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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Requalification Of Coated Fabrics Using Chemlok 2332 In Place Of Chemlok 233, Daniel Madler Jan 2019

Requalification Of Coated Fabrics Using Chemlok 2332 In Place Of Chemlok 233, Daniel Madler

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Rubber coated fabrics are an essential component in the deicing systems of the aerospace industry. Adhesives cements are applied to a fabric prior to being pressed into a rubber compound that will adhere to the fabric. The resulting fabric maintains the strength of the fabric with the added benefits of elasticity and compatibility from the rubber compound. UTC Aerospace Systems relies on these coated fabrics to create safe deicers for the aerospace industry. Chemlok 233, a now obsolete primer cement, was used extensively in the coated fabrics used by UTC. Materials testing and performance evaluation allowed for a replacement cement ...


Compression Set Improvement Of Thermoplastic Vulcanizates For High Temperature Tubing, Mitchell Valaitis Jan 2019

Compression Set Improvement Of Thermoplastic Vulcanizates For High Temperature Tubing, Mitchell Valaitis

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

It was hypothesized that increasing the curative level of the fluorocarbon rubber (FKM) used in manufacturing of thermoplastic vulcanizate (TPV) materials would decrease the compression set values of the TPV enough for it to be suitable as a flexible, lightweight alternative to high operating temperature thermoset rubber tubing currently being used for power steering hose. First, promising TPV formulations were identified by varying the polyamide (PA) and FKM used in a Brabender mixer. Four different types of polyamide and four different types of FKM were investigated, with two of the FKM types and one polyamide type identified as being promising ...


Controlled Release Of Corrosion Inhibitors: Zinc And Magnesium Containing Sodium Chromate, Andrew Thomas Jan 2019

Controlled Release Of Corrosion Inhibitors: Zinc And Magnesium Containing Sodium Chromate, Andrew Thomas

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Corrosion can be combated by multiple methods, where the primary purpose is to minimize degradation of metal surfaces. Corrosion inhibitors are one of the most effective methods of corrosion protection. Inhibitors are substances that minimize corrosion in aggressive environments, with only a low concentration required. The inhibitors are chemically adsorbed on the surface of the metal and a protective thin film is formed . The mechanism of the inhibitors could be described as anodic, cathodic, or a mix of the two. Anodic inhibitors, also known as passivation inhibitors, alter an anode reaction. Corrosion potential of the metal is shifted to more ...


Understanding Effects Of Engineering Outreach On Elementary Students, Thomas Cobb Jan 2019

Understanding Effects Of Engineering Outreach On Elementary Students, Thomas Cobb

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Currently, there is a desire to increase engineering understanding held by elementary students. As such, there needs to be a way to stimulate not only engineering, but other science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) topics in a young student’s lifestyle. One way to emphasize the importance of STEM while also showing how fun it can be is through different hands on activities led by individuals partaking in undergraduate studies or the industry. While having the students participate in the activities, it is important to understand what the students are learning and how the activity overall is viewed. With the ...


Form Stable Phase-Change Materials, Russell Dent, Marjan Kashfipour, Nitin Mehra, Jiahua Zhu Jan 2019

Form Stable Phase-Change Materials, Russell Dent, Marjan Kashfipour, Nitin Mehra, Jiahua Zhu

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This work investigates the use of two different polyols, xylitol (Xyl) and erythritol (Ery), in conjunction with boron nitride (BN) aerogels, for the purpose of creating thermally conductive composites. While the BN filler in Xyl composites achieved a high anisotropic thermal conductivity of up to 4.53 W/m-K at 18.2 weight percent filler loading, they do not exhibit good phase-change material qualities due to a low solidification enthalpy even at low cooling rates. Alternatively, the BN-Ery composites have shown promising results with a solidification enthalpy of 225.14 J/g and a melting enthalpy of 385.84 J ...


