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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Connected And Autonomous Vehicles Effects On Emergency Response Times, Austin William Obenauf Jan 2019

Connected And Autonomous Vehicles Effects On Emergency Response Times, Austin William Obenauf

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

Emergency response times have been shown to be directly correlated with mortality rates of out-of-hospital patients. Studies have been conducted to show the relationship between time and mortality rates until patients receive the proper treatment. With more cardiac arrests and other life threatening illnesses occurring in the United States, more emergency calls will be required as well. As of today, technological advancements have been made to reduce response times, but human factors still require certain procedures, causing delays in the run time and increasing the rate of mortality. Here we show the results of emergency response times with the market ...


Investigation Of Atmospheric Effects On Vapor Intrusion Processes Using Modelling Approaches, Elham Shirazi Jan 2019

Investigation Of Atmospheric Effects On Vapor Intrusion Processes Using Modelling Approaches, Elham Shirazi

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

Most people in the United States (US) spend considerable amount of time indoors—about 90% of their time as compared to outdoors, which makes the US population vulnerable to adverse health effects of indoor air contaminants. Volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations are well-known to be higher in indoor air than outdoor air. One source of VOC concentrations in indoor air that has gained considerable attention in public health and environmental regulatory communities is vapor intrusion. Vapor intrusion is the process by which subsurface vapors enter indoor spaces from contaminated soil and groundwater. It has been documented to cause indoor air ...


Adapting Crash Modification Factors For The Connected And Autonomous Vehicle Environment, Federico Valentin Lause Iii Jan 2019

Adapting Crash Modification Factors For The Connected And Autonomous Vehicle Environment, Federico Valentin Lause Iii

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

The Crash Modification Factor (CMF) clearinghouse can be used to estimate benefits for specific highway safety countermeasures. It assists safety professionals in the allocation of investments. The clearinghouse contains over 7000 entries of which only 446 are categorized as intelligent transportation systems or advanced technology, but none directly address connected or autonomous vehicles (CAVs). Further, the effectiveness of highway safety countermeasures is assumed to remain constant over time, an assumption that is particularly problematic as new technologies are introduced. For example, for the existing fleet of human-driven vehicles, installation of rumble strip can potentially reduce “run-off-road” crashes by 40%. If ...


Decomposing A Watershed’S Nitrate Signal Using Spatial Sampling And Continuous Sensor Data, Evan Clare Jan 2019

Decomposing A Watershed’S Nitrate Signal Using Spatial Sampling And Continuous Sensor Data, Evan Clare

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

Watershed features, physiographic setting, geology, climate, and hydrologic processes combine to produce a time-variant nutrient concentration signal at the watershed outlet. Anthropogenic influences, such as increased agricultural pressures and urbanization, have increased overall nutrient loadings delivered to the fluvial network. The impact of such increased nutrient loadings on Kentucky’s drinking water remains a potential threat to the region.

By coupling spatial sampling of nitrate concentrations in surface water with contemporary nutrient and water quality sensor technology, a decomposition of the Upper South Elkhorn watershed’s nitrate signal and an estimation of source timing and loading in the watershed was ...


Pathway Connectivity In An Epigenetic Fluviokarst System: Insight From A Numerical Modelling Study In Kentucky Usa, Ethan Adams Jan 2019

Pathway Connectivity In An Epigenetic Fluviokarst System: Insight From A Numerical Modelling Study In Kentucky Usa, Ethan Adams

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

Fluviokarst landscapes are dominated by both fluvial and karst features. Interpreting hydrologic pathways of fluviokarst can be confounded by the unknown connectivity of the various flow regimes. A combined discrete-continuum (CDC) hybrid numeric model for simulating the surface and subsurface hydrology and hydraulics in fluviokarst basins was formulated to investigate fluviokarst pathways. This model was applied to the Cane Run Royal Springs basin in Kentucky USA. A priori constraints on parameterization were avoided via multi-stage optimization utilizing Sobol sequencing and high performance computing. Modelling results provide evidence of hydrologic pathways dominated by fracture flow, epikarst transfer and runoff. Fractures in ...


Redefining Construction “As-Built” Plans To Meet Current Kentucky Transportation Cabinet Needs, Victoria Lynn Lasley Jan 2019

Redefining Construction “As-Built” Plans To Meet Current Kentucky Transportation Cabinet Needs, Victoria Lynn Lasley

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

As-built drawings are the traditional method used by the construction industry to record changes made during construction. As-builts provide valuable information for new design projects as well as rehabilitation and remediation projects. The completeness and accuracy of these plans are essential for transportation industries and their success. While the importance of as-builts is widely recognized, the process of creating them has proven to be difficult. It is a time consuming process and entities often lack the resources necessary to complete accurate and detailed as-builts. After an investigation of current as-built operations within State Transportation Agencies, recommendations have been made to ...


E-Construction Technologies For Efficient Highway Construction Inspections, Dhaivat Patel Jan 2019

E-Construction Technologies For Efficient Highway Construction Inspections, Dhaivat Patel

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

Over recent years, organizations such as the Federal Highway Administration and Departments of Transportation across the United States have showed interest in automating highway construction processes. The addition of e-Construction and other advanced technologies can significantly improve the efficiency and safety of highway paving operations, specifically paving inspections. Activities such as collecting load tickets, tracking pavement lay-down temperatures, and monitoring roller movement are antiquated practices that DOT inspectors perform during paving operations. E-Ticketing, Paver Mounted Thermal Profiling, and Intelligent Compaction were proposed to automate paving inspections and were recently tested in two resurfacing pilot projects in the state of Kentucky ...


