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2019

Theses/Dissertations

Theses and Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Exploring Intercultural Wonderment As A Mediator For Global Perspective Development In Engineering Students, John A. Schneider Oct 2019

Exploring Intercultural Wonderment As A Mediator For Global Perspective Development In Engineering Students, John A. Schneider

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediatory role intercultural wonderment plays in global learning during engineering students' international experiences. Engberg and colleagues have posited a connection between the programmatic components of an international experience (i.e., study abroad) and global learning, with international wonderment serving as a conduit for that connection. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected under an NSF multi-institutional grant that focused on identifying ways global preparedness can be developed in and out of formal curricula. Data included semi-structured, student interviews, student background data, and global perspective scores as measured by the Global Perspective Inventory ...


Enabling Mobile Neutron Detection Systems With Clyc, Matthew C. Recker Sep 2019

Enabling Mobile Neutron Detection Systems With Clyc, Matthew C. Recker

Theses and Dissertations

Cs2LiYCl6:Ce3+ (CLYC) has the desirable property of being sensitive to both gamma rays and neutrons while producing waveforms suitable for pulse shape discrimination (PSD) to determine which radiation was detected. This dissertation examines the behavior of CLYC to support its further development for mobile and portable applications. First, the feasibility of performing PSD with CLYC and an inexpensive data acquisition system was examined. This system was able to clearly distinguish both events with a figure of merit of 1.42. Next, the performance of a SiPM was compared to a traditional PMT. Analysis showed that ...


Adaptive-Hybrid Redundancy For Radiation Hardening, Nicolas S. Hamilton Sep 2019

Adaptive-Hybrid Redundancy For Radiation Hardening, Nicolas S. Hamilton

Theses and Dissertations

An Adaptive-Hybrid Redundancy (AHR) mitigation strategy is proposed to mitigate the effects of Single Event Upset (SEU) and Single Event Transient (SET) radiation effects. AHR is adaptive because it switches between Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) and Temporal Software Redundancy (TSR). AHR is hybrid because it uses hardware and software redundancy. AHR is demonstrated to run faster than TSR and use less energy than TMR. Furthermore, AHR allows space vehicle designers, mission planners, and operators the flexibility to determine how much time is spent in TMR and TSR. TMR mode provides faster processing at the expense of greater energy usage. TSR ...


Target Detection In Heterogeneous Clutter With Low Resolution Radar, Kyle G. Stankowski Sep 2019

Target Detection In Heterogeneous Clutter With Low Resolution Radar, Kyle G. Stankowski

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis develops a framework for SAR target detection and super-resolution in low-resolution environments. The primary focus in this research is the background clutter heterogeneity that often accompanies low range and cross-range resolutions. A corrective model which accounts for clutter replacement is developed to define the detection and false alarm rates of the detector more accurately than a traditional model in which the radar return from the target supplements the existing clutter. In a heterogeneous clutter cell, the clutter replacement model leverages the different scattering distributions among the individual clutter types to generate a probability distribution function for the areas ...


The Impact Of Patient-Specific Vascular Structure On Localized Cooling In The Human Heart, Nathan Paul Spangenberg Sep 2019

The Impact Of Patient-Specific Vascular Structure On Localized Cooling In The Human Heart, Nathan Paul Spangenberg

Theses and Dissertations

Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of worldwide death and disability, and approximately 720,000 Americans will experience an AMI in 2018. Studies have shown that rapid hypothermia therapy (<35°C) before reperfusion in patients with AMI can reduce infarct size by 37%. Localized therapeutic hypothermia has proven the potential to cool heart tissue rapidly following AMI, 3°C in 5 minutes. Using Materialise Mimics digital imaging software and the finite volume method we analyzed temperature distributions in six patient-specific left main coronary artery (LMCA) models. A mock circulatory loop was used to determine the exiting temperatures of a standard 7 Fr catheter to feed into our model with flow rates ranging from 29.2 ml/min to 68.85 ml/min. Our work showed that therapeutic hypothermia (TH) temperatures were evident at the outlets of three out of all six heart models, which varied in each left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex (LCX) artery depending on flowrate. Results of this study indicate that biovariability in patient-specific vascular structures significantly impacts therapeutic hypothermia (TH) treatment methods. These results indicate that further research is needed to examine more accurate physiological effects, such as pulsatile flow and vessel wall thickness. Future models will be used to provide insight to guide more efficient TH device designs and operation parameters to optimize patient outcomes following AMI.