Improving The Delivered Specific Impulse Of Composite Rocket Propellant Through Alteration Of Chemical Composition: Methodology And Parameters For Characterization Of Propellant And Validation Of Simulation Software Common To The Amateur Rocketry Community, Isaac O'Brien, Austin Ryan Jan 2019

Improving The Delivered Specific Impulse Of Composite Rocket Propellant Through Alteration Of Chemical Composition: Methodology And Parameters For Characterization Of Propellant And Validation Of Simulation Software Common To The Amateur Rocketry Community, Isaac O'Brien, Austin Ryan

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

In this study, two solid composite rocket propellants were designed utilizing ProPEP, a rocket propellant formulation software common in the amateur and hobby rocketry communities. The two propellants were designed to optimize specific impulse relative to a literature propellant designed by 1020 Research Labs. The literature propellant was also tested in order to validate the design of experiment as well as the mixing and testing procedures. All three propellants, which includes the literature propellant RCS-P, and the two novel propellants AKR-P1 and AKR-P2 were characterized with static tests. The results of the static tests provide data on propellant performance and ...


Prevention Of Harmful Algal Blooms By The Mitigation Of Phosphorus Nutrient Loading Via Filtration By Steel Wool And Activated Carbon, Ronald Simpson, Sara Kidd, Samantha Zidd Jan 2019

Prevention Of Harmful Algal Blooms By The Mitigation Of Phosphorus Nutrient Loading Via Filtration By Steel Wool And Activated Carbon, Ronald Simpson, Sara Kidd, Samantha Zidd

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) are a devastating ecological and economic consequence of the abundance of nutrient-rich agricultural runoff entering aquatic ecosystems (Baker et al. 2014). Bio-available phosphorus from synthetic fertilizers is one of the major nutrients contributing to this global issue. Previous studies indicated that dissolved phosphorus can be removed from an aqueous environment when passed through a composite mixture of granular steel wool particles and activated carbon (Erickson, Gulliver, and Weiss, 2007). In this project, we conducted experiments using higher quality concentration measurements to determine what grades of steel wool (SW-0000, SW-000, SW-00) and types of activated carbon (granulated ...


Synthesis Of Drug Encapsulated Chitosan-Heparin Based Nanoparticles And Release Study, Trent Richwine Jan 2019

Synthesis Of Drug Encapsulated Chitosan-Heparin Based Nanoparticles And Release Study, Trent Richwine

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The main objective of this honor’s project is to encapsulate drugs with different molecular weights inside of chitosan-heparin based nanoparticles (Cs-Hep NPs). Three different drugs with low (NNC), medium (IFN-γ), and large (BSA) molecular weights were chosen in order to compare all types of drugs and how they react with the nanoparticles. Analysis of particle size, zeta potential, and a release study was performed. The release took place over a 168-hour time period and liquid samples were taken throughout. The hypothesis was that the molecular weight of the drug will correlate to the physical properties of the nanoparticles. The ...


Cataloging The Degree Of Sensitization Via Electrochemical Reactivation For Studying The Corrosion Behavior Of Inconel 718, Austenitic, And Duplex Stainless Steels, Bradley Lynes Jan 2019

Cataloging The Degree Of Sensitization Via Electrochemical Reactivation For Studying The Corrosion Behavior Of Inconel 718, Austenitic, And Duplex Stainless Steels, Bradley Lynes

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Corrosion resistant materials can be expensive, but usually reduce the life cycle cost of metallic assets. However, negligent sensitization of these materials can lead to aggressive, intergranular corrosion. Using the methodology of the double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR), this project investigates different steel reinforced bars and Inconel to determine the degree of sensitization after a heat treatment of 900°C for 2 hours. The purpose of this research is to validate and determine the appropriate test parameters for performing further DL-EPR test in the future. Additionally, the kinetics observed for each sample during the DL-EPR test will be analyzed ...


