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2019

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

A Laboratory Investigation Of Cement Based Materials With Cellulose Nanofibers, Parivash Takasi Dec 2019

A Laboratory Investigation Of Cement Based Materials With Cellulose Nanofibers, Parivash Takasi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cellulose Nanofibers (CNFs) are used as additives in cement-based products to modify their properties. Recent studies about the effects of CNFs on cement paste showed inconsistent results for several different important properties, including compressive strength and free shrinkage. There is reason to believe that the unsystematic results of the compressive strengths were affected by the lack of uniform dispersion of CNFs. As a potential remedy, two different mixing methods were applied. The first method used a basic mixer, but aggregates were added to the cement paste mixture to improve the blending process. The second method utilized a high-speed shear mixer ...


Rapid Prototyping To Roll-To-Roll Manufacturing Of Microfluidic Devices, Amber Lee Boutiette Dec 2019

Rapid Prototyping To Roll-To-Roll Manufacturing Of Microfluidic Devices, Amber Lee Boutiette

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Microfluidics constitutes a widely applicable field of enabling technologies with great potential to revolutionize healthcare and biotechnology. The ability to miniaturize and parallelize processes with microfluidics is seen as a solution for many problems with diagnostics technologies and accessibility. Unfortunately, fabricating microfluidics often require extremely expensive, time consuming, and specialized high-precision methods, making both prototyping and commercial-scale mass manufacturing difficult to accomplish. In this work, we evaluate the feasibility of using a unique roll-to-roll (R2R) micropatterning manufacturing process coupled with Additive Manufacturing (3D printing) to rapidly prototype and produce microfluidic devices at high-volume on film or paper backings for applications ...


Acoustic Design Optimization With Isogeometric Analysis And Differential Evolution, Garrett W. Dodgen Dec 2019

Acoustic Design Optimization With Isogeometric Analysis And Differential Evolution, Garrett W. Dodgen

Mechanical Engineering Theses

The objective of this study is to utilize shape optimization to enhance the performance of devices relying on acoustic wave propagation. Particularly, the shape of a horn speaker and an acoustic energy harvester were optimized to enhance their performance at targeted frequencies. High order Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) was performed to estimate the acoustic pressure with minimum geometry and pollution errors [1]. The analysis platform was then combined with Differential Evolution (DE) to optimize the geometry of the horn speaker and energy harvester at a given frequency. These cases effectively demonstrate two applications of Isogeomtric shape optimization for devices relying on ...


Effect Of Recycled Concrete Aggregates On The Long-Term, Elastic, Total Deflection And Strength Of Precast Prestressed Hollow Core Concrete Slabs, Lizeth Marisol Gomez Santana Dec 2019

Effect Of Recycled Concrete Aggregates On The Long-Term, Elastic, Total Deflection And Strength Of Precast Prestressed Hollow Core Concrete Slabs, Lizeth Marisol Gomez Santana

Civil Engineering Theses

Concrete constitutes the largest portion of construction and demolition waste generated each year in the United States. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that the total production of construction and demolition of concrete waste during 2015 was 381.8 million tons. In order to reduce the economic and environmental effects of waste concrete, researchers have begun to incorporate it into concrete mixtures. However, the inherent variability in mechanical properties between RCA sources makes it difficult to quantify the maximum permissible replacement of natural aggregate and the end-result properties of concrete. This project investigates the use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA ...


Design And Implementation Of Anomaly Detections For User Authentication Framework, Iman Abu Sulayman Dec 2019

Design And Implementation Of Anomaly Detections For User Authentication Framework, Iman Abu Sulayman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Anomaly detection is quickly becoming a very significant tool for a variety of applications such as intrusion detection, fraud detection, fault detection, system health monitoring, and event detection in IoT devices. An application that lacks a strong implementation for anomaly detection is user trait modeling for user authentication purposes. User trait models expose up-to-date representation of the user so that changes in their interests, their learning progress or interactions with the system are noticed and interpreted. The reason behind the lack of adoption in user trait modeling arises from the need of a continuous flow of high-volume data, that is ...


