Transportation and the Nebraska Department of Transportation were used, and this study focused on ...


Means And Methods Of Residential Construction And Design In Remote Areas Of Southeast Alaska, Joseph Anthony Masters Dec 2019

Means And Methods Of Residential Construction And Design In Remote Areas Of Southeast Alaska, Joseph Anthony Masters

Construction Management

Building in the remote locations of Southeast Alaska is currently an unexplored area of construction that has been avoided due to the complications that accompany such projects. Many property owners in the Southeast Alaska region face challenges due to a lack of common practices that would simplify the construction process, particularly those deprived of road access and utility services. These potential residents must rely on sustainable techniques and alternative modes of material transportation, creating an abundance of planning concerns. Additionally, while code restrictions are limited due to the uniqueness of these properties, certain codes regarding the Alaska Department of Natural ...


In Silico Sequence Optimization For The Reproducible Generation Of Dna Structures, Michael D. Tobiason Dec 2019

In Silico Sequence Optimization For The Reproducible Generation Of Dna Structures, Michael D. Tobiason

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Biologically, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules have been used for information storage for more than 3 billion years. Today, modern synthesis tools have made it possible to use synthetic DNA molecules as a material for engineering nanoscale structures. These self-assembling structures are capable of both resolutions as fine as 4 angstroms and executing programed dynamic behavior. Numerous approaches for creating structures from DNA have been proposed and validated, however it remains commonplace for engineered systems to exhibit unexpected behaviors such as low formation yields, poor performance, or total failure. It is plausible that at least some of these behaviors arise due ...


Development Of Mbd Model And Analysis Methodology For Vehicle Design, Alfonso Christopher Ponce Nov 2019

Development Of Mbd Model And Analysis Methodology For Vehicle Design, Alfonso Christopher Ponce

Mechanical Engineering ETDs

This thesis is to provide a new methodology that considers the effects the chassis applies during dynamic load to the suspension and the handling characteristics of a road course vehicle. A methodology in which is described in detail as well as an applied demonstration where literature before this thesis, lacks in replication and serves to establish a basis for multi-body dynamic analysis in this area. Two models to be created, rigid and flexible, and to compare each other to study the effects the chassis torsional stiffness has during load transfer. Ultimately, to assist in the design of a vehicle that ...


Fib Model Code 2020 – Durability Design And Through Life Management Of New And Existing Structures, Frank Papworth, S Matthews Nov 2019

Fib Model Code 2020 – Durability Design And Through Life Management Of New And Existing Structures, Frank Papworth, S Matthews

International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures

Work has recently started in fib (Fédération Internationale du Béton) on the preparation of a new fib Model Code for Concrete Structures, under the working title of Model Code 2020 (MC2020). This will be a single code dealing with both new and existing concrete structures, that is both the design of new structures and all the activities associated with the assessment, interventions and the through-life management and care of existing concrete structures. Numerous goals relating to durability and service life design have been identified, including that ideally MC2020 should incorporate:

• Better models for deterioration processes addressing issues such as propagation ...


Application Of Modern, Effective Materials In Rail Road Reinforced Bridge Elements, U.Z. Shermuxamedov, F.Z. Zokirov Nov 2019

Application Of Modern, Effective Materials In Rail Road Reinforced Bridge Elements, U.Z. Shermuxamedov, F.Z. Zokirov

Journal of Tashkent Institute of Railway Engineers

The article is about reducing the construction costs of railroad bridges and the effective use modern building materials. The article compares the technical characteristics of composite fittings and metal fittings and their proportionality. Indeed, recourse saving of metal and composite fittings, as well as factors of localization of construction is compared


Method Of Calculation Of Self-Stressed Concrete Slabs Supported Along The Contour, S.S. Salixanov Nov 2019

Method Of Calculation Of Self-Stressed Concrete Slabs Supported Along The Contour, S.S. Salixanov

