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2019

Theses/Dissertations

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Field Performance And Rating Evaluation Of A Modular Press-Brake-Formed Steel Tub Girder With A Steel Sandwich Plate Deck, Nicole Marie Hegele Underwood Jan 2019

Field Performance And Rating Evaluation Of A Modular Press-Brake-Formed Steel Tub Girder With A Steel Sandwich Plate Deck, Nicole Marie Hegele Underwood

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The Short Span Steel Bridge Alliance (SSSBA) is a group of bridge and culvert industry leaders (including steel manufacturers, fabricators, service centers, coaters, researchers, and representatives of related associations and government organizations) who have joined together to provide educational information on the design and construction of short span steel bridges in installations up to 140 feet in length. The SSSBA technical working group has developed a shallow press-brake-formed tub girder, a trapezoidal cold bent girder, to address the demand in the short span steel bridge market for rapid infrastructure replacement solutions.

Following extensive experimental testing and design work at West ...


Shear Stress Estimates In The Approach And Bridge Section By Using Various Formula, Jun Seon Lee Jan 2019

Shear Stress Estimates In The Approach And Bridge Section By Using Various Formula, Jun Seon Lee

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Shear stress is the resistance force on top of the contact surface caused by moving flow and is one of the important variable in fluid mechanics. Thus, a lot of researches have been conducted to predict accurate value of shear stress. However, calculating shear stress with existing equations has several limitations because only gradually varied flow and/or uniform flow was considered in their studies. Therefore, direct applying those methods into complex flow type, such as around a bridge, to predict shear stress is questionable.

Thus, laboratory experiments were carried out in a laboratory flume to attack the objective of ...


Impact Of Implementing A Dedicated Outdoor Air System In Parallel With A Multi-Zone Variable-Air Volume System On Energy Consumption, Thermal Comfort, And Life Cycle Cost, Khaled Alghamdi Jan 2019

Impact Of Implementing A Dedicated Outdoor Air System In Parallel With A Multi-Zone Variable-Air Volume System On Energy Consumption, Thermal Comfort, And Life Cycle Cost, Khaled Alghamdi

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning systems (HVAC) consume more than 40% of energy in commercial buildings, according to the Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey in 2012. Therefore, efforts to reduce HVAC energy consumption would be significant in coping with energy-related issues. In that context and in order to enhance the indoor air quality without compromising for energy consumption, the concept of Dedicated Outdoor Air systems (DOAS) emerged.

The literature shows that the integration of DOAS with other HVAC systems has been studied widely, yet the impact of integrating DOAS in parallel with multi-zone Variable-Air Volume systems (multi-zone VAV) for an application ...


Retaining Wall System With Soldier Pile And Composite Resin Infused Lagging Elements, Shane Phillip Moore Jan 2019

Retaining Wall System With Soldier Pile And Composite Resin Infused Lagging Elements, Shane Phillip Moore

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Retaining walls are used as an alternative to installing drainage and soil reinforcement, depending on site conditions. This report discusses the design of a retaining wall with steel soldier piles and lagging elements for rocky slopes. The design consists of six different options, three options with a span of eight feet and three options with a span of ten feet between soldier piles. The three options for both spans are the same concept but designed for different load conditions. These options include: timber with glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) wraps, reinforced concrete with GFRP wraps, and an FRP Prodeck system ...


Evaluating The Approach Of Using Nox Control Performance Tracking For On-Board Diagnostics Of Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles, Renata Castiglioni Jan 2019

Evaluating The Approach Of Using Nox Control Performance Tracking For On-Board Diagnostics Of Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles, Renata Castiglioni

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

egulatory agencies have taken several measures to ensure proper regulation of engine exhaust in response to a yearly rise in urban pollution levels. This is due in no small part to vehicular traffic and resulting air pollution from exhaust.