A Study Of Onboarding And Turnover Mediating Variables In U.S. Air Force Officers, Brett S. Bowers Sep 2019

A Study Of Onboarding And Turnover Mediating Variables In U.S. Air Force Officers, Brett S. Bowers

Theses and Dissertations

Employee retention, while always a concern in the workplace, has become a greater challenge for organizations in recent years. Today’s working class has displayed a propensity to change jobs more rapidly than previous generations, exacerbating not only turnover rates but also the costs associated with them (Frankel, 2016). This challenge is especially relevant to the United States Air Force, which has experienced difficulty retaining young officers in recent years. The problems resulting from this voluntary turnover are exceedingly impactful to the military command structure, as senior leaders must work their way up from the lowest ranks. As such, the ...


Effects Of Carbon-Based Ablation Products On Hypersonic Boundary Layer Stability, Olivia S. Elliot Sep 2019

Effects Of Carbon-Based Ablation Products On Hypersonic Boundary Layer Stability, Olivia S. Elliot

Theses and Dissertations

Hypersonic vehicles require an accurate prediction of the transition of the boundary layer for the design of the thermal protection system due to the high heating rates under turbulent flow. Many thermal protection systems are carbon-based and introduce new species, specifically CO2, into the boundary layer flow which are known to dampen the instabilities that lead to transition for hypersonic vehicles. A Computation Fluid Dynamics study was accomplished examining the concentration of CO2 required to impact boundary layer transition over both sharp and blunt cones. These results were used in conjunction with air-carbon ablation models models to determine if ...


Autonomous And Resilient Management Of All-Source Sensors For Navigation Assurance, Juan D. Jurado Sep 2019

Autonomous And Resilient Management Of All-Source Sensors For Navigation Assurance, Juan D. Jurado

Theses and Dissertations

All-source navigation has become increasingly relevant over the past decade with the development of viable alternative sensor technologies. However, as the number and type of sensors informing a system increases, so does the probability of corrupting the system with sensor modeling errors, signal interference, and undetected faults. Though the latter of these has been extensively researched, the majority of existing approaches have constrained faults to biases, and designed algorithms centered around the assumption of simultaneously redundant, synchronous sensors with valid measurement models, none of which are guaranteed for all-source systems. This research aims to provide all-source multi-sensor resiliency, assurance, and ...


Investigations Of Point Defects In Kh2Po4 Crystals Using Ab Initio Quantum Methods, Tabitha E. R. Dodson Sep 2019

Investigations Of Point Defects In Kh2Po4 Crystals Using Ab Initio Quantum Methods, Tabitha E. R. Dodson

Theses and Dissertations

Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4, or commonly called KDP) crystals can be grown to large sizes and are used for many important devices (fast optical switches, frequency conversion, polarization rotation) for high powered lasers. The nonlinear optical material has a wide intrinsic transparency range. Intrinsic point defects are responsible for several short-lived absorption bands in the visible and ultraviolet regions that affect high-power pulsed laser propagation. The primary intrinsic defects have been experimentally detected in KDP using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments. The defect models established thus far include (i) self-trapped holes, (ii) oxygen vacancies, and (iii) hydrogen ...


Nondestructive Electromagnetic Characterization Of Perfect-Electric-Conductor-Backed Uniaxial Materials, Adam L. Brooks Sep 2019

Nondestructive Electromagnetic Characterization Of Perfect-Electric-Conductor-Backed Uniaxial Materials, Adam L. Brooks

Theses and Dissertations

As the use of anisotropic materials in electromagnetic applications continues to proliferate, it becomes increasingly important to develop non-destructive evaluation methods for those materials in their installed configuration. In many applications, these materials are permanently affixed onto conducting bodies to reduce unwanted reflections, making it impossible to collect S21 or S12 transmission measurements as used in many techniques based on the well-known Nicolson-Ross-Weir algorithm. It also makes it impractical to reorient the sample to collect orthogonal measurements aligned with the optical axes of the anisotropic material. The goal of this research is to develop a two-reflection coefficient measurement ...