Journal of Tashkent Institute of Railway Engineers

The paper presents the developed method for calculating the contour-supported slab of self-stressed concrete. Reinforced concrete slab on the tension cement replaces the traditional construction of the bridge. In this article, in order to exclude reinforcement, the problem of determining the stress-strain state of self-stressed concrete slabs supported along the contour is considered. The values of stresses in the upper and lower faces of the concrete slab, as well as the bending moment in the middle section of the slab


Strong Circular Dichroism In Chiral Plasmonic Metasurfaces Optimized By Micro-Genetic Algorithm, Zhigang Li, Daniel Rosenmann, David A. Czaplewski, Xiaodong Yang, Jie Gao Sep 2019

Strong Circular Dichroism In Chiral Plasmonic Metasurfaces Optimized By Micro-Genetic Algorithm, Zhigang Li, Daniel Rosenmann, David A. Czaplewski, Xiaodong Yang, Jie Gao

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Strong circular dichroism in absorption in the near-infrared wavelength range is realized by designing binary-pattern chiral plasmonic metasurfaces via the micro-genetic algorithm optimization method. The influence of geometric parameter modifications in the binary-pattern nanostructures on the circular dichroism performance is studied. The strong circular dichroism in absorption is attributed to the simultaneous excitation and field interference of the resonant modes with relative phase delay under linearly polarized incident light. This work provides a universal design method toward the on-demand properties of chiral metasurfaces, which paves the way for future applications in chemical and biological sensing, chiral imaging and spectroscopy.


Investigation Of The Under-Body Flow Field Of A Prototype Long-Range Electric Vehicle, Matthew P. Nguyen Sep 2019

Investigation Of The Under-Body Flow Field Of A Prototype Long-Range Electric Vehicle, Matthew P. Nguyen

Master's Theses

This thesis presents changes to the design of the Prototype Vehicles Laboratory (PROVE Lab) Endurance Car, an electric car intended to break the Guinness World Record for the single-charge range of an electric vehicle. The design range is 1609.34 km, however at the design velocity of 104.6 kph, the drag is 196 N; which requires more battery capacity than the 100 kWh maximum of the baseline model. With a fixed frontal area, drag reduction can come from lowered velocity or reduced CD. CD reduction is attempted in four ways: side skirts between the fenders, a raised ride height ...


Design, Construction, And Preliminary Investigations Of Otta Seal In Iowa, Sharif Y. Gushgari, Yang Zhang, Ali Nahvi, Halil Ceylan, Sunghwan Kim, Ali Arabzadeh, Charles T. Jahren, Charles Øverby Aug 2019

Design, Construction, And Preliminary Investigations Of Otta Seal In Iowa, Sharif Y. Gushgari, Yang Zhang, Ali Nahvi, Halil Ceylan, Sunghwan Kim, Ali Arabzadeh, Charles T. Jahren, Charles Øverby

Ali Nahvi

Faced with limited financial resources, pavement engineers constantly seek more durable and economical technologies for road preservations and rehabilitations. Consequently, there have been many efforts to study resurfacing strategies, including various types of sealing for local roads. Among different sealing methodologies, Otta seal is a technique that has not yet been sufficiently studied in the U.S.A. For this investigation, the first Otta seal site in the state of Iowa was constructed using a double-layer Otta seal design over 6.4 km of cracked asphalt pavement. Otta seal design and construction details are documented and discussed, and test sections ...


Nchrp Synthesis 499: Alternate Design/Alternate Bid Process For Pavement-Type Selection. A Synthesis Of Highway Practice, Douglas D. Gransberg, Ashley F. Buss, Ilker Karaca, Michael C. Loulakis Jul 2019

Nchrp Synthesis 499: Alternate Design/Alternate Bid Process For Pavement-Type Selection. A Synthesis Of Highway Practice, Douglas D. Gransberg, Ashley F. Buss, Ilker Karaca, Michael C. Loulakis

Ilker Karaca

Highway administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to highway administrators and engineers. Much of it derives from research ...