This study evaluates the NOx Control Performance Tracking (NCPT) Onboard Diagnostic (OBD) parameter proposed by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) as a tool to assess in-use heavy-duty vehicle performance. It also assesses the various criteria prescribed in the NCPT approach for applicability to real-world vehicle data.

In order to analyze the data, the study also investigated the effect of various ...


Reflectivity And Photoemission Electron Microscopy Studies Of Magnetic Heterostructures, Chih-Yeh Huang Jan 2019

Reflectivity And Photoemission Electron Microscopy Studies Of Magnetic Heterostructures, Chih-Yeh Huang

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

When a thin film thickness becomes ultrathin, the magnetic properties of the thin film can be altered, degraded or even lost. The loss of magnetism has been called the magnetic dead layer (MDL). Considering the trend for miniaturization of information storage and other devices, the MDL is a significant challenge for materials science and engineering. La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSMO) with x=0.3 is an excellent model material that exhibits ferromagnetism at room temperature to study the MDL. This dissertation focuses on understanding the MDL in LSMO films on their own and the effect of this dead ...


Improving Solder Joints Formed In Microgravity By Use Of Magnetic Soldering Paste Additives, Aaron Dunkle Jan 2019

Improving Solder Joints Formed In Microgravity By Use Of Magnetic Soldering Paste Additives, Aaron Dunkle

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

With the expansion of the space industry, the need for the capability to repair electronics in space grows. Previous researchers have found that soldering in microgravity has yielded joints of poorer quality than those made on Earth, with increased interior porosity. WVU’s microgravity research team (MRT) constructed an experiment to solder onboard a microgravity aircraft to explore this problem and to test a possible solution. MRT’s experiment collected solder samples both in microgravity and a ground test, which were then cross-sectioned to allow the interior porosity of the joints to be studied. This determined that there was an ...


Confirmation Of Data-Driven Reservoir Modeling Using Numerical Reservoir Simulation, Al Hasan Mohamed Al Haifi Jan 2019

Confirmation Of Data-Driven Reservoir Modeling Using Numerical Reservoir Simulation, Al Hasan Mohamed Al Haifi

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Data driven reservoir modeling, also known as Top-Down Model (TDM), is an alternative to the traditional numerical reservoir simulation technique. Data driven reservoir modeling is a new technology that uses artificial intelligence and machine learning to build full-field reservoir models using field measurements (data - facts) instead of mathematical formulations that represent our current understanding of the physics of the fluid flow through porous media. TDM combines all field measurements into a comprehensive reservoir model to predict the production from each well in a field with multiple wells.

There are many opinions, speculations and criticism about not using the physics-based approach ...


Design Of Experiment And Analysis Techniques For Fuel Consumption Data Using Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles And On-Road Testing, Sarah Ann Mills Jan 2019

Design Of Experiment And Analysis Techniques For Fuel Consumption Data Using Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles And On-Road Testing, Sarah Ann Mills

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Chassis dynamometer and on-road testing are usually employed to test vehicle operation. Testing on a chassis dynamometer reduces data variability compared to on-road testing due to the controlled environment but it does not account for other important variables that affects real-world vehicle operation. This study used on-road testing to investigate the differences between two test fuels under real-world conditions. Three heavy-duty diesel vehicles were driven on different routes for a period of three months. Each vehicle was instrumented with flow meters to gather fuel consumption data, which was then compared to the fuel rate broadcasted by the engine control unit ...


Mechanism Study Of Shale Gas Conversion Via Chemical Looping And Heterocatalytic Processes, Lei Bai Jan 2019

Mechanism Study Of Shale Gas Conversion Via Chemical Looping And Heterocatalytic Processes, Lei Bai

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The shale gas revolution has significantly changed the energy landscape in US. The technical-feasible, energy-effective schemes for shale gas combustion and utilization, especially from remote resources, have attracted increasing interest due to expensive transportation/distribution cost. In this research, for the first time, chemical looping combustion (CLC) of methane with inherent CO2 capture, oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) and dehydro-aromatization (DHA) of ethane are systematically studied as promising alternatives at O2-rich, O2-lean and non-oxidative conditions, respectively.