On The Pulsed Laser Ablation Of Metals And Semiconductors, Todd A. Van Woerkom Aug 2019

On The Pulsed Laser Ablation Of Metals And Semiconductors, Todd A. Van Woerkom

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation covers pulsed laser ablation of Al, Si, Ti, Ge, and InSb, with pulse durations from tens of picosecond to hundreds of microseconds, fluences from ones of J/cm2 to over 10,000 J/cm2, and in ambient air and vacuum. A set of non-dimensional scaling factors was created to interpret the data relative to the laser and material parameters, and it was found that pulse durations shorter than a critical timescale formed craters much larger than the thermal diffusion length, and longer pulse durations created holes much shallower than the thermal diffusion length. Low transverse order ...


Initial Development Of A Prototype Sensor Testbed For Fetal Monitoring, Christian Beauvais Aug 2019

Initial Development Of A Prototype Sensor Testbed For Fetal Monitoring, Christian Beauvais

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research is to design and manufacture a device that exhibits some of the bio-physiological signals relevant to fetal health monitoring. Currently, limited options exist for testing the performance of monitoring devices such as the tocodynamometer (TOCO) and electrocardiograph (ECG) that measure the bio-physiological signals of a woman and her fetus. Sensor designers need ways of generating and acquiring signals that do not carry the ethical burden of human testing. The development of such a device, as considered in this work, may involve using muscle wire or an inflatable tube as prospective foundations for simulating uterine contraction ...


Cislunar Trajectory Generation With Sun-Exclusion Zone Constraints Using A Genetic Algorithm And Direct Method Hybridization, Joshua A. Ostman Aug 2019

Cislunar Trajectory Generation With Sun-Exclusion Zone Constraints Using A Genetic Algorithm And Direct Method Hybridization, Joshua A. Ostman

Theses and Dissertations

Space missions to the Moon have received renewed interest in recent decades. Science missions continue to be sent to the Moon, and several space agencies have aspirations of establishing a human presence on the Moon. With the increased number of artificial objects in cislunar space, the problem of tracking these objects arises. Optical sensors are able to track these objects in deep space. However, optical sensors cannot track objects that are close to the Sun as viewed from the observer. This unobservable region is the Sun-exclusion zone (SEZ). This research attempts to create optimal Moon-Earth transfers which are completely in ...


Point Defects In Lithium Gallate And Gallium Oxide, Christopher A. Lenyk Aug 2019

Point Defects In Lithium Gallate And Gallium Oxide, Christopher A. Lenyk

Theses and Dissertations

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), photoluminescence (PL), thermoluminescence (TL), and wavelength-dependent TL are used to identify and characterize point defects in lithium gallate and β-gallium oxide doped with Mg and Fe acceptor impurities single crystals. EPR investigations of LiGaO2 identify fundamental intrinsic cation defects lithium (VLi) and gallium (V2−Ga) vacancies. The defects’ principle g values are found through angular dependence studies and atomic-scale models for these new defects are proposed. Thermoluminescence measurements estimate the activation energy of lithium vacancies at Ea = 1.05 eV and gallium vacancies at Ea > 2 eV below the ...


Laboratory Evaluation Of Cold In-Place Recycling Asphalt Mixtures Using A Balanced Mix Design, Ahmed Saidi Aug 2019

Laboratory Evaluation Of Cold In-Place Recycling Asphalt Mixtures Using A Balanced Mix Design, Ahmed Saidi

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research study is to present a procedure for designing Cold In-Place Recycling (CIR) mixtures through balancing cracking and rutting for these mixtures. Eight CIR mixtures were prepared using two recycling agents (foamed and emulsified asphalts), then cured for three days at two temperatures (140oF and 50oF), and compacted at two gyration levels (30 and 70 gyrations). The CIR mixtures were prepared at constant dosages of water and cement, 3% and 1%, respectively. Air void of each CIR performance test specimen was determined using the CoreLok device. The rutting susceptibility of these mixtures was then evaluated using ...