Design, Construction, And Preliminary Investigations Of Otta Seal In Iowa, Sharif Y. Gushgari, Yang Zhang, Ali Nahvi, Halil Ceylan, Sunghwan Kim, Ali Arabzadeh, Charles T. Jahren, Charles Øverby Jun 2019

Design, Construction, And Preliminary Investigations Of Otta Seal In Iowa, Sharif Y. Gushgari, Yang Zhang, Ali Nahvi, Halil Ceylan, Sunghwan Kim, Ali Arabzadeh, Charles T. Jahren, Charles Øverby

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

Faced with limited financial resources, pavement engineers constantly seek more durable and economical technologies for road preservations and rehabilitations. Consequently, there have been many efforts to study resurfacing strategies, including various types of sealing for local roads. Among different sealing methodologies, Otta seal is a technique that has not yet been sufficiently studied in the U.S.A. For this investigation, the first Otta seal site in the state of Iowa was constructed using a double-layer Otta seal design over 6.4 km of cracked asphalt pavement. Otta seal design and construction details are documented and discussed, and test sections ...


Cisco Nexus 9200 Robustness Redesign, Colin Berge, Ethan Gold, Cole Christopherson, Rahul Makhijani Jun 2019

Cisco Nexus 9200 Robustness Redesign, Colin Berge, Ethan Gold, Cole Christopherson, Rahul Makhijani

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Certain configurations of Cisco's Nexus 9200 product experienced issues with bending during shipping. Two solutions were developed to eliminate this problem: an external brace that could quickly address the problem yet was expensive and unsustainable, and a redesigned chassis, which was more economical but came with a longer time to implement. Real world packaging and shipping conditions were simulated in SolidWorks and Finite Element Analysis was used to model the stresses experienced when the product is dropped. Both designs were found to significantly reduce stress in critical areas, thus reducing the chance of failure and the cost of the ...


The Theia Soteria: Alternative Design For Safer Initial Entry During Laparoscopic Procedures, Kayla Dubois, Patrick Ryan, Madelyn Joanis Jun 2019

The Theia Soteria: Alternative Design For Safer Initial Entry During Laparoscopic Procedures, Kayla Dubois, Patrick Ryan, Madelyn Joanis

Honors Theses

Laparoscopic procedures account for 15 million surgeries worldwide [1], with the initial entry into the peritoneal cavity accounting for 33-50% of all major laparoscopic complications [7]. This initial entry is the most dangerous as surgeons must enter the cavity using a sharp object with no visibility and space between the outer surface of the cavity and internal tissues. During the initial entry into the peritoneal cavity, the patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures are at a high risk for damage to internal organs and vasculature, necessitating the development of a device to protect these internal tissues and increase patient safety.


An Examination Into The Defining Characteristics Of Flexible Solar Aircraft Configurations Through Optimization, Taylor Mcdonnell, Andrew Ning Jun 2019

An Examination Into The Defining Characteristics Of Flexible Solar Aircraft Configurations Through Optimization, Taylor Mcdonnell, Andrew Ning

Faculty Publications

This paper examines the defining characteristics of various solar aircraft configurations through gradient-based multidisciplinary design optimization. We first present a general gradient-based solar aircraft optimization framework which accounts for nonlinear aeroelastic effects resulting from structural flexibility. We then apply this framework to several discrete SR- HALE aircraft geometric, structural, and propulsion system configuration choices to determine the defining characteristics of each configuration choice.