Fabrication And Characterization Of Nanofiber Nylon-6-Mwcnt As An Electrochemical Sensor For Sodium Ions Concentration Detection In Sweat, Kelsey Mills Jan 2019

Fabrication And Characterization Of Nanofiber Nylon-6-Mwcnt As An Electrochemical Sensor For Sodium Ions Concentration Detection In Sweat, Kelsey Mills

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Fabrication and characterization nylon-6-MWCNT nanofiber as an electrochemical sensor to detect sodium ion concentrations specifically in sweat. Using contact angle to determine surface morphology and chronoamperometry testing to identify ideal sensor conditions, tests optimized parameters like weight percent of nylon or other polymers, carbon nanotube (CNT) isomer, and solution concentration to determine reproducibility of functional sensors. Utilizing the electric qualities of carbon nanotubes partnered with the sodium ion selectivity of calixarene treatment and polymers unique properties like flexibility and scalability create open an arena for optimizing sodium ion sensors for further development for functional prototypes. Morphology tests showed that the ...


Development Of Cardanol-Based Epoxy Coating, Nicholas Pottschmidt Jan 2019

Development Of Cardanol-Based Epoxy Coating, Nicholas Pottschmidt

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this project was to determine the suitability of cardanol glycidyl ether (CGE) as a substitute for trimethylolpropane triglycidyl ether (TMPGE) as the reactive diluent in epoxy coatings. CGE may be a naturally-derived alternative to TMPGE, which is a commonly-used petroleum-derived reactive diluent. Epoxy coatings were formulated with CGE replacing increasing amounts of TMPGE in the formulation. Corrosion protection provided by the coatings was evaluated with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Mechanical properties of the coatings (hardness, flexibility, adhesion, and impact resistance) were evaluated with applicable ASTM standards.

EIS results revealed the coating formulated with only CGE had superior ...


Developing A Portable Prototype To Utilize An Electrospun Colorimetric Sensor For The Detection Of Trihalomethanes In Water, Amanda Svensson Jan 2019

Developing A Portable Prototype To Utilize An Electrospun Colorimetric Sensor For The Detection Of Trihalomethanes In Water, Amanda Svensson

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Trihalomethane (THM) detection in water is important due to the potential health effects caused by their presence, including increased cancer risk. A cheap, quick, and portable method of identifying THM concentration at the Environmental Protection Agency limit of 80 parts per billion (ppb) will improve detection and water treatment. Electrospinning was used to make nanofiber membranes using a 2.6 wt% polypropylene solution. These membranes were utilized in the Fujiwara reaction, which creates a color change in the presence of THMs, to detect the THM bromoform in water. The color intensity of the reaction was quantified for 250 and 80 ...


Effects Of Hofmeister Ions On Transition Temperature Of Two Thermo-Responsive Polymers, Joshua Moser Jan 2019

Effects Of Hofmeister Ions On Transition Temperature Of Two Thermo-Responsive Polymers, Joshua Moser

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

It was hypothesized that through the use of Hofmeister Ions, the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) and poly(ethylene glycol)- poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PEG-b-pNIPAAm) block-copolymer could be controlled. Through literature searches and small lab experiments, our team found that there may be a connection between Hofmeister effects and phase transition of a thermo-responsive polymer. To try and prove this, the lab team decided to take four cations (Mg2+,Na+, Cs+, K+) in solution with the thermo-responsive polymers and compared their LCST to solutions of the thermo-responsive polymer in de-ionized (DI) water. From this ...


Synthesis Of Polyurethane From Sustainable Sources, Jovan Jevric Jan 2019

Synthesis Of Polyurethane From Sustainable Sources, Jovan Jevric

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The most common method of polyurethanes involves a reaction between various petroleum-based isocyanates and a polyol along with a catalyst; all of which have a negative impact on environmental and human health. The objective of this research project is to eliminate or mitigate the risks and hazards associated with the production and degradation of polyurethane. Hexamethylene diisocyanate isocyanurates (3HDI) are one of the most common isocyanates used in the polyurethane processing industry. 3HDI contains numerous toxins, and it has a negative impact on the environment and human health1. It has been found that there are other compounds that can ...