Long-Term Performance Of Sustainable Pavements Using Ternary Blended Concrete With Recycled Aggregates, Seth M. Wagner Aug 2019

Long-Term Performance Of Sustainable Pavements Using Ternary Blended Concrete With Recycled Aggregates, Seth M. Wagner

Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of this study were to (a) design concrete pavement mixtures with recycled concrete aggregates using ternary blends of cementitious materials and a low water-to-binder ratio, (b) measure the fresh and hardened properties of the proposed concrete mixtures and (c) assess the long-term performance of the concrete implementing the use of recycled coarse aggregates. Preliminary investigation into ternary blend combinations via the compressive testing of mortar cubes and isothermal calorimetry was used to predict an optimal blend of cementitious material. Mixes using recycled concrete aggregates at varying replacement rates were tested for fresh and hardened properties using the proposed ...


Investigation Of The Effect Of Age On Regenerative Outcomes Following Treatment Of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injuries, John Taehwan Kim Aug 2019

Investigation Of The Effect Of Age On Regenerative Outcomes Following Treatment Of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injuries, John Taehwan Kim

Theses and Dissertations

Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is a traumatic injury in skeletal muscle resulting in the bulk loss of more than 20% of the muscle’s volume. Included in the bulk loss of muscle is the skeletal muscle niche comprised of nerve bundles, vasculature, local progenitor cells, basal lamina, and muscle fibers, overwhelming innate repair mechanisms. The hallmark of VML injury is the excessive accumulation of non-contractile, fibrotic tissue and permanent functional deficits. Though predominant in the younger demographic, the elderly population is also captured within VML injuries. There are many factors that change with aging in skeletal muscle that may further ...


Predicting Hardness Of Friction Stir Processed 304l Stainless Steel Using A Finite Element Model And A Random Forest Algorithm, Tyler Alan Mathis Aug 2019

Predicting Hardness Of Friction Stir Processed 304l Stainless Steel Using A Finite Element Model And A Random Forest Algorithm, Tyler Alan Mathis

Theses and Dissertations

Friction stir welding is an advanced welding process that is being investigated for use in many different industries. One area that has been investigated for its application is in healing critical nuclear reactor components that are developing cracks. However, friction stir welding is a complicated process and it is difficult to predict what the final properties of a set of welding parameters will be. This thesis sets forth a method using finite element analysis and a random forest model to accurately predict hardness in the welding nugget after processing. The finite element analysis code used and ALE formulation that enabled ...


Bioengineering Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds For Volumetric Muscle Loss, Kevin Roberts Aug 2019

Bioengineering Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds For Volumetric Muscle Loss, Kevin Roberts

Theses and Dissertations

Volumetric muscle loss overwhelms skeletal muscle’s ordinarily capable regenerative machinery, resulting in fibrosis and severe functional deficits which have defied clinical repair strategies. My work spans the design and preclinical evaluation of implants intended to drive the cell community of injured muscle toward a regenerative state, as well as the development of an understanding of the molecular responses of this cell community to biomaterial interventions. I demonstrate a new class of biomaterial by leveraging the productive capacity of sacrificial hollow fiber membrane cell culture; I show specifically that unique threads of whole extracellular matrix can be isolated by solvent ...


Five-Level Flying Capacitor Converter Used As A Static Compensator For Current Unbalances In Three-Phase Distribution Systems, Rafael Franceschi Aug 2019

Five-Level Flying Capacitor Converter Used As A Static Compensator For Current Unbalances In Three-Phase Distribution Systems, Rafael Franceschi

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis presents and evaluates a solution for unbalanced current loading in three-phase distribution systems. The proposed solution uses the flying capacitor multilevel converter as its main topology for an application known as Unbalanced Current Static Compensator. The fundamental theory, controller design and prototype construction will be presented along with the experimental results. The Unbalanced Current Static Compensator main objective is the balancing of the up-stream currents from the installation point to eliminate the negative- and zero-sequence currents originated by unbalanced single-phase loads.