Role Of Groundwater-Lake Interactions On The Behavior Of Chemicals In A Nearshore Aquifer, Sabina Rakhimbekova Dec 2019

Role Of Groundwater-Lake Interactions On The Behavior Of Chemicals In A Nearshore Aquifer, Sabina Rakhimbekova

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

It is well recognized that groundwater-surface water interactions play an important role in controlling the flux of groundwater-derived inorganic chemicals to surface waters. While these interactions have been well-studied in marine, and river and stream settings, the influence of these interactions on chemical fluxes to large lakes is poorly understood. Nearshore aquifers adjacent to inland coastal waters, such as the Great Lakes, are characterized by dynamic flow patterns and the mixing of groundwater and lake water, which have distinct chemical compositions. This sets up an important reaction zone in the nearshore aquifer that may modify the fate of groundwater-derived chemicals ...


Partial Nitritation Anammox Process For Sidestream Wastewater Treatment In Mabr Technology, Panagiota Stamatopoulou Dec 2019

Partial Nitritation Anammox Process For Sidestream Wastewater Treatment In Mabr Technology, Panagiota Stamatopoulou

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There has been an increased interest in alternative wastewater treatment systems to improve nutrients removal and energy consumptions while achieving acceptable discharge limits. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have shifted their interest in treating the sidestream wastewater; a reject liquid post anaerobic digestion, rich in ammonium-nitrogen. A dedicated sidestream wastewater treatment unit has become an attractive option with the finding of a relatively new species of bacteria, anaerobic ammonium oxidizers (anammox), able to convert ammonium and nitrite into nitrogen gas. However, anammox bacteria are sensitive in environmental changes, and in combination with their low growth rate, it is challenging to establish ...


Analysis Of The Duration And Energy Consumption Of Aes Algorithms On A Contiki-Based Iot Device, Brandon Tsao Dec 2019

Analysis Of The Duration And Energy Consumption Of Aes Algorithms On A Contiki-Based Iot Device, Brandon Tsao

Computer Science and Engineering Master's Theses

With the growing prevalence of the Internet of Things, securing the sheer abundance of devices is critical. The current IoT and security landscapes lack empirical metrics on encryption algorithm implementations that are optimized for constrained devices, such as encryption/decryption duration and energy consumption. In this paper, we achieve two things. First, we survey for optimized implementations of symmetric encryption algorithms. Seconds, we study the performance of various symmetric encryption algorithms on a Contiki-based IoT device. This paper provides encryption and decryption durations and energy consumption results on three implementations of AES: TinyAES, B-Con’s AES, and Contiki’s own ...


Anaerobic Digestion Modeling Of A High Rate Acidification Pre-Treatment Technology, Connor Pritty Dec 2019

Anaerobic Digestion Modeling Of A High Rate Acidification Pre-Treatment Technology, Connor Pritty

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Through the application of a computerized model (BioWin), anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) of source separated organics (SSO) and a high rate acidification technology (pretreatment) for a conventional wastewater treatment plant was reviewed. Through this combined approach of high rate acidification, and co-digestion techniques it was found that the experimental modeling scenarios offered increases when compared to the existing base scenario production levels. With the addition of the high rate acidification technology and application of source separated organics the maximum increases in biogas production came when an OLR of 5.24 kg-COD/m³/day and 97g COD/L/d was experimentally modeled ...


Biomechanical Analysis Of Open-Skull High-Rate Traumatic Brain Injury Using Finite Element Mouse Brain Model, Lihong Lu Dec 2019

Biomechanical Analysis Of Open-Skull High-Rate Traumatic Brain Injury Using Finite Element Mouse Brain Model, Lihong Lu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

To better understand traumatic brain injury (TBI), it is necessary to correlate with injuries, which are observed from in vivo laboratory experiments, to brain mechanical responses, which can so far be best predicted by finite element (FE) models. Firstly, a previously validated FE model was improved to investigate the effect of repeated impacts and lateral movements on brain responses to ensure the accuracy and reproducibility of controlled cortical impact (CCI) across different labs. Then, a new FE mouse brain model with the detailed three-dimensional (3D), non-linear vasculature was developed to study how the vasculature affected brain response in CCI and ...