Chemical looping combustion is bridging clean fuel combustion in energy production with inherent CO2 capture. CLC utilized an ...


Scaling Analysis And Experimental Investigation Of A Rotating Detonation Engine, David Thomas Billups Jan 2019

Scaling Analysis And Experimental Investigation Of A Rotating Detonation Engine, David Thomas Billups

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Pressure gain combustion (PGC) technologies, specifically rotating detonation engines (RDEs), are poised to provide the next big leap in gas turbine engine advancement, significantly increasing the thermal. RDEs make use of thermodynamic advantages of isochoric as opposed to isobaric combustion. Theorized to increase thermal efficiency by up to 7% [1], the RDE would have significant impact on reducing anthropogenic carbon emissions. In addition to efficiency gains, the RDE also provides mechanical simplicity and reduced size advantages compared to it’s traditional counterparts and PGC competition.

The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) maintains ...


Optimizing The Production And Injection Wells Flow Rates In Geothermal Field Using Artificial Intelligence, Muhammet Salih Ariturk Jan 2019

Optimizing The Production And Injection Wells Flow Rates In Geothermal Field Using Artificial Intelligence, Muhammet Salih Ariturk

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

In a geothermal field, power plants are designed for long-term electricity generation. Therefore, it is crucial to predict the future production and injection flow rates of the wells to determine the capacity of a power plant. In the designing of such power plants, calculations and estimations are based on the current future production, and injection flow rates and pressures in the geothermal field. Prediction of future production and injection flow rates also assist in building surface facilities with cost-efficient power plants. The most common problem in a power plant in geothermal fields is the inability to accurately estimate future expected ...


Pharmaceutical Scheduling Using Simulated Annealing And Steepest Descent Method, Bryant Jamison Spencer Jan 2019

Pharmaceutical Scheduling Using Simulated Annealing And Steepest Descent Method, Bryant Jamison Spencer

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

In the pharmaceutical manufacturing world, a deadline could be the difference between losing a multimillion-dollar contract or extending it. This, among many other reasons, is why good scheduling methods are vital. This problem report addresses Flexible Flowshop (FF) scheduling using Simulated Annealing (SA) in conjunction with the Steepest Descent heuristic (SD).

FF is a generalized version of the flowshop problem, where each product goes through S number of stages, where each stage has M number of machines. As opposed to a normal flowshop problem, all ‘jobs’ do not have to flow in the same sequence from stage to stage. The ...


Design And Implementation Of Model Predictive Control Strategies For Improved Power Plant Cycling, Xin He Jan 2019

Design And Implementation Of Model Predictive Control Strategies For Improved Power Plant Cycling, Xin He

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Design and Implementation of Model Predictive Control Strategies for Improved Power Plant Cycling

Xin He

With the increasing focus on renewable energy sources, traditional power plants such as coal-fired power plants will have to cycle their load to accommodate the penetration of renewables into the power grid. Significant overshooting and oscillatory performance may occur during cycling operations if classical feedback control strategies are employed for plantwide control. To minimize the impact when power plants are operating away from their designed conditions, model-based optimal control strategies would need to be developed for improved power plant performance during cycling.

In this thesis ...


Development Of A Dynamic Model And Control System For Load-Following Operation Of Supercritical Pulverized Coal Power Plants, Parikshit S. Sarda Jan 2019

Development Of A Dynamic Model And Control System For Load-Following Operation Of Supercritical Pulverized Coal Power Plants, Parikshit S. Sarda

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Thermal power plants that have been designed to operate at their rated capacity are being forced to cycle their load and operate under low-load condition to meet changing load demands due to the increased penetration of renewables into the electric grid. The rapid load-following operation is leading to challenging control problems. The goal of this research is to develop dynamic model and control system for efficient load-following operation. The focus of this work is on supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC) power plants. The steady-state model is developed using Aspen Plus and Aspen Custom Modeler and then converted to a pressure-driven Aspen ...