Three separate single-phase flying capacitor converters are controlled independently using a d-q rotating reference frame algorithm to ...


Implementation And Analysis Of The Iso/Iec/Ieee P21451-1 Draft Standard For A Smart Transducer Interface Common Network Services And Its Applications In The Internet Of Things, Russell Henry Albert Trafford Jul 2019

Implementation And Analysis Of The Iso/Iec/Ieee P21451-1 Draft Standard For A Smart Transducer Interface Common Network Services And Its Applications In The Internet Of Things, Russell Henry Albert Trafford

Theses and Dissertations

The Internet of Things (IoT) has rapidly become the paradigm for the creation and improvement of new and old Cyber Physical Systems (CPS), but how much longer can this development of IoT devices, networks, and services be sustained? The past decade has seen incredible growth in internet connected devices, with current estimates placing the number of such devices at about 20 billion in 2017, not including personal computers, smart phones, and tablets. This has created a massive market for these devices, with each company making their own applications, protocols, and services. Since these markets are competitive, there originally was no ...


Emotion Recognition Using Facial Feature Extraction, Demiyan Smirnov Jul 2019

Emotion Recognition Using Facial Feature Extraction, Demiyan Smirnov

Theses and Dissertations

Computerized emotion recognition systems can be powerful tools to help solve problems in a wide range of fields including education, healthcare, and marketing. Existing systems use digital images or live video to track facial expressions on a person's face and deduce that person's emotional state. The research presented in this thesis explores combinations of several facial feature extraction techniques with different classifier algorithms. Namely, the feature extraction techniques used in this research were Discrete Cosine/Sine Transforms, Fast Walsh-Hadamard Transform, Principle Component Analysis, and a novel method called XPoint. Features were extracted from both global (using the entire ...


Functional Porous Polydimethlysiloxane As Piezoresistive And Piezoelectric Materials, Taissa Rose Michel Jul 2019

Functional Porous Polydimethlysiloxane As Piezoresistive And Piezoelectric Materials, Taissa Rose Michel

Theses and Dissertations

In this paper, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and zinc oxide (ZnO) were combined to create functionalized piezoresistive and piezoelectric sensors for pressure sensing and energy harvesting. Samples were foamed to show that the increased deformability of the foam sensors makes them suitable for a range of applications including dexterous robotics, tactile sensing, energy harvesting, and biosensing. Uniform dispersion of CNTs was achieved with chloroform as the solvent. Samples were foamed using chemical blowing and scaffolding but granulated sugar at 70% porosity resulted in foamed samples with the most consistent mechanical properties. Samples underwent tensile and compressive testing for their ...


Evaluation Of The Cracking Performance Of Geogrid-Reinforced Hot-Mix Asphalt For Airfield Applications, Daniel Offenbacker Jul 2019

Evaluation Of The Cracking Performance Of Geogrid-Reinforced Hot-Mix Asphalt For Airfield Applications, Daniel Offenbacker

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to evaluate the fatigue cracking performance of geogrid-reinforced Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA) for use in airfield runways. An airfield HMA mixture with four different geogrid types were selected for this study. The geogrids varied in tensile strength, coating type, opening size, thickness, and fiber material. Several different laboratory performance tests were conducted (Dynamic Complex Modulus, DCM, Overlay Test, OT, and Indirect Tensile Strength, ITS) and the fatigue and/or cracking performance was evaluated. Additionally, different approaches were adopted or developed for the modeling of geogrids in HMA using Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Finally, a Life-Cycle ...


Ultra Low Latency Visual Servoing For High Speed Object Tracking Using Multi Focal Length Camera Arrays, Alexander Steven Mccown Jul 2019

Ultra Low Latency Visual Servoing For High Speed Object Tracking Using Multi Focal Length Camera Arrays, Alexander Steven Mccown

Theses and Dissertations

In high speed applications of visual servoing, latency from the recognition algorithm can cause significant degradation of in response time. Hardware acceleration allows for recognition algorithms to be applied directly during the raster scan from the image sensor, thereby removing virtually all video processing latency. This paper examines one such method, along with an analysis of design decisions made to optimize for use during high speed airborne object tracking tests for the US military. Designing test equipment for defense use involves working around unique challenges that arise from having many details being deemed classified or highly sensitive information. Designing tracking ...