Journeyman International - Rubagabaga Evc And Ace - Rwanda, Africa, Jake M. Stom Jun 2019

Journeyman International - Rubagabaga Evc And Ace - Rwanda, Africa, Jake M. Stom

Construction Management

Rubagabaga EVC and ACE, or Empowering Villages Center and Agricultural Center of Excellence, is an interdisciplinary project based senior project completed by California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo students. College of Architecture and Environmental Design students Jake Stom, Mackenzie Diaz, Julia De Hart, and Jenna Williams completed the design and preconstruction services with the help of non-profit humanitarian organization, Journeyman International. The deliverable aims to serve the client, Empowering Villages, by providing the complete design of a community center and agricultural training facility near Kaseke Village in Rwanda. The goal is to provide the local community with development efforts ...


Open Source Completely 3-D Printable Centrifuge, Salil S. Sule, Aliaksei Petsiuk, Joshua M. Pearce May 2019

Open Source Completely 3-D Printable Centrifuge, Salil S. Sule, Aliaksei Petsiuk, Joshua M. Pearce

Michigan Tech Publications

Centrifuges are commonly required devices in medical diagnostics facilities as well as scientific laboratories. Although there are commercial and open source centrifuges, the costs of the former and the required electricity to operate the latter limit accessibility in resource-constrained settings. There is a need for low-cost, human-powered, verified, and reliable lab-scale centrifuges. This study provides the designs for a low-cost 100% 3-D printed centrifuge, which can be fabricated on any low-cost RepRap-class (self-replicating rapid prototyper) fused filament fabrication (FFF)- or fused particle fabrication (FPF)-based 3-D printer. In addition, validation procedures are provided using a web camera and free and ...


Smart Flow Facility Analysis, Chantal Ann George, Pete Suktankar, Eric Wilson, Matthew Geiger Apr 2019

Smart Flow Facility Analysis, Chantal Ann George, Pete Suktankar, Eric Wilson, Matthew Geiger

Senior Design Project For Engineers

The SMART Flow Design Team has been tasked in providing a physical layout for a single building facility used to consolidate three separate business units. The objective for the new facility will be to manufacture, receive, ship, and store the company's finished products. When designing the physical layout, the team must take into consideration stable and seasonal business volumes, current and future volume demand growth, designated inbound, outbound, and storage areas, and product turn rates. All specifications must be met while determining an efficient flow of goods. The team has designed indoor and outdoor layouts using Microsoft Visio, performed ...


Civil Engineering Design Of Cornhusker Council's Outdoor Education Center, Kelly Weiler Apr 2019

Civil Engineering Design Of Cornhusker Council's Outdoor Education Center, Kelly Weiler

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A team of geotechnical, structural, hydraulic, environmental, and transportation experts collaborated to provide engineering solutions to the Cornhusker Council in an effort to solve the current problems facing their Outdoor Education Center. This results of this project provided the structural design of three bridges on the property, transportation plans for two parking lots and roadway design, geotechnical recommendations for soil testing and erosion prevention, and an environmental and hydraulic analysis of the property. A major challenge in the design of this project is the consideration of the dangers and regulations that accompany the floodway and floodplain regions on site. Various ...


The Pedagogy Of Design And Technology At Xavier University Of Louisiana, New Orleans, Shayna Tova Blum Apr 2019

The Pedagogy Of Design And Technology At Xavier University Of Louisiana, New Orleans, Shayna Tova Blum

Faculty and Staff Publications

Abstract. Xavier University of Louisiana (XULA) is a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) university located in New Orleans, Louisiana. As a Historically Black University (HBCU), the university serves a diverse community of students in which many are first-generation, college graduates. Students enrolled in Design courses at XULA are studying in Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of Art programs and majoring in subjects such as Computer Science, Physics, Mass Communication, Art, Business, and Science. The interdisciplinary student environment offers a unique opportunity for collaboration and peer learning, whereby students are able to share diverse perspectives on a topic by relating ...