Bending Response Of Timber Mortise And Tenon Joints Reinforced With Filler-Modules And Frp Gussets, Andrew Robert Pacifico Jan 2019

Bending Response Of Timber Mortise And Tenon Joints Reinforced With Filler-Modules And Frp Gussets, Andrew Robert Pacifico

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

In 2013, the California Bay Area (CBA) passed a set of ordinances to ensure that their 10,000 plus timber soft-story buildings were prepared for seismic events, through nondestructive evaluation methods. Many property owners are searching for an affordable retrofitting system that will also meet CBA’s new laws focusing on installations by the mandated deadlines in 2020. Over the past three to four decades, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites have found their way into the civil infrastructure sector for rehabilitation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the bending behavior retrofitted mortise and tenon timber joints reinforced with ...


Carbon Deposition On Ni/Ysz Anode Sofc For Direct Methane Steam Reforming, Haiyang Li Jan 2019

Carbon Deposition On Ni/Ysz Anode Sofc For Direct Methane Steam Reforming, Haiyang Li

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are electrochemical devices that produce electricity directly from oxidizing fuels. Compared to direct combustion of hydrogen to generate power, it has a big advantage in aspects from efficiency and safety when using hydrogen as the fuel of SOFCs. Hydrocarbon reforming is one of the conventional methods to convert natural gas into hydrogen. While considering the difficulty in storage and transportation of hydrogen, we can utilize the supporting materials on the anode side of SOFCs as catalyst to generate hydrogen via hydrocarbon reforming process and pour the hydrogen as fuel into the SOFC system. Ni/YSZ ...


Genet-Cnv: Boolean Implication Networks For Modeling Genome-Wide Co-Occurrence Of Dna Copy Number Variations, Salvi Singh Jan 2019

Genet-Cnv: Boolean Implication Networks For Modeling Genome-Wide Co-Occurrence Of Dna Copy Number Variations, Salvi Singh

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Lung cancer can be categorized as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). NSCLC makes up about 80% to 85% of lung cancer cases diagnosed, whereas SCLC is responsible for 10% to 15% of the cases. It remains a challenge for physicians to identify patients who shall benefit from chemotherapy. In such a scenario, identifying genes that can facilitate therapeutic target discoveries and better understanding disease mechanisms and their regulation in different stages of lung cancer, remains an important topic of research.

In this ...


Short Beam Shear Strength Evaluations Of Gfrp Composites: Correlations Through Accelerated And Natural Aging, William Todd Barker Jan 2019

Short Beam Shear Strength Evaluations Of Gfrp Composites: Correlations Through Accelerated And Natural Aging, William Todd Barker

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) composites have been materials of interest in replacing or reinforcing steel, wood, and concrete, but lack of understanding of degradation under physical and chemical aging is a main concern. Through many years of research, the understanding of aging or durability of GFRPs has improved. To be able to evaluate aging related degradation rates, an accelerated aging methodology under varying environments is introduced. Accelerated aging is a concept used to age composites in a lab controlled environment under varying pH conditions (2 to 13) and temperatures (~ -20° to +160°F). Once acceleratedly aged testing is completed, Arrhenius ...


Design And Implementation Of An Instantaneous Fuel Mass Flow Measurement System For Use In Verification Of Locomotive Emissions, Adam Wayne James Jan 2019

Design And Implementation Of An Instantaneous Fuel Mass Flow Measurement System For Use In Verification Of Locomotive Emissions, Adam Wayne James

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Located in Altoona, PA, the Juniata Thoroughbred Emissions Research lab has provided emissions testing and research for several locomotive companies such as CSX, Electro Motive Diesel (EMD), and General Electric (GE). The emissions laboratory measures locomotive emissions through partial flow dilution (PFD) sampling for particulate matter (PM) using a Sierra Instruments BG3 and measures raw gaseous emissions using a MEXA 7100D gaseous emission analyzer. Fuel consumption is measured on a gravimetric basis and is used in verification of proportional sampling of exhaust flow. There were two research goals for this study which were (1) verify that the emissions measurement system ...