Inverted Cone Convolutional Neural Network For Deboning Mris, Oliver John Palumbo Jun 2019

Inverted Cone Convolutional Neural Network For Deboning Mris, Oliver John Palumbo

Theses and Dissertations

Data plenitude is the power but also the bottleneck for data-driven approaches, including neural networks. In particular, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) require an abundant database of training images to achieve a desired high accuracy. Current techniques employed for boosting small datasets are data augmentation and synthetic data generation, which suffer from computational complexity and imprecision compared to original datasets. In this thesis, we intercalate prior knowledge based on the temporal relation between the images in the third dimension. Specifically, we compute the gradient of subsequent images in the dataset to remove extraneous information and highlight subtle variations between the images ...


Methods For Using Manpower To Assess Usaf Strategic Risk, Calvin J. Bradshaw Iii Jun 2019

Methods For Using Manpower To Assess Usaf Strategic Risk, Calvin J. Bradshaw Iii

Theses and Dissertations

With limited personnel resource funding availability, senior US Air Force (USAF) decision makers struggle to base enterprise resource allocation from rigorous analytical traceability. There are over 240 career fields in the USAF spanning 12 enterprises. Each enterprise develops annual risk assessments by distinctive core capabilities. A core capability (e.g. Research and Development) is an enabling function necessary for the USAF to perform its mission as part of the Department of Defense (DOD). Assessing risk at the core capability is a good start to assessing risk, but is still not comprehensiveness enough. One of the twelve enterprises has linked its ...


Toward Using Empirical Mode Decomposition To Identify Anomalies In Stream Flowdata And Correlations With Other Environmental Data, Saul Gallegos Ramirez Jun 2019

Toward Using Empirical Mode Decomposition To Identify Anomalies In Stream Flowdata And Correlations With Other Environmental Data, Saul Gallegos Ramirez

Theses and Dissertations

I applied empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and the Hilbert-Herbert transforms, as tools to analyze streamflow data. I used the EMD method to extract and analyze periodic processes and trends in several environmental datasets including daily stream flow, daily precipitation, and daily temperature on data from the watersheds of two rivers in the Upper Colorado River Basin, the Yampa and the Upper-Green rivers. I used these data to identify forcing functions governing streamflow. Forcing functions include environmental factors such as temperature and precipitation and anthropogenic factors such as dams or diversions. The Green and Yampa Rivers have similar headwaters, but the ...


Robust Visual-Inertial Navigation And Control Of Fixed-Wing And Multirotor Aircraft, Jerel Bendt Nielsen Jun 2019

Robust Visual-Inertial Navigation And Control Of Fixed-Wing And Multirotor Aircraft, Jerel Bendt Nielsen

Theses and Dissertations

With the increased performance and reduced cost of cameras, the robotics community has taken great interest in estimation and control algorithms that fuse camera data with other sensor data.In response to this interest, this dissertation investigates the algorithms needed for robust guidance, navigation, and control of fixed-wing and multirotor aircraft applied to target estimation and circumnavigation.This work begins with the development of a method to estimate target position relative to static landmarks, deriving and using a state-of-the-art EKF that estimates static landmarks in its state.Following this estimator, improvements are made to a nonlinear observer solving part of ...


Applying Internet Of Things Principles To Spacecraft, Brian K. Dixon May 2019

Applying Internet Of Things Principles To Spacecraft, Brian K. Dixon

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis proposes the adaptation of the IEEE 1451 Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS) for usage in spacecraft subsystems. In the 1990s, TEDS initially were developed as a standardized method to provide metadata required for the operation of a transducer by a microcontroller or data acquisition device. The metadata provides information that identifies and documents key characteristics of the transducer, thereby facilitating plug-and-play interoperability within a system and across networks. An overarching goal of this thesis is to make a case for adapting and extending the TEDS concept as a means for self-describing critical physical components of a CubeSat nanosatellite ...