Design By Taking Perspectives: How Engineers Explore Problems, Jaclyn K. Murray, Jaryn A. Studer, Shanna R. Daly, Seda Mckilligan, Colleen M. Seifert Apr 2019

Design By Taking Perspectives: How Engineers Explore Problems, Jaclyn K. Murray, Jaryn A. Studer, Shanna R. Daly, Seda Mckilligan, Colleen M. Seifert

Industrial Design Publications

Background: Problem exploration includes identifying, framing, and defining design problems and bounding problem spaces. Intentional and unintentional changes in problem understanding naturally occur as designers explore design problems to create solutions. Through problem exploration, new perspectives on the problem can emerge along with new and diverse ideas for solutions. By considering multiple problem perspectives varying in scope and focus, designers position themselves to increase their understandings of the “real” problem and engage in more diverse idea generation processes leading to an increasing variety of potential solutions.

Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to investigate systematic patterns in problem ...


Asme Student Design Competition, Marcus Todd Apr 2019

Asme Student Design Competition, Marcus Todd

Mahurin Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

For the completion of my capstone project with the Western Kentucky University Honors College, the following document details my experience with the American Society of Mechanical Engineer (ASME) Student Design Competition. This project was completed in a two semester sequence through working with a team of four. One semester focusing primarily on the design and the other on fabrication and evaluation. The 2019 ASME competition was the Pick and Place Race. In this event, 46 teams were challenged to design and construct a device having the ability to pick up balls of varying size. Both the design and assembly process ...


(Poster) Combining Design And Entrepreneurial Mindset Development: Motorcycle Detection System, Pilar Echeverria, Thomas Leseure, Bailey Wilder, Oluebubechukwu Onaga, Jake Braumbaugh, Steve Spicklemire Dr., Jose Sanchez Dr., David Olawale Dr. Mar 2019

(Poster) Combining Design And Entrepreneurial Mindset Development: Motorcycle Detection System, Pilar Echeverria, Thomas Leseure, Bailey Wilder, Oluebubechukwu Onaga, Jake Braumbaugh, Steve Spicklemire Dr., Jose Sanchez Dr., David Olawale Dr.

ASEE IL-IN Section Conference

The Motorcycle Detection System will detect and warn drivers of motorcycles driving between lanes at high speeds on the interstate. Its main function would be to significantly reduce the frequency of motorcycle-car accidents on the road. Similar to the blind spot detectors that can be found on many modern cars, the motorcycle detector would minimize the number of accidents and deaths caused by motorcycles lane-splitting. By alerting drivers of motorcycles within a 50 feet radius, motorists would be able to make calculated decisions on the road that they otherwise would not contemplate.

Through rigorous market exploration, the team deduced that ...


(Poster) Combining Design And Entrepreneurial Mindset Development: Improved Multifunctional Charging Station, Allison Zwickl, Payton Staman, Evan Parduhn, Jake Smith, David Olawale, Stephen Spicklemire, Rashedul Sarker Mar 2019

(Poster) Combining Design And Entrepreneurial Mindset Development: Improved Multifunctional Charging Station, Allison Zwickl, Payton Staman, Evan Parduhn, Jake Smith, David Olawale, Stephen Spicklemire, Rashedul Sarker

ASEE IL-IN Section Conference

It has become imperative to find ways to organize different devices of varying functions and sizes. This problem was introduced to us through customers who believed the current designs on the market could use improvement, or through the lack of organization that they have when charging multiple devices. A solution is a modular concept with a base station that will include a wireless pad and a few charging cords. Additionally customers can purchase specialized add ons that fit into the base station. The housing station will seamlessly charge a plethora of devices including; smart-phones, smart-watches, and speakers in a centralized ...