Online Model Predictive Control Of A Nonisothermal And Nonisobaric Membrane Reactor For Water-Gas Shift Reaction Applications, Jacob Martin Douglas Jan 2019

Online Model Predictive Control Of A Nonisothermal And Nonisobaric Membrane Reactor For Water-Gas Shift Reaction Applications, Jacob Martin Douglas

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Online Model Predictive Control of a Nonisothermal and Nonisobaric Membrane Reactor for Water-Gas Shift Reaction Applications Jacob M. Douglas Modern hydrogen production units are tasked with producing the most hydrogen possible while dealing with flow variations caused by changing power demands. Classical methods for hydrogen production employing the water-gas shift reaction are governed by equilibrium limitations that take effect at high temperatures and high concentrations of H2 (Georgis, et al., 2014). The implementation of a membrane reactor with temperature control enables the hydrogen concentration and temperature to reach an equilibrium at a higher concentration of H2. Another challenge that is ...


Aptamer Functionalized Zinc Oxide Field Effect Transistors For Odor Detection, Michael D. Aldridge Jan 2019

Aptamer Functionalized Zinc Oxide Field Effect Transistors For Odor Detection, Michael D. Aldridge

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Odor detection and identification are complex processes, and tasks that currently only animals do well. There is a pressing need for an electronic nose, or eNose, with good sensitivity, selectivity, and speed that mimics that ability. Food quality control operations, environmental sensing, occupational safety, and the defense sectors all require systems that can rapidly and reliably detect trace levels of volatile organic compounds. The goal of this work is to create a biologically inspired device which can accurately detect and identify odors at concentrations consistent with the most sensitive biological systems.

In order to mimic a natural olfactory system, we ...


Textured Contact Lens Based Iris Presentation Attack In Uncontrolled Environment, Daksha Yadav Jan 2019

Textured Contact Lens Based Iris Presentation Attack In Uncontrolled Environment, Daksha Yadav

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The widespread use of smartphones has spurred the research in mobile iris devices. Due to their convenience, these mobile devices are also utilized in unconstrained outdoor conditions. At the same time, iris recognition in the visible spectrum has developed into an active area of research. These scenarios have necessitated the development of reliable iris recognition algorithms for such an uncontrolled environment. Additionally, iris presentation attacks such as textured contact lens pose a major challenge to current iris recognition systems.

Motivated by these factors, in this thesis, a detailed analysis of the effect of textured contact lenses on iris recognition in ...


Development Of A Task Analysis Tool To Estimate Shoulder Strain During A Lifting Task, Christopher Wayne Moore Jan 2019

Development Of A Task Analysis Tool To Estimate Shoulder Strain During A Lifting Task, Christopher Wayne Moore

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Musculoskeletal disorders of the shoulder have a huge impact on the workplace and employees. Due to the complexity and high mobility of the shoulder, developing a task analysis tool with a focus on the shoulder is difficult, and while there are some ergonomic analysis tools that do consider the shoulder to varying degrees in the analysis, none focus purely on the shoulder. Therefore, this research was undertaken in an attempt to develop a shoulder-based task analysis tool for the shoulder. However, since the scope of work involving the shoulder is so vast, the tool in this research focuses on unobstructed ...