High-Pressure Studies On The Transition From Red Phosphorus To Black Phosphorus, Heng Xiang Dec 2019

High-Pressure Studies On The Transition From Red Phosphorus To Black Phosphorus, Heng Xiang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Black phosphorus (BP) is a promising material in many research fields. However, the transition process from amorphous red phosphorus (ARP) is elusive and hence hinders large scale synthesis and applications. This work describes the application of the high-pressure method to study the transition process from ARP to BP.

In this thesis, the following three objectives were achieved: (1) to understand the mechanism of the transition, (2) to facilitate the synthesis of BP by taking the advantage of less pure ARP, (3) to propose new methods of synthesizing BP-based materials, such as the moderately oxidized BP and the black phosphorus/ amorphous ...


Objective Estimation Of Tracheoesophageal Speech Quality, Yousef S Ettomi Ali Dec 2019

Objective Estimation Of Tracheoesophageal Speech Quality, Yousef S Ettomi Ali

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Speech quality estimation for pathological voices is becoming an increasingly important research topic. The assessment of the quality and the degree of severity of a disordered speech is important to the clinical treatment and rehabilitation of patients. In particular, patients who have undergone total laryngectomy (larynx removal) produce Tracheoesophageal (TE) speech. In this thesis, we study the problem of TE speech quality estimation using advanced signal processing approaches. Since it is not possible to have a reference (clean) signal corresponding to a given TE speech (disordered) signal, we investigate in particular the non-intrusive techniques (also called single-ended or blind approaches ...


Evaluation Of A Novel Remote Displacement Sensor Prototype Using Video And Laser-Based Technology For Civil Infrastructure Applications, Nicholas J. Brown Dec 2019

Evaluation Of A Novel Remote Displacement Sensor Prototype Using Video And Laser-Based Technology For Civil Infrastructure Applications, Nicholas J. Brown

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

Deflection measurements on structures, especially with regards to long-term monitoring, continues to be a challenge with current sensor technologies. Material degradation and changes in the mechanical properties due to aging (for example, creep and shrinkage in concrete bridges) directly impact the deflections exhibited by a structure. In this article we introduce and discuss the evaluation of a novel laser and video-based displacement sensor prototype to monitor displacements and rotations in structures remotely. The sensor is both inexpensive, using off-the shelf components, but also accurate and practical for situations that do not allow the use of conventional displacement sensors, which require ...


Flood Dynamics In The Portland Metropolitan Area, Past, Present, And Future, Lumas Terence Helaire Dec 2019

Flood Dynamics In The Portland Metropolitan Area, Past, Present, And Future, Lumas Terence Helaire

Dissertations and Theses

The Portland area has an extensive flood history since it was founded in 1845. In the late 19th century, the Portland area was prone to flooding from snowmelt freshets (3-6 months duration) and brief winter rain or rain-on-snow events. Since that time the magnitude of spring freshets has been curtailed by 45% due to climate change, flow diversions, and reservoir management. Along with changes in hydrology, the bathymetry of the Lower Columbia River has been altered by the dredging of the navigation channel, diking, and land reclamation. To understand how these changes in hydrology and bathymetry have affected tidal and ...


Instrumentation For Dynamic Nuclear Polarization And Application Of Electron Decoupling For Electron Relaxation Measurement, Nicholas Howard Alaniva Dec 2019

Instrumentation For Dynamic Nuclear Polarization And Application Of Electron Decoupling For Electron Relaxation Measurement, Nicholas Howard Alaniva

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dynamic nuclear polarization nuclear magnetic resonance (DNP NMR) exploits internal electron spin and nuclear spin interactions to increase sensitivity and uncover valuable information regarding structure and dynamics of a system. To manipulate these interactions, instrumentation is developed to combine high-power microwave and radiofrequency irradiation with the ability to spin samples at the magic angle (MAS) at temperatures from 90 K to 4.2 K. Electron decoupling uses frequency-modulated microwaves to mitigate the electron-nuclear dipolar interaction, improving signal intensity and resolution in DNP NMR experiments. Electron decoupling is combined with short DNP periods to encode electron spin information in polarized nuclear ...