Improving Safety Performance Of Highway Maintenance Crews Through Pre-Task Safety Toolbox Talks, Zamaan Al-Shabbani Jan 2019

Improving Safety Performance Of Highway Maintenance Crews Through Pre-Task Safety Toolbox Talks, Zamaan Al-Shabbani

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

The dangerous work environment in the construction industry and the inherent high risks associated with construction work make it the focus of safety training and regulations. Highway construction and maintenance has unique hazards but seemingly less directly applicable safety standards, regulations, and programs. Department of Transportation (DOT) employees working in highway maintenance are exposed to a variety of unique hazards specifically associated with their work and not relating to the adjacent traffic. Yet, highway construction and maintenance work has not received sufficient attention in terms of safety research and programs. The lack of safety training and education in highway construction ...


Evaluate Probe Speed Data Quality To Improve Transportation Modeling, Fahmida Rahman Jan 2019

Evaluate Probe Speed Data Quality To Improve Transportation Modeling, Fahmida Rahman

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

Probe speed data are widely used to calculate performance measures for quantifying state-wide traffic conditions. Estimation of the accurate performance measures requires adequate speed data observations. However, probe vehicles reporting the speed data may not be available all the time on each road segment. Agencies need to develop a good understanding of the adequacy of these reported data before using them in different transportation applications. This study attempts to systematically assess the quality of the probe data by proposing a method, which determines the minimum sample rate for checking data adequacy. The minimum sample rate is defined as the minimum ...


An Assessment Of Historical Traffic Forecast Accuracy And Sources Of Forecast Error, Jawad Mahmud Hoque Jan 2019

An Assessment Of Historical Traffic Forecast Accuracy And Sources Of Forecast Error, Jawad Mahmud Hoque

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

Transportation infrastructure improvement projects are typically huge and have significant economic and environmental effects. Forecasts of demand of the facility in the form of traffic level help size the project as well as choose between several alternatives. Inaccuracy in these forecasts can thus have a great impact on the efficiency of the operational design and the benefits accrued from the project against the cost. Despite this understanding, evaluation of traffic forecast inaccuracy has been too few, especially for un-tolled roads in the United States. This study, part of a National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) funded project, bridges this gap ...


Hazard Recognition And Risk Perception Among Union Electricians, Elyas Jazayeri Jan 2019

Hazard Recognition And Risk Perception Among Union Electricians, Elyas Jazayeri

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

Hazard recognition and risk perception are two important factors that are a focus of most safety training programs. According to previous research, unrecognized hazards could lead to underestimation of risks, which ultimately could lead to injuries and fatalities. The primary objective of this research was to assess hazard recognition and safety risk perception skills in the electrician trade among electricians in unions. Another goal of this study was to find possible correlation between level of engagement in safety training and hazard recognition and risk perception skills. The research objectives were accomplished by gathering data from sixty-seven apprentices and journeymen across ...


Quantifying The Impact Of Transportation Network Companies (Tncs) On Traffic Congestion In San Francisco, Sneha Roy Jan 2019

Quantifying The Impact Of Transportation Network Companies (Tncs) On Traffic Congestion In San Francisco, Sneha Roy

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

This research investigates whether Transportation Network Companies (TNCs), such as Uber and Lyft, live up to their stated vision of reducing congestion by complementing transit and reducing car ownership in major cities. The objective of this research study is to answer the question: are TNCs are correlated to traffic congestion in the city of San Francisco? If found to be so, do they increase or decrease traffic congestion for the case of San Francisco? If and how TNC pickups and drop-offs impact traffic congestion within San Francisco? And finally, how does the magnitude of this measured command of TNCs on ...


Use Of Functionalized Bimetallic Membranes For Treatment Of Contaminated Groundwater At A Hazardous Waste Site In Kentucky, Lucy C. Pacholik Jan 2019

Use Of Functionalized Bimetallic Membranes For Treatment Of Contaminated Groundwater At A Hazardous Waste Site In Kentucky, Lucy C. Pacholik

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

Providing access to clean drinking water will continue to be a challenge for civil engineers for generations to come. Since many communities around the world rely on groundwater as a source of drinking water, remediation technologies must be implemented at sites where groundwater contamination exists due to years of mismanagement of hazardous waste. Using nanosized zero-valent metals such as iron and zinc embedded within and on the surface of functionalized (PAA) membrane filters has shown to be an effective dechlorination technique for contaminated groundwater. Introducing a noble metal such as Pd or Ni increases reaction rates by acting a catalyst ...


The Use Of 3-D Highway Differential Geometry In Crash Prediction Modeling, Kiriakos Amiridis Jan 2019

The Use Of 3-D Highway Differential Geometry In Crash Prediction Modeling, Kiriakos Amiridis

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

The objective of this research is to evaluate and introduce a new methodology regarding rural highway safety. Current practices rely on crash prediction models that utilize specific explanatory variables, whereas the depository of knowledge for past research is the Highway Safety Manual (HSM). Most of the prediction models in the HSM identify the effect of individual geometric elements on crash occurrence and consider their combination in a multiplicative manner, where each effect is multiplied with others to determine their combined influence. The concepts of 3-dimesnional (3-D) representation of the roadway surface have also been explored in the past aiming to ...


Analysis Of The Pile Load Tests At The Us 68/Ky 80 Bridge Over Kentucky Lake, Edward Lawson Jan 2019

Analysis Of The Pile Load Tests At The Us 68/Ky 80 Bridge Over Kentucky Lake, Edward Lawson

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

Large diameter piles are widely used as foundations to support buildings, bridges, and other structures. As a result, it is critical for the field to have an optimized approach for quality control and efficiency purposes to measure the suggested number of load tests and the required measured capacities driven piles. In this thesis, an analysis of a load test program designed for proposed bridge replacements at Kentucky Lake is performed. It includes a detailed site exploration study with in-situ and laboratory testing. The pile load test program included monitoring of a steel H-pile and steel open ended pipe pile during ...