Analysis Of User Preference With N95 And Powered Air-Purifying Respirators In A Healthcare Work Environment, Brittany Renee Carver Jan 2019

Analysis Of User Preference With N95 And Powered Air-Purifying Respirators In A Healthcare Work Environment, Brittany Renee Carver

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

For those working in the healthcare field, personal protective equipment is vital. Healthcare workers are often first responders when it comes to dealing with patients who are infected or when a disease outbreak occurs. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires all healthcare operations to provide employee protection against blood borne pathogens. With the increase of life-threatening disease outbreaks, such as SARS in 2003 and Ebola in 2014, it is of the upmost importance to make sure respirators are best suited for users and acceptable for long term use. It has been shown through previous studies that due to ...


Scheduling For Cooperative Energy Harvesting Sensor Networks, Ahmed Ammar Jan 2019

Scheduling For Cooperative Energy Harvesting Sensor Networks, Ahmed Ammar

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

In cooperative communication networks, the source node transmits its data to the destination either directly or cooperatively with a cooperating node. When using energy harvesting technology, where nodes collect their energy from the environment, the energy availability at the nodes becomes unpredictable due to the stochastic nature of energy harvesting processes. As a result, when the source has a transmission, it cannot immediately transmit its data cooperatively with the cooperating node. It first needs to determine whether the cooperating node has sufficient energy to forward its transmission or not. Otherwise, its transmitted data may get lost. Therefore, when using energy ...


Time-Dependent Deformation And Associated Failure Of Roof In Underground Mines, Yuting Xue Jan 2019

Time-Dependent Deformation And Associated Failure Of Roof In Underground Mines, Yuting Xue

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

In underground coal mines, roof falls are a major contributor to injuries and fatalities. Studies have related the occurrence of roof fall to weak immediate roof, high horizontal stress, entry orientation, etc. An often-neglected factor in studies on this topic has been the influence of time-dependent behavior of the roof rock on roof falls. The time-dependent roof failure activity involves both intact and failed rocks. Numerical simulation techniques are available that include time-dependent behavior; however, they lack constitutive models that consider both the intact and the failed behavior of rock. In addition, input properties for the creep models only include ...


Immunity-Based Framework For Autonomous Flight In Gps-Challenged Environment, Mohanad Al Nuaimi Jan 2019

Immunity-Based Framework For Autonomous Flight In Gps-Challenged Environment, Mohanad Al Nuaimi

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

In this research, the artificial immune system (AIS) paradigm is used for the development of a conceptual framework for autonomous flight when vehicle position and velocity are not available from direct sources such as the global navigation satellite systems or external landmarks and systems. The AIS is expected to provide corrections of velocity and position estimations that are only based on the outputs of onboard inertial measurement units (IMU). The AIS comprises sets of artificial memory cells that simulate the function of memory T- and B-cells in the biological immune system of vertebrates. The innate immune system uses information about ...


Modeling And Development Of The Dynamic Environmental Simulation Chamber (Desc) For Calibration Of Air Quality Monitoring Sensors, Filiz Kazan Jan 2019

Modeling And Development Of The Dynamic Environmental Simulation Chamber (Desc) For Calibration Of Air Quality Monitoring Sensors, Filiz Kazan

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The thesis describes the development steps for the dynamic environmental simulation chamber (DESC) and carbon dioxide sensor calibration by using DESC. The sensors are Figaro, COZIR and K30 CO2 sensors


Analysis Of The Integration Of Dfm Techniques And Effective Machining Parameter Selection In Metal Parts Manufacturing, Omar Ahmed Al-Shebeeb Jan 2019

Analysis Of The Integration Of Dfm Techniques And Effective Machining Parameter Selection In Metal Parts Manufacturing, Omar Ahmed Al-Shebeeb

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

This dissertation investigates the minimization of part design with self-locating features. The research focuses primarily on self-fastening characteristics, standardization of parts, and minimal use of fasteners. Further, the present research studies the design for base parts in the construction of a moving joint system, in order to locate potential part and system design improvements. This process may then be extended to industrial applications in the manufacturing industry. Relatively little work to date has examined the significance of Design for Manufacturing Techniques (DFMT), with their inherent machine element systems and machining parameters to investigate which DFMT has the most influence on ...