Pressure Driven Electronic Band Gap Engineering In Tin(Iv)-O,N Compounds, Daniel Thomas Sneed Dec 2019

Pressure Driven Electronic Band Gap Engineering In Tin(Iv)-O,N Compounds, Daniel Thomas Sneed

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The intrinsic link between long-range order, coordination geometry, and the electronic properties of a system must be understood in order to tailor function-specific materials. Although material properties are typically tailored using chemical dopants, such methods can cause irreversible changes to the structure, limiting the range of functionality. The application of high pressure may provide an alternative “clean” method to tune the electronic properties of semiconducting materials by tailoring their defect density and structure.

We have explored a number of optoelectronic relevant materials with promising characteristics, specifically Sn-(O,N) compounds which have been predicted to undergo pressure-mediated opening of their ...


Galena Creek Bridge Structural Health Monitoring Instrumentation And Modeling, Leopold Falkensammer Dec 2019

Galena Creek Bridge Structural Health Monitoring Instrumentation And Modeling, Leopold Falkensammer

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Structural health monitoring (SHM) of an instrumented structure provides numerous benefits when assessing the long-term condition of the structure against degradation, or the short-term condition after an extreme event, such as an earthquake. The Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT) has an interest in expanding the use of SHM for such assessments. Accordingly, the objective of the current study is to develop and implement a permanent SHM system for the Galena Creek Bridge, the largest concrete cathedral arch bridge in the world, to monitor its response to routine traffic and seismic activity. Completed in 2012, the bridge connects Reno and Carson ...


Alkali-Silica Reactivity Of Mortars Containing Natural Pozzolan, Arash Kian Dec 2019

Alkali-Silica Reactivity Of Mortars Containing Natural Pozzolan, Arash Kian

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Alkali-silica reactivity is one of the most recognized deleterious phenomena in Portland cement concrete resulting in cracks, spalling, and other deleterious mechanisms.

The aim of this study was (i) to assess the extent of reactivity of the aggregates, quarried from seven different sources, suspected of being conducive to ASR, and (ii) to compare the effectiveness of industrial (Class F fly ash) and natural pozzolans in mitigation of alkali-silica reactivity of the studied aggregates. To this end, seven aggregate sources, four natural pozzolan sources, and one source of Class F fly ash were used. ASTM Type V Portland cement was replaced ...


On Action Quality Assessment, Paritosh Parmar Dec 2019

On Action Quality Assessment, Paritosh Parmar

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In this dissertation, we tackle the task of quantifying the quality of actions, i.e., how well an

action was performed using computer vision. Existing methods used human body pose-based features to express the quality contained in an action sample. Human body pose estimation in actions such as sports actions, like diving and gymnastic vault, is particularly challenging, since the athletes undergo convoluted transformations while performing their routines. Moreover, pose-based features do not take into account visual cues such as water splash in diving. Visual cues are taken into account by human judges. In our first work, we show that ...


Ambient Temperature Dependence Of Air-Cooled Condenser Performance And Parameters, Alexander Darr Smith Dec 2019

Ambient Temperature Dependence Of Air-Cooled Condenser Performance And Parameters, Alexander Darr Smith

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Thermoelectric power generation uses 38% of total fresh water withdrawals and majority of that water is used during steam condensation. Air-cooled condensers are an alternative to water-cooled condensers for power generation. Ambient air temperature affects the performance of air-cooled condensers. A small air-cooled condenser was run under the ambient air temperature extremes of Las Vegas in order to examine the system performance and air-side heat transfer parameters. Three different sets of tubes with different surface areas and geometries were studied. The condenser is equipped with several air velocity sensors, thermocouples and thermistors to measure the conditions to develop the air-side ...


Treatment Of Perchlorate And Multiple Oxyanions: Chemical And Biological Investigations, Mark Elkouz Dec 2019

Treatment Of Perchlorate And Multiple Oxyanions: Chemical And Biological Investigations, Mark Elkouz

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Groundwater contamination with oxyanions is an issue that must be addressed for environmental, ecological and societal reasons. Chemical and biological treatment methods of reduction are already known and practiced, but the simultaneous presence of multiple oxyanions can add complicating effects to treatment sequence and efficacy. This research was concerned with the investigation of the chemical reductive treatment of Cr(VI) using both calcium polysulfide (CaSx) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4), and the biological reductive treatment of chlorate, Cr(VI), nitrate and perchlorate using multiple organic substrates. The chemical treatment phase consisted of initial jar tests, using CaSx and FeSO4, followed by ...


Impact Of Design Cost Percentage On Cost Growth, Schedule Growth, And Construction Intensity Of Road Construction Projects, Elina Prajapati Dec 2019

Impact Of Design Cost Percentage On Cost Growth, Schedule Growth, And Construction Intensity Of Road Construction Projects, Elina Prajapati

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The performance of construction projects is measured in terms of cost and schedule variation. Studies have identified that such variations are mainly due to design changes, which are more frequent on projects executed through the design-bid-build (DBB) delivery method. Thus, the design factor is identified as one of the major parameters affecting the performance of DBB projects. Despite the majority of road projects being constructed following the DBB method, the impact of design cost on the performance of road projects has not been sufficiently studied yet. Therefore, this study focuses on determining the effect of design cost on the performance ...


Finding A Viable Neural Network Architecture For Use With Upper Limb Prosthetics, Maxwell Lavin Dec 2019

Finding A Viable Neural Network Architecture For Use With Upper Limb Prosthetics, Maxwell Lavin

Master of Science in Computer Science Theses

This paper attempts to answer the question of if it’s possible to produce a simple, quick, and accurate neural network for the use in upper-limb prosthetics. Through the implementation of convolutional and artificial neural networks and feature extraction on electromyographic data different possible architectures are examined with regards to processing time, complexity, and accuracy. It is found that the most accurate architecture is a multi-entry categorical cross entropy convolutional neural network with 100% accuracy. The issue is that it is also the slowest method requiring 9 minutes to run. The next best method found was a single-entry binary cross ...


Corrosion-Resistant Non-Carbon Electrocatalyst Supports For Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells, Cheng He Dec 2019

Corrosion-Resistant Non-Carbon Electrocatalyst Supports For Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells, Cheng He

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are a promising portable power source due to their low operating temperature, minimal pollutant generation and fast startup. However, several challenges remain concerning lifetime, reliability, and cost. A critical issue is PEMFC component durability. Platinum supported on high surface area carbon has been one of the most widely used electrocatalysts in PEMFCs. However, carbon corrosion over the course of normal PEMFC operation occurs due to the relatively low standard electrode potential for the carbon dioxide/carbon redox couple (0.207V vs. standard hydrogen electrode). Considering this challenge, it is imperative to identify alternative support ...


Kernel Methods For Graph-Structured Data Analysis, Zhen Zhang Dec 2019

Kernel Methods For Graph-Structured Data Analysis, Zhen Zhang

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Structured data modeled as graphs arise in many application domains, such as computer vision, bioinformatics, and sociology. In this dissertation, we focus on three important topics in graph-structured data analysis: graph comparison, graph embeddings, and graph matching, for all of which we propose effective algorithms by making use of kernel functions and the corresponding reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces.For the first topic, we develop effective graph kernels, named as "RetGK," for quantitatively measuring the similarities between graphs. Graph kernels, which are positive definite functions on graphs, are powerful similarity measures, in the sense that they make various kernel-based learning algorithms ...


Development Of High-Speed Photoacoustic Imaging Technology And Its Applications In Biomedical Research, Yun He Dec 2019

Development Of High-Speed Photoacoustic Imaging Technology And Its Applications In Biomedical Research, Yun He

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Photoacoustic (PA) tomography (PAT) is a novel imaging modality that combines the fine lateral resolution from optical imaging and the deep penetration from ultrasonic imaging, and provides rich optical-absorption–based images. PAT has been widely used in extracting structural and functional information from both ex vivo tissue samples to in vivo animals and humans with different length scales by imaging various endogenous and exogenous contrasts at the ultraviolet to infrared spectrum. For example, hemoglobin in red blood cells is of particular interest in PAT since it is one of the dominant absorbers in tissue at the visible wavelength.The main ...


Contemporary Problems In Aerosol Aggregation And Gelation, Pai Liu Dec 2019

Contemporary Problems In Aerosol Aggregation And Gelation, Pai Liu

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Aggregation of nanoparticles in aerosols is a fundamental phenomenon with important implications to diverse fields ranging from material synthesis to pollutant control. The past few decades have witnessed extensive research on investigating the structure and growth mechanism of aerosol aggregates with sizes spanning across several orders of magnitude. This dissertation focuses on some contemporary problems that remain unaddressed in this topical area. Aerosol aggregates in sub-micron regimes, which are formed via the irreversible collision and aggregation of solid nanoparticle monomers, are fractal-like in their morphology. A mathematical description of this seemingly random structure dates to the seminal works by Forest ...


Three-Dimensional Image Reconstruction In Transcranial Photoacoustic Computed Tomography, Joemini Poudel Dec 2019

Three-Dimensional Image Reconstruction In Transcranial Photoacoustic Computed Tomography, Joemini Poudel

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) is an emerging imaging modality that exploitsoptical contrast and ultrasonic detection principles to form images of the photoacousticallyinduced initial pressure distribution within tissue. The PACT reconstruction problemcorresponds to an inverse source problem in which the initial pressure distribution is recoveredfrom measurements of the radiated pressure wavefield. A major challenge in transcranialPACT brain imaging is compensation for aberrations in the measured data due to the presenceof the skull. Ultrasonic waves undergo absorption, scattering and longitudinal-to-shear wavemode conversion as they propagate through the skull. To properly account for these effects, awave-equation-based inversion method should be employed that can ...


Rhodococcus Opacus Pd630 Genetic Tool Development To Enable The Conversion Of Biomass, Drew Michael Delorenzo Dec 2019

Rhodococcus Opacus Pd630 Genetic Tool Development To Enable The Conversion Of Biomass, Drew Michael Delorenzo

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

The discovery of fossil fuels facilitated a new era in human history and allowed many firsts, such as the mass production of goods, the ability to travel and communicate long distances, the formation of population dense cities, and unprecedented improvements in quality of life. Alternative sources of energy and chemicals are needed, however, as hydrocarbon reserves continue to deplete and the effects of burning fossils on the planet become better understood. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant raw material in the world and a viable alternative to petroleum-derived products. The pre-treatment of lignocellulose (e.g., thermocatalytic depolymerization, enzymatic hydrolysis, pyrolysis ...


Dynamics And Control In Spiking Neural Networks, Fuqiang Huang Dec 2019

Dynamics And Control In Spiking Neural Networks, Fuqiang Huang

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

In the brain, neurons (brain cells) produce electrical impulses, or spikes, that are thought to be the substrate of information processing and computation. Through enigmatic processes, these spikes are ultimately decoded into perceptions and actions. The nature of this encoding and decoding is one of the most pervasive questions in theoretical neuroscience. In other words, what are the specific functions enacted by neural circuits, through their biophysics and dynamics? This thesis examines the dynamics of neural networks from the perspective of control theory and engineering. The pivotal concept is that of the normative synthesis of neural circuits, wherein neural dynamics ...