Chronoamperometry Analysis Of Sweat Sensor Technology, Evan Fritz Jan 2019

Chronoamperometry Analysis Of Sweat Sensor Technology, Evan Fritz

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Due to the demand for in-situ electrolyte sodium sensors, prototype sensors have been produced to create a product for athletes and marathoners to monitor hydration levels. These senors address a desire in the marketplace for athletic monitoring for overall athlete wellness and performance. Sweat sensor samples were created using Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes functionalized on a Nylon-6 fiber mat using cyclo-oligomeric Calixarene. This production process produces sensors capable of detecting sodium ion concentration present in human sweat in presence of an electric current. Chronoamperometry analysis is used in this manner to determine the functionality of the sensors. Much of the research ...


Effects Of Micro-Features On Cell Detachment From Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide) Coated Polydimethylsiloxane Membranes, Luke Webel Jan 2019

Effects Of Micro-Features On Cell Detachment From Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide) Coated Polydimethylsiloxane Membranes, Luke Webel

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The tested hypothesis was that features on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces coated with a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/aminopropyltriethoxysilane or pNIPAAM/APTES thin film would accelerate cell detachment than the film coated on a unfeatured surface. This project tested samples with features generated by molds, wrinkling, and sandpaper roughened substrates. Surface feature generation methods were limited to mechanical means, and characterized by microscopy and strain rates. 50/50 mixtures of 1.5 wt.% pNIPAAM/ APTES were used to coat thin films (30-40 nm) on PDMS membranes by spin-coating, and the coated membranes were thermally annealed to chemically graft pNIPAAm/APTES on the membrane ...


Multidimensional Mass Spectrometry Of Chemonic™ Ccg-6 Nonionic Surfactant With Separation By Polarity And Shape, Charles Johnson Jan 2019

Multidimensional Mass Spectrometry Of Chemonic™ Ccg-6 Nonionic Surfactant With Separation By Polarity And Shape, Charles Johnson

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Chemonic™ CCG-6 surfactant is a water-soluble poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugated alkyl glyceride emollient. This surfactant exists as a complex mixture of a glycerol cores conjugated with poly(ethylene glycol) branches (PEGylation) that were partially esterified with caprylic (C8) and capric (C10) acids. These may be esterified on one, two, or all three arms of the glyceride. The architecture of the structures in this mixture was studied using multidimensional mass spectrometry (MS). Mass spectrometry was interfaced with ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and ion mobility (IM) separation. The mixture was separated by reversed-phase LC, oligomers of the star-branched polymer were separated ...


Increasing Mechanical Properties Of A Double Network Hydrogel From Polyacrylamide And Agar With Methylenebisacrylamide As A Photocrosslinker, Madelyn Jeske Jan 2019

Increasing Mechanical Properties Of A Double Network Hydrogel From Polyacrylamide And Agar With Methylenebisacrylamide As A Photocrosslinker, Madelyn Jeske

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Double Network hydrogels are three dimensional networks of a soft, mechanically tough material that have been used for drug delivery, agriculture, adhesives, and other widely applicable uses. Using the one-pot method, a single hydrogel can be produced in 3 hours as opposed to the once demonstrated three days. It has been found that with a first, physically cross linked network and a second, chemically cross linked, hybrid double network hydrogels exhibit high mechanical properties and are freeshapeable. Agar is a thermoreversible organic molecule with a triple helix structure that provides an excellent first network that organizes into aggregate bundles once ...


Fluidized Bed Classroom Demonstration Unit, Theresa Chapa Jan 2019

Fluidized Bed Classroom Demonstration Unit, Theresa Chapa

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Fluid and Thermal Operations is a 4th year chemical engineering course at the University of Akron designed to introduce undergraduate students to the engineering and mathematical concepts behind the operation of a fluidized bed. The purpose of this honors project is to design and manufacture an inexpensive and portable unit that can be used in the classroom to visually demonstrate three functions of a fluidized bed to students. The fluidized bed is manufactured from items that can be purchased from a department or hardware store, is capable of being transported by a single person to and from a classroom and ...