(Poster) Design And Fabrication Of A Custom Wrist Orthosis For Enhanced Patient Comfort, Marko Tasic, Matthew Hansen, Mang Lian, Demetre Mitchell, Rashedul Sarker, Renny Fernandez, Erin Peterson, Joseph Herzog, David Olawale, Najmus Saqib Mar 2019

(Poster) Design And Fabrication Of A Custom Wrist Orthosis For Enhanced Patient Comfort, Marko Tasic, Matthew Hansen, Mang Lian, Demetre Mitchell, Rashedul Sarker, Renny Fernandez, Erin Peterson, Joseph Herzog, David Olawale, Najmus Saqib

ASEE IL-IN Section Conference

This custom wrist orthosis project is the continuation of efforts made by students in the R.B Annis School of Engineering during the 2017-2018 academic year. Throughout this project, we have implemented the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology to guide the design process. Within the R.B. Annis School of Engineering, this methodology has been adapted into guide the DesignSpine process. We have designed a new orthosis that is custom fabricated for enhanced patient comfort. In the occupational therapy field, patients have reportedly not been wearing their prescribed orthoses/braces, which are designed to stabilize injured areas so that ...


A Design For Affordances Framework For Product Packaging: Food Packaging Case Study, Ahmad Abdelhafiz Mumani, Richard T. Stone, Esraa Abdelall Jan 2019

A Design For Affordances Framework For Product Packaging: Food Packaging Case Study, Ahmad Abdelhafiz Mumani, Richard T. Stone, Esraa Abdelall

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

Since affordances provided by packaging features play a major role in facilitating user packaging interaction, it is important to integrate the concept of affordances into the packaging design process and to understand the interrelationships between packaging features and affordances. A framework is proposed for linking user requirements to packaging design features utilizing the concept of affordances. The framework is accomplished in two main steps; first, determine the affordances required to facilitate performing packaging-related tasks, and second, link these affordances to packaging features. Previous packaging usability studies were reviewed to elicit requirements in terms of affordance properties such as intuitiveness, responsiveness ...


Project Atlas: A Mobile Universal Rocket Engine Test Stand, Collin Mickels, Conrad H. Wright, Noah Soderquist, Alona Prokofieva, Sattar Panahandehgar, Naveen Sri Uddanti, Alcuin Rajan Jan 2019

Project Atlas: A Mobile Universal Rocket Engine Test Stand, Collin Mickels, Conrad H. Wright, Noah Soderquist, Alona Prokofieva, Sattar Panahandehgar, Naveen Sri Uddanti, Alcuin Rajan

Student Works

Project Atlas is a mobile, trailer-mounted, rocket engine test stand developed by Experimental Rocket Propulsion Lab (ERPL) at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University’s Daytona Beach, Florida campus. The integrated test stand and automated data-acquisition and control system supports ERPL’s multitude of engine research projects, including bipropellant liquid and hybrid rocket engines. The need for an integrated universal mobile test stand stems from the inability to conduct frequent test fires on campus due to Class-3 airspace and liability issues. The test stand is designed as a horizontal thrust structure utilizing a dual flame duct to redirect and cancel reaction forces acting ...


Fatigue Tester, Nicholas Fazio Jan 2019

Fatigue Tester, Nicholas Fazio

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this project is to combine all my experience, knowledge and skills that I’ve acquired over the years as a Mechanical Engineering Technology student to completely design and build a fatigue tester. This will give me valuable experience in the process of designing and assembling a product and give me a great example to add to my portfolio. The tester will be completed through a process of researching design and modeling. Once everything is properly calculated and designed the parts that can be fabricated will. The rest will be ordered and then everything will be assembled. Upon ...


A Reticulation Of Skin-Applied Strain Sensors For Motion Capture, Christopher A. Schroeck Jan 2019

A Reticulation Of Skin-Applied Strain Sensors For Motion Capture, Christopher A. Schroeck

ETD Archive

The purpose of this research is to develop a system of motion capture based on skin-applied strain sensors. These elastic sensors are of interest because they can be applied to the body without restricting motion and are well suited to operate in more practical environments, such as sports fields, gymnasiums, and outdoor areas. This combination is currently not available in the field of motion capture. The current issues with strain sensor motion capture technology is the accurate is not sufficient for motion analysis and axial rotation monitoring of joints is not available. This project will build and test a